Sound system equipment - Part 4: Microphones

NEW!IEC 60268-4:2018 is available as IEC 60268-4:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 60268-4:2018 specifies methods of measurement for the electrical impedance, sensitivity, directional response pattern, dynamic range and external influences of sound system microphones, and also details the characteristics to be specified by the manufacturer. It applies to sound system microphones for all applications for speech and music. It does not apply to measurement microphones, but it does apply to each audio channel of microphones having more than one channel, for example for stereo or similar use. It is also applicable to flush-mounted microphones and to the analogue characteristics of microphones with digital audio output. For the purposes of this International Standard, a microphone includes all such devices as transformers, pre-amplifiers, or other elements that form an integral part of the microphone, up to the output terminals specified by the manufacturer. The major characteristics of a microphone are considered in Clauses 6 to 21. Additional characteristics are considered in Annex A and Annex C. IEC 60268-4:2018 cancels and replaces the fifth edition published in 2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) subclause 19.4 on "pop" measurement replaces Annex C; b) new Annex D for noise measurements in the digital domain.

Elektroakustische Geräte - Teil 4: Mikrofone

Equipements pour systèmes électroacoustiques - Partie 4: Microphones

NEW!IEC 60268-4:2018 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60268-4:2018 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.

Elektroakustične naprave - 4. del: Mikrofoni (IEC 60268-4:2018)

Ta del standarda IEC 60268 določa metode merjenja za električno impedanco, občutljivost, odzivni krmilni vzorec, dinamično območje in zunanje vplive elektroakustičnih mikrofonov ter hkrati določa značilnosti, ki jih opredeli proizvajalec. Uporablja se za elektroakustične mikrofone za vse načine uporabe pri govoru in glasbi. Ne uporablja se za merilne mikrofone, se pa uporablja za vsak avdio kanal mikrofonov, ki imajo več kot en kanal, na primer za stereo oziroma podobno uporabo. Uporablja se tudi za vgrezne vgradne mikrofone in za analogne značilnosti mikrofonov z digitalnim avdio izhodom.
Za namene tega mednarodnega standarda mikrofon vključuje vse take naprave, kot so transformatorji, predojačevalniki ali drugi elementi, ki tvorijo sestavni del mikrofona, do izhodnih terminalov, ki jih določi proizvajalec.
Glavne značilnosti mikrofona so obravnavane v točkah od 6 do 21. Dodatne značilnosti so obravnavane v dodatkih A in C.
OPOMBA: Značilnosti, opredeljene v tem dokumentu, ne opisujejo subjektivnega odziva mikrofona.
Potrebno je dodatno delo za iskanje novih definicij in postopkov merjenja za naknadno uvedbo objektivnih značilnosti za vsaj nekatere subjektivne opise, ki se uporabljajo za opisovanje delovanja mikrofona.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Nov-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
17-Jun-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
01-maj-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60268-4:2014
(OHNWURDNXVWLþQHQDSUDYHGHO0LNURIRQL ,(&
Sound system equipment - Part 4: Microphones (IEC 60268-4:2018)
Elektroakustische Geräte - Teil 4: Mikrofone (IEC 60268-4:2018)
Equipements pour systèmes électroacoustiques - Partie 4: Microphones (IEC 60268-
4:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 60268-4:2018
ICS:
33.160.50 Pribor Accessories
SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 60268-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2018
ICS 33.160.50 Supersedes EN 60268-4:2014
English Version
Sound system equipment - Part 4: Microphones
(IEC 60268-4:2018)

Equipements pour systèmes électroacoustiques - Partie 4: Elektroakustische Geräte - Teil 4: Mikrofone

Microphones (IEC 60268-4:2018)
(IEC 60268-4:2018)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2018-10-17. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 60268-4:2018 E
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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
EN IEC 60268-4:2018 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 100/2992/CDV, future edition 6 of IEC 60268-4, prepared by IEC/TC 100 "Audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and

approved by CENELEC as EN IEC 60268-4:2018.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2019-07-17

