Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 3: Physical and data link layer requirements

ISO 15118-3:2015 specifies the requirements of the physical and data link layer for a high-level communication, directly between battery electric vehicles (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), termed as EV (electric vehicle) [ISO-1], based on a wired communication technology and the fixed electrical charging installation [Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)] used in addition to the basic signalling, as defined in [IEC-1]. It covers the overall information exchange between all actors involved in the electrical energy exchange. ISO 15118 (all parts) is applicable for manually connected conductive charging. Only "[IEC-1] modes 3 and 4" EVSEs, with a high-level communication module, are covered by this part of ISO 15118.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-May-2015
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
26-May-2015
Completion Date
26-May-2015
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 15118-3:2015 - Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 3: Physical and data link layer requirements
English language
79 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15118-3
First edition
2015-05-15
Road vehicles — Vehicle to grid
communication interface —
Part 3:
Physical and data link layer
requirements
Véhicules routiers — Interface de communication entre véhicule et
réseau électrique —
Partie 3: Exigences relatives à la couche physique et à la couche
liaison de données
Reference number
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Definition of OSI based services ............................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Requirement structure ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Normative references convention .......................................................................................................................................... 5

6 System architecture ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Communication layers overview ............................................................................................................................................. 6

6.2 Definition of high-level communication and basic signalling ......................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Basic signalling .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.2 High-level communication ...................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Identification requirements......................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 System requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.2 EVSE ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.4.3 EV .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.5 Configuration of a low-layer communication module .......................................................................................10

7 Connection coordination ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 Plug-in phase .........................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.3.1 EVSE side .............................................................................................................................................................................17

7.3.2 EV side ...................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.4 Initialization phase ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

7.5 Loss of communication .................................................................................................................................................................18

7.5.1 EVSE side .............................................................................................................................................................................18

7.5.2 EV side ...................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.6 Sleep mode and wake-up ............................................................................................................................................................19

7.6.1 Entering the sleep mode ........................................................................................................................................19

7.6.2 Wake-up................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.6.3 During a charge pause ........................................................................................................................................... ...20

7.7 Plug-out phase ......................................................................................................................................................................................20

8 Timings and constants.................................................................................................................................................................................21

9 Matching EV — EVSE process ................................................................................................................................................................22

9.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................22

9.2 Initialization of matching process .......................................................................................................................................24

9.3 Discovery of the connected low-layer communication module.................................................................24

9.4 Validation of matching decision ............................................................................................................................................25

9.5 Set-up a logical network ..............................................................................................................................................................27

9.6 Leave the logical network ...........................................................................................................................................................27

9.7 Error handling ......................................................................................................................................................................................27

10 EMC requirements ...........................................................................................................................................................................................27

11 Signal coupling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................27

12 Layer 2 interfaces..............................................................................................................................................................................................28

12.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)

12.2 Data SAP .....................................................................................................................................................................................................28

12.3 Data link control SAP to layer 3 .............................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (normative) HomePlug Green PHY on control pilot line ......................................................................................30

Annex B (informative) IEEE 1901.2 G3-PLC profile on control pilot line.....................................................................72

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................79

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 31, Data

communication.

ISO 15118 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Vehicle to grid

communication interface:
— Part 1: General information and use-case definition
— Part 2: Network and application protocol requirements
— Part 3: Physical layer and Data Link Layer requirements
The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 4: Network and application protocol conformance test
— Part 5: Physical layer and data link layer conformance test
— Part 6: General information and use-case definition for wireless communication

— Part 7: Network and application protocol requirements for wireless communication

— Part 8: Physical layer and data link layer requirements for wireless communication

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
Introduction

The pending energy crisis and the necessity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has led the vehicle

manufacturers to a very significant effort to reduce the energy consumption of their vehicles. They

are presently developing vehicles partly or completly propelled by electric energy. Thus, vehicles will

reduce the dependency on oil, improve the global energy efficiency, and reduce the total CO emissions

for road transportation if the electricity is produced from renewable sources. To charge the batteries of

such vehicles, specific charging infrastructure is required.

Much of the standardization work on dimensional and electrical specifications of the charging

infrastructure and the vehicle interface is already treated in the relevant ISO or IEC groups. However,

the question of information transfer between the vehicle and the grid has not been treated sufficiently.

Such communication is beneficial for the optimization of energy resources and energy production

systems as vehicles can recharge at the most economic or most energy-efficient instants.

