Primary batteries - Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

IEC 60086-5:2016 is available as IEC 60086-5:2016 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60086-5:2016 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous electrolyte to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2011. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- The definition of explosion was changed to suitable sentence in order to harmonize in IEC 60086 series;
- To prevent removal of hydrogen gas, we revised it to the suitable sentence;
- To prevent misuse, the battery compartments with parallel connections were revised to the suitable sentence;
- To clarify the method to determine the insulation resistance. Keywords: tests and requirements for primary batteries

Piles électriques - Partie 5: Sécurité des piles à électrolyte aqueux

L'IEC 60086-5:2016 spécifie des essais et des exigences pour les piles à électrolyte aqueux pour assurer leur fonctionnement sûr dans des conditions d'utilisation prévue et de mauvais usage raisonnablement prévisible. Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition parue en 2011. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- La définition du terme explosion a été modifiée pour l'harmoniser avec les autres définitions de la série IEC 60086;
- Empêcher l'élimination de l'hydrogène, la phrase a été révisée;
- Empêcher les mauvais usages, la phrase sur les compartiments avec des piles connectées en parallèle a été révisée;
- La méthode de détermination de la résistance d'isolement a été clarifiée. Mots clés: des essais et des exigences pour les piles

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Jul-2016
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
13-Jul-2016
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IEC 60086-5
Edition 4.0 2016-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Primary batteries –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
Piles électriques –
Partie 5: Sécurité des piles à électrolyte aqueux
IEC 60086-5:2016-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60086-5
Edition 4.0 2016-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Primary batteries –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
Piles électriques –
Partie 5: Sécurité des piles à électrolyte aqueux
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-3507-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 8

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 8

4 Requirements for safety ............................................................................................... 10

4.1 Design ................................................................................................................ 10

4.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 10

4.1.2 Venting ........................................................................................................ 10

4.1.3 Insulation resistance .................................................................................... 11

4.2 Quality plan......................................................................................................... 11

5 Sampling ..................................................................................................................... 11

5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 11

5.2 Sampling for type approval .................................................................................. 11

6 Testing and requirements ............................................................................................ 12

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 12

6.1.1 Applicable safety tests ................................................................................. 12

6.1.2 Cautionary notice ......................................................................................... 13

6.1.3 Ambient temperature .................................................................................... 13

6.2 Intended use ....................................................................................................... 13

6.2.1 Intended use tests and requirements ............................................................ 13

6.2.2 Intended use test procedures ....................................................................... 13

6.3 Reasonably foreseeable misuse .......................................................................... 16

6.3.1 Reasonably foreseeable misuse tests and requirements ............................... 16

6.3.2 Reasonably foreseeable misuse test procedures ........................................... 16

7 Information for safety ................................................................................................... 18

7.1 Precautions during handling of batteries .............................................................. 18

7.2 Packaging ........................................................................................................... 20

7.3 Handling of battery cartons .................................................................................. 20

7.4 Display and storage ............................................................................................ 20

7.5 Transportation ..................................................................................................... 21

7.6 Disposal .............................................................................................................. 21

8 Instructions for use ...................................................................................................... 21

9 Marking ....................................................................................................................... 22

9.1 General (see Table 7) ......................................................................................... 22

9.2 Marking of small batteries (see Table 7) .............................................................. 22

9.3 Safety pictograms ............................................................................................... 22

Annex A (informative) Additional information on display and storage ................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Battery compartment design guidelines ............................................ 24

B.1 Background ......................................................................................................... 24

B.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 24

B.1.2 Battery failures resulting from poor battery compartment design .................... 24

B.1.3 Potential hazards resulting from battery reversal ........................................... 24

B.1.4 Potential hazards resulting from a short circuit .............................................. 24

B.2 General guidance for appliance design ................................................................ 25

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –

B.2.1 Key battery factors to be first considered ...................................................... 25

B.2.2 Other important factors to consider ............................................................... 25

B.3 Specific measures against reversed installation ................................................... 26