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2021-10-17

document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60268-4:2014.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60268-4:2018 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
CISPR 22:2008 NOTE Harmonized as EN 55022:2010 (modified)
IEC 60065:2014 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60065:2014 (modified)
IEC 60958-4:2016 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60958-4:2016 (series)
IEC 61000-3-2:2014 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61000-3-2:2014 (not modified)
IEC 61000-3-3:2013 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61000-3-3:2013 (not modified)
IEC 61606 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 61606 (series)
IEC 61672-1:2013 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61672-1:2013 (not modified)
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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
EN IEC 60268-4:2018 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
CISPR 35 (mod) 2016 Electromagnetic compatibility of multimedia EN 55035 2017
equipment - Immunity requirements
IEC 60268-1 1985 Sound system equipment. Part 1: General HD 483.1 S2 1989
+ A1 1988 - -
+ A2 1988 - -
IEC 60268-2 1987 Sound system equipment. Part 2: Explanation HD 483.2 S2 1993
of general terms and calculation methods
+ A1 1991 - -
IEC 60268-3 2013 Sound system equipment - Part 3: Amplifiers EN 60268-3 2013
IEC 60268-5 2003 Sound system equipment - Part 5: EN 60268-5 2003
Loudspeakers
+ A1 2007 + A1 2009

IEC 60268-11 1987 Sound system equipment. Part 11: Application HD 483.11 S3 1993

of connectors for the interconnection of sound
system components
+ A1 1989 - -
+ A2 1991 - -

IEC 60268-12 1987 Sound system equipment. Part 12: Application EN 60268-12 1995

of connectors for broadcast and similar use
+ A1 1991 - -
+ A2 1994 + A2 1995

IEC 61000-4-2 2008 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4- EN 61000-4-2 2009

2: Testing and measurement techniques -
Electrostatic discharge immunity test
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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
EN IEC 60268-4:2018 (E)

IEC 61000-4-3 2006 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4- EN 61000-4-3 2006

3 : Testing and measurement techniques -
Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic
field immunity test
+ A1 2007 + A1 2008
+ A2 2010 + A2 2010

IEC 61000-4-4 2012 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4- EN 61000-4-4 2012

4: Testing and measurement techniques -
Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

IEC 61000-4-6 2013 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4- EN 61000-4-6 2014

6: Testing and measurement techniques -
Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced
by radio-frequency fields

IEC 61000-4-8 2009 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4- EN 61000-4-8 2010

8: Testing and measurement techniques -
Power frequency magnetic field immunity test

IEC 61000-4-16 2015 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4- EN 61000-4-16 2016

16: Testing and measurement techniques -
Test for immunity to conducted, common
mode disturbances in the frequency range 0
Hz to 150 kHz

IEC 61000-4-17 1999 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4- EN 61000-4-17 1999

17: Testing and measurement techniques -
Ripple on d.c. input power port immunity test
+ A1 2001 + A1 2004
+ A2 2008 + A2 2009
IEC 61260-1 2014 Electroacoustics - Octave-band and fractional- EN 61260-1 2014
octave-band filters - Part 1: Specifications
IEC 61938 2013 Multimedia systems - Guide to the - -
recommended characteristics of analogue
interfaces to achieve interoperability
ITU-T - Artificial mouth - -
Recommendation
P.51
EN 55103-2 2009 Electromagnetic compatibility - Product family EN 55103-2 2009
standard for audio, video, audio-visual and
entertainment lighting control apparatus for
professional use - Part 2: Immunity
EN 300 422-2 2011 Electromagnetic compatibility and radio EN 300 422-2 2011
V1.3.1 spectrum matters (ERM) - Wireless V1.3.1
microphones in the 25 MHz to 3 GHz
frequency range - Part 2: Harmonized EN
covering the essential requirements of article
3.2 of the R&TTE Directive
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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
IEC 60268-4
Edition 6.0 2018-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Sound system equipment –
Part 4: Microphones
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.160.50 ISBN 978-2-8322-5955-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
– 2 – IEC 60268-4:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 8

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 9

4 General conditions ....................................................................................................... 10

4.1 General ............................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Measurement conditions ...................................................................................... 10

4.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 10

4.2.2 Rated conditions .......................................................................................... 11

5 Particular conditions .................................................................................................... 12

5.1 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................. 12

5.2 Sound source ...................................................................................................... 12