It is also required to develop efficient and convenient payment systems in order to cover the resulting

micro-payments. The necessary communication channel might serve in the future to contribute to the

stabilization of the electrical grid, as well as to support additional information services required to

operate electric vehicles efficiently.
vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Vehicle to grid communication interface —
Part 3:
Physical and data link layer requirements
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15118 specifies the requirements of the physical and data link layer for a high-level

communication, directly between battery electric vehicles (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

(PHEV), termed as EV (electric vehicle) [ISO-1], based on a wired communication technology and the

fixed electrical charging installation [Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)] used in addition to the

basic signalling, as defined in [IEC-1].

It covers the overall information exchange between all actors involved in the electrical energy exchange.

ISO 15118 (all parts) is applicable for manually connected conductive charging.

Only “[IEC-1] modes 3 and 4” EVSEs, with a high-level communication module, are covered by this part

of ISO 15118.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15118-1:2013, Road vehicles — Vehicle to grid communication interface — Part 1: General information

and use-case definition

ISO 15118-2:2014, Road vehicles — Vehicle to grid communication interface — Part 2: Network and

application protocol requirements

IEC 61851-1:2010, Electric vehicle conductive charging system — Part 1: General requirements

IEC/TS 62763:2013, Pilot function through a control pilot circuit using PWM (pulse width modulation) and

a control pilot wire
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definition in [ISO-1] and the following apply.

3.1
amplitude map

specifies a transmit power-reduction factor for each subcarrier related to the tone mask

3.2
central coordinator
manager of a HomePlug Green PHY network
3.3
channel access priority
CAP
method to prioritize the channel access
Note 1 to entry: See [HPGP].
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
3.4
coexistence

ability of different low-layer communication systems to share the same physical media and to function

simultaneously
3.5
communication media

physical media carrying the low-layer communication signal is given by the cable assembly, which

connects the charging infrastructure and the EV
3.6
communication node

device equipped with a low-layer communication modem chip; it characterizes one logical and physical

communication device that is attached to a physical media and is capable of sending, receiving, or

forwarding information over a communication channel
3.7
connection coordination

entity which provides the whole functionality for EV to EVSE matching and initialization, through the

data link control SAP, described in Clause 6

Note 1 to entry: This entity also controls the relationships between the basic signalling and the upper layers.

3.8
crosstalk

capacitive or inductive coupling between two individual electric circuits, each providing a media for a

low-layer communication network, in a way that the two networks are influenced by each other

3.9
data link control SAP

service access point which defines the interface between the connection coordination module and the

low-layer communication technology for managing the link status
3.10
DATA SAP

service access point that defines the interface between layer 2 and layer 3 for exchange of v2g-related payload

3.11
ETH SAP

Ethernet II-class SAP supports applications using Ethernet II class packets, including IEEE 802.3 with or

without IEEE 802.2 (LLC), IEEE 802.1H (SNAP) extensions, and/or VLAN tagging
3.12
external identification means
EIM
any external means that enable the user to identify his contract or the car
3.13
initialization

process of interaction between the EV, EVSE, and an external trigger, beginning from plug-in of the cable

assembly until the decision for the charging mode to be applied

Note 1 to entry: This process is used for the charging modes 3 and 4, as described in [IEC-1].

3.14
IO SAP

IO control path interfaces hardware i/o control (e.g. control pilot duty cycle) and the control pilot wire

Note 1 to entry: This entity provides an IO SAP, which is defined in Clause 12.
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
3.15
inter system protocol

enables various broadband power line systems to share power line communication resources in time

(time domain multiplex), in frequency (frequency domain multiplex), or both
Note 1 to entry: For more information, refer to [IEEE].
3.16
logical network
set of low-layer communication stations which use the same network key

Note 1 to entry: Only members of the same logical network are able to exchange encrypted payload data and are

visible for each other on higher layers. Different logical networks might exist on the same physical media at the

same time and are typically used for network segmentation.
Note 2 to entry: A logical network is defined for layer 2.
3.17
low-layer communication
functions managed by the OSI layer 1 and layer 2 of the modem
3.18
low-layer communication module

functional assembly behind each socket outlet or each connector, depending on the type of EV connection

([IEC-1]), which includes the communication node and the connection coordination functionality

3.19
MAC address

unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communication on the data link layer

3.20
management message entry
MME

messages exchanged between PLC nodes or a PLC node and higher layers for control purposes

3.21
matching

process to determine the low-layer communication modules of EV and EVSE, where EV is physically

connected to, in a direct way
Note 1 to entry: “Matching” refers to “Association” (use-case A) in ISO 15118-1.
3.22
nominal duty cycle

10 % to 96 % control pilot duty cycle, according to [IEC-1], generated by the EVSE

3.23
pilot function controller

system that manages the control pilot line on the EVSE side, according to [IEC-1]

3.24
plug and charge

identification mode where the customer just has to plug their vehicle into the EVSE and all aspects of

charging are automatically taken care of with no further intervention from the customer