B.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 26

B.3.2 Design of the positive contact ....................................................................... 26

B.3.3 Design of the negative contact ..................................................................... 26

B.3.4 Design with respect to battery orientation ..................................................... 27

B.3.5 Dimensional considerations .......................................................................... 28

B.4 Specific measures to prevent short-circuiting of batteries ..................................... 29

B.4.1 Measures to prevent short-circuiting due to battery jacket damage ................ 29

B.4.2 Measures to prevent external short-circuit of a battery caused when

coiled spring contacts are employed for battery connection ........................... 30

B.5 Special considerations regarding recessed negative contacts ............................... 31

B.6 Waterproof and non-vented devices ..................................................................... 32

B.7 Other design considerations ................................................................................ 32

Annex C (informative) Safety pictograms ............................................................................ 34

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 34

C.2 Pictograms .......................................................................................................... 34

C.3 Recommendations for use ................................................................................... 36

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 37

Figure 1 – Sampling for type approval tests and number of batteries required ...................... 11

Figure 2 – Temperature cycling procedure ........................................................................... 16

Figure 3 – Circuit diagram for incorrect installation (four batteries in series) ......................... 17

Figure 4 – Circuit diagram for external short circuit .............................................................. 17

Figure 5 – Circuit diagram for overdischarge ....................................................................... 18

Figure 6 – XYZ axes for free fall .......................................................................................... 18

Figure 7 – Ingestion gauge .................................................................................................. 20

Figure B.1 – Example of series connection with one battery reversed ................................... 24

Figure B.2 – Positive contact recessed between ribs ........................................................... 26

Figure B.3 – Positive contact recessed within surrounding insulation ................................... 26

Figure B.4 – Negative contact U-shaped to ensure no positive (+) battery contact ................ 27

Figure B.5 – Design with respect to battery orientation ........................................................ 27

Figure B.6 – Example of the design of a positive contact of an appliance ............................. 28

Figure B.7 – Example of a short circuit, a switch is piercing the battery insulating jacket ...... 29

Figure B.8 – Typical example of insulation to prevent short circuit ........................................ 29

Figure B.9 – Insertion against spring (to be avoided) ........................................................... 30

Figure B.10 – Examples showing distorted springs .............................................................. 30

Figure B.11 – One example of protected insertion ............................................................... 30

Figure B.12 – Example of negative contacts ........................................................................ 32

Figure B.13 – Example of series connection of batteries with voltage tapping ....................... 33

Table 1 – Test matrix .......................................................................................................... 12

Table 2 – Intended use tests and requirements .................................................................... 13

Table 3 – Shock pulse ........................................................................................................ 14

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016

Table 4 – Test sequence ..................................................................................................... 14

Table 5 – Test sequence ..................................................................................................... 15

Table 6 – Reasonably foreseeable misuse tests and requirements ....................................... 16

Table 7 – Marking requirements .......................................................................................... 22

Table B.1 – Dimensions of battery terminals and recommended dimensions of the

positive contact of an appliance in Figure B.6 ...................................................................... 28

Table B.2 – Minimum wire diameters ................................................................................... 31

Table B.3 – Dimensions of the negative battery terminal ...................................................... 32

Table C.1 – Safety pictograms ............................................................................................ 34

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60086-5 has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee 35:

Primary cells and batteries.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2011. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) The definition of explosion was changed to suitable sentence in order to harmonize in

IEC 60086 series;
b) To prevent removal of hydrogen gas, we revised it to the suitable sentence,

c) To prevent misuse, the battery compartments with parallel connections were revised to the

suitable sentence.
d) To clarify the method to determine the insulation resistance.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
35/1360/FDIS 35/1361/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60086 series, published under the general title Primary batteries,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The concept of safety is closely related to safeguarding the integrity of people and property.

This part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous

electrolyte and has been prepared in accordance with ISO/IEC guidelines, taking into account

all relevant national and international standards which apply. Also included in this standard is

guidance for appliance designers with respect to battery compartments and information

regarding packaging, handling, warehousing and transportation.