5.3 Measurement of sound pressure .......................................................................... 12

5.4 Voltage measuring system ................................................................................... 12

5.5 Acoustical environment ....................................................................................... 12

5.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 12

5.5.2 Free-field conditions ..................................................................................... 13

5.5.3 Diffuse field conditions ................................................................................. 14

5.5.4 Microphone coupled to a sound source by means of a small cavity

coupler ........................................................................................................ 15

5.6 Methods of measuring frequency response .......................................................... 15

5.6.1 Point-by-point and continuous sweep frequency methods .............................. 15

5.6.2 Calibration methods ..................................................................................... 16

5.7 Overall accuracy ................................................................................................. 16

5.8 Graphical presentation of results ......................................................................... 16

6 Type description (acoustical behaviour) ....................................................................... 17

6.1 Principle of the transducer ................................................................................... 17

6.2 Type of microphone ............................................................................................. 17

6.3 Type of directional response characteristics ......................................................... 17

6.4 Application .......................................................................................................... 17

7 Terminals and controls................................................................................................. 17

7.1 Marking ............................................................................................................... 17

7.2 Connectors and electrical interface values ........................................................... 17

8 Reference point and axis ............................................................................................. 18

8.1 Reference point ................................................................................................... 18

8.2 Reference axis .................................................................................................... 18

9 Rated power supply ..................................................................................................... 18

9.1 Characteristics to be specified ............................................................................. 18

9.2 Method of measurement ...................................................................................... 18

10 Electrical impedance .................................................................................................... 18

10.1 Internal impedance .............................................................................................. 18

10.1.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 18

10.1.2 Methods of measurement ............................................................................. 18

10.2 Rated impedance ................................................................................................ 19

10.3 Rated minimum permitted load impedance ........................................................... 19

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11 Sensitivity .................................................................................................................... 19

11.1 General ............................................................................................................... 19

11.2 Sensitivities with respect to acoustical environment ............................................. 20

11.2.1 Free-field sensitivity ..................................................................................... 20

11.2.2 Diffuse-field sensitivity ................................................................................. 21

11.2.3 Close-talking and near-field sensitivity .......................................................... 21

11.2.4 Pressure sensitivity ...................................................................................... 22

11.3 Rated sensitivity .................................................................................................. 22

12 Response .................................................................................................................... 22

12.1 Frequency response ............................................................................................ 22

12.1.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 22

12.1.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 23

12.1.3 Graphical presentation of results .................................................................. 23

12.2 Effective frequency range .................................................................................... 23

12.2.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 23

12.2.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 23

13 Directional characteristics ............................................................................................ 23

13.1 Directional pattern ............................................................................................... 23

13.1.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 23

13.1.2 Methods of measurement ............................................................................. 24

13.1.3 Graphical presentation of results .................................................................. 25

13.2 Directivity index .................................................................................................. 25

13.2.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 25

13.2.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 25

14 Amplitude non-linearity ................................................................................................ 25

14.1 General ............................................................................................................... 25

14.2 Total harmonic distortion ..................................................................................... 25

14.2.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 25

14.2.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 26

14.3 Harmonic distortion of the n order (n = 2, 3,...) .................................................. 26

14.3.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 26

14.3.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 26

14.4 Difference frequency distortion of second order ................................................... 27

14.4.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 27

14.4.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 27

15 Limiting characteristics ................................................................................................ 28

15.1 Rated maximum permissible peak sound pressure ............................................... 28

15.2 Overload sound pressure .................................................................................... 28

15.2.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 28

15.2.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 28

16 Balance ....................................................................................................................... 28

16.1 Balance of the microphone output ........................................................................ 28

16.2 Balance under working conditions ........................................................................ 29

17 Equivalent sound pressure level due to inherent noise .................................................. 29

17.1 Characteristic to be specified .............................................................................. 29

17.2 Method of measurement ...................................................................................... 29

18 Ambient conditions ...................................................................................................... 30

18.1 General ............................................................................................................... 30

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18.2 Pressure range ................................................................................................... 30

18.3 Temperature range .............................................................................................. 30

18.4 Relative humidity range ....................................................................................... 30

19 External influences ...................................................................................................... 30