3.25
QPSK modulation
phase modulation technique that transmits two bits in four modulation states
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
3.26
ROBO mode

communication mode which uses QPSK only for carrier modulation within the orthogonal frequency

division multiplexing (OFDM) to achieve higher robustness in transmission

Note 1 to entry: The ROBO mode can be set to three different performance levels: Mini-ROBO, Standard ROBO, and

High-speed ROBO.
3.27
shared bandwidth

in cases where different systems use the same physical media to transmit data, the data rate for each

system might be limited, depending on the mechanism used to allocate it
3.28
signal coupling
method of coupling the signal on the communication media
3.29
signal level attenuation characterization
SLAC

protocol to measure the signal strength of a signal between HomePlug Green PHY stations

3.30
tone mask

defines the set of tones (or carriers) that can be used in a given regulatory jurisdiction or given application

3.31
valid duty cycle

duty cycle that is 5 % or 10 % to 96 %, according to [IEC-1], generated by the EVSE

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
CAP Channel Access Priority
CCo Central Coordinator
D-LINK Data Link
EIM External Identification Mean (as defined in ISO 15118-1)
ERDF Electricité et Réseau de France
FCC Federal Communications Commission
HLE Higher Layers Entities
HPGP HomePlug Green PHY
ID Identification
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISP Intersystem Protocol
ITU International Telecommunication Union
MAC Media Access Control
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
MME Management Message Entry
PE Protective Earth
PLC Power Line Communication
PnC Plug and Charge (as defined in ISO 15118-1)
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
SAP Service Access Point
SE Supply Equipment
SLAC Signal Level Attenuation Characterization
5 Conventions
5.1 Definition of OSI based services

[ISO-3] is based on the OSI service conventions (ISO/IEC 10731:1994) for the individual layers specified

in this part of ISO 15118.
5.2 Requirement structure

Each individual requirement included in this part of ISO 15118 has a unique code, e.g. [V2G3-YXX-ZZZ]

requirement text, where
— “V2G3” represents the [ISO-3] set of standards,
— “Y” represents the main body (M)/Annexes (Annexes’ letter),
— “XX” represents the number of the current clause,
— “ZZZ” represents the individual requirement number and
— “requirement text” includes the actual text of the requirement.
EXAMPLE [V2G3-M01–01] This shall be an example requirement.
5.3 Normative references convention
Each reference to a normative document has the following unique codes assigned:
[IEC-1] IEC 61851-1
[IEC-21] IEC 61851-21
[IEC-22] IEC 61851-22
[IEC-2] IEC 62196-2
[IEC-3] IEC/TS 62763
[ISO-0] ISO 15118-series
[ISO-1] ISO 15118-1
[ISO-2] ISO 15118-2
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
[ISO-3] ISO 15118-3
6 System architecture
6.1 Communication layers overview

This part of ISO 15118 is organized along architectural lines, emphasizing the large-scale separation of

the system into two parts: the MAC sublayer of the data link layer and the physical layer. These layers

are intended to correspond closely to the lowest layers of the ISO/IEC model for open systems. Figure 1

shows the relationship of the [ISO-3] to the OSI reference model.
Vehicle-to-Grid communication
ISO 15118-1
General information and use-case deƒinition
ISO 15118-2
OSI layer 7
Network and application protocol requirements
Application
OSI layer 6
Presentation
OSI layer 5
Session
OSI layer 4
Transport
OSI layer 3
Network
V2G standardized service primitive interface
Figure 1 — Overview of [ISO-0] in the ISO/IEC OSI reference model

[ISO-3] defines requirements applicable to layer 1 and layer 2, including V2G standardized service

primitive interface, according to the OSI layered architecture. Layer 3 to layer 7 is specified in [ISO-2].

Beside the communication related stack on the left and middle of Figure 2, a hardware control path on

the right provides triggering and signalling means for [IEC-1] related signalling.

This part of ISO 15118 is covering both AC and DC use-cases. If not defined differently, requirements

apply for both AC and DC.
6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)
Application
Higher layers
Data link control SAP
Presentation
Data SAP Connection coordination
Session
Control SAP
Convergence layer
Transport
Control pilot
Convergence MAC SAP
(IEC 61851-1)
Network
Hardware I/Os
PLC MAC layer
MAC/PHY SAP
Data Link
PLC Physical layer
Physical
Key
covered by communication technology specification
Figure 2 — [ISO-3] relationship to the ISO/IEC OSI reference model
6.2 Definition of high-level communication and basic signalling

This part of ISO 15118 describes in the main body, the general requirements to the communication.

Specific