Safety is a balance between freedom from risks of harm and other demands to be met by the

product. There can be no absolute safety. Even at the highest level of safety, the product can

only be relatively safe. In this respect, decision-making is based on risk evaluation and safety

judgement.

As safety will pose different problems, it is impossible to provide a set of precise provisions

and recommendations that will apply in every case. However, this standard, when followed on

a judicious "use when applicable" basis, will provide reasonably consistent standards for

safety.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous

electrolyte to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable

misuse.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 60086-1, Primary batteries – Part 1: General
IEC 60086-2, Primary batteries – Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications

IEC 60068-2-6, Environmental testing – Part 2-6: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing – Part 2-27: Tests – Test Ea and guidance: Shock

IEC 60068-2-31, Environmental testing – Part 2-31: Tests – Test Ec: Rough handling shocks,

primarily for equipment-type specimens
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE Certain definitions taken from IEC 60050-482, IEC 60086-1, and IEC Guide 51 are repeated below for

convenience.
3.1
battery

one or more cells electrically connected by permanent means, fitted in a case, with terminals,

markings and protective devices etc., as necessary for use
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-04, modified definition]
3.2
button (cell or battery)
small round cell or battery where the overall height is less than the diameter

Note 1 to entry: In English, the term "button (cell or battery)" is only used for non-lithium batteries while the term

"coin (cell or battery)" is used for lithium batteries only. In languages other than English, the terms "coin" and

"button" are often used interchangeably, regardless of the electrochemical system.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 –
3.3
cell

basic functional unit, consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals

and usually separators that is a source of electric energy obtained by direct conversion of

chemical energy
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-01]
3.4
component cell
cell contained in a battery
3.5
cylindrical (cell or battery)

round cell or battery with a cylindrical shape in which the overall height is equal to or greater

than the diameter

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-39, modified ("cell with a cylindrical shape" replaced

by "round cell or battery")]
3.6
explosion (battery explosion)
the cell or battery opens and solid components are forcibly expelled
3.7
fire
flames are emitted from the test cell or battery
3.8
intended use

use in accordance with information provided with a product or system, or, in the absence of

such information, by generally understood patterns of usage
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.6]
3.9
leakage
unplanned escape of electrolyte from a cell or battery
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-32]
3.10
nominal voltage (of a primary battery)

suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell, a battery or an

electrochemical system

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-31, modified (addition of "(of a primary battery)" and

symbol V )]
3.11
primary (cell or battery)
cell or battery that is not designed to be electrically recharged
3.12
prismatic (cell or battery)
cell or battery having the shape of a parallelepiped whose faces are rectangular
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60086-5:2016 © IEC 2016
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-38, modified (deletion of "qualifies a")]
3.13
protective devices

devices such as fuses, diodes or other electric or electronic current limiter designed to

interrupt the current flow in an electrical circuit
3.14
reasonably foreseeable misuse

use of a product or system in a way not intended by the supplier, but which can result from

readily predictable human behaviour

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.14, modified ("process or service" replaced by "or

system" and "may" replaced by "can" and deletion of the Note)]
3.15
round (cell or battery)
cell or battery with circular cross section
3.16
safety
freedom from risk which is not tolerable
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.14]
3.17
undischarged

state of charge of a primary cell or battery corresponding to 0 % depth of discharge

3.18
venting

release of excessive internal pressure from a cell or battery in a manner intended by design to

preclude explosion
4 Requirements for safety
4.1 Design
4.1.1 General

Batteries shall be so designed that they do not present a safety hazard under conditions of

normal (intended) use.
4.1.2 Venting

All batteries shall incorporate a pressure relief feature or shall be so constructed that they will

relieve excessive internal pressure at a value and rate which will preclude explosion. If

encapsulation is necessary to support cells within an outer case, the type of encapsulant and

the method of encapsulation shall not cause the battery to overheat during normal operation

nor inhibit the operation of the pressure relief feature.

The battery case material and/or its final assembly shall be so designed that, in the event of

one
...

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