19.1 General ............................................................................................................... 30

19.1.1 Specification and methods of measurement .................................................. 30

19.1.2 Other external interferences ......................................................................... 31

19.2 Equivalent sound pressure due to mechanical vibration ........................................ 31

19.2.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 31

19.2.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 31

19.3 Equivalent sound pressure due to wind ................................................................ 31

19.3.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 31

19.3.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 32

19.4 Transient equivalent sound pressure due to "pop" effect ...................................... 35

19.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 35

19.4.2 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 35

19.4.3 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 36

20 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ............................................................................ 37

20.1 Regulatory requirements ..................................................................................... 37

20.2 Requirements for preserving programme quality .................................................. 37

20.3 Performance criteria ............................................................................................ 38

20.3.1 Criterion A ................................................................................................... 38

20.3.2 Criterion B ................................................................................................... 38

20.4 Testing for immunity to disturbances in the presence of acoustical noise .............. 39

20.5 Immunity to frequency-modulated radiated disturbances ...................................... 39

20.6 Immunity to magnetic fields ................................................................................. 39

20.7 Immunity to ripple on d.c. power supply ............................................................... 39

20.8 Permanent magnetic field .................................................................................... 40

20.9 Evaluation and reporting of the test results .......................................................... 40

21 Physical characteristics ............................................................................................... 40

21.1 Dimensions ......................................................................................................... 40

21.2 Weight ................................................................................................................ 40

21.3 Cables and connectors ........................................................................................ 40

22 Classification of the characteristics to be specified ....................................................... 40

Annex A (normative) Additional characteristics ................................................................... 43

A.1 Characteristic sensitivity for speech ..................................................................... 43

A.1.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 43

A.1.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 43

A.2 Front-to-rear sensitivity index (0° – 180°) ............................................................. 44

A.2.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 44

A.2.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 44

A.3 Noise-cancelling index ........................................................................................ 44

A.3.1 Characteristic to be specified ....................................................................... 44

A.3.2 Method of measurement ............................................................................... 44

A.4 Special characteristics for stereo microphones ..................................................... 45

A.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 45

A.4.2 Included angle of an XY (left-right) microphone ............................................. 45

A.4.3 Acceptance angle ........................................................................................ 45

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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
IEC 60268-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –

Annex B (informative) Sound insulation device ................................................................... 46

Annex C (informative) Recommendations for professional digital microphones .................... 47

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 47

C.2 Data sheets for digital microphones ..................................................................... 47

Annex D (informative) Recommended method for measuring noise levels according to

ITU-R BS.468-4 in the digital domain .................................................................................. 50

D.1 General ............................................................................................................... 50

D.2 Recommended method ........................................................................................ 50

D.3 Matlab code ........................................................................................................ 51

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 54

Figure 1 – Balance of the output ......................................................................................... 28

Figure 2 – Balance under working conditions ....................................................................... 29

Figure 3 – Measurement set-up for wind influence ............................................................... 32

Figure 4 – Wind generators, type 1 (Figure 4a) and type 2 (Figure 4b) ................................. 34

Figure 5 – Electrical and mechanical setup for the measuring of the "pop" effect .................. 36

Figure B.1 – Sound insulation device .................................................................................. 46

Figure D.1 – ITU weighting filter for weighted and unweighted measurements ...................... 50

Figure D.2 – Peak value rectifier scheme ............................................................................ 51

Table 1 – Reverberation time of the empty room .................................................................. 15

Table 2 – Examples of EMC regulations and standards ........................................................ 37

Table 3 – Basic EMC standards and their application to microphones .................................. 38

Table 4 – Classification of characteristics ............................................................................ 41

Table A.1 – Speech power weighting factor at octave-band centre frequencies .................... 43

Table C.1 – Classification of the characteristics recommended to be specified ..................... 47

Table C.2 – Additional digital characteristics to be specified ................................................ 49

Table D.1 – Time constants for the two PVRs ...................................................................... 51

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SIST EN IEC 60268-4:2019
– 6 – IEC 60268-4:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SOUND SYSTEM EQUIPMENT –
Part 4: Microphones
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to a

...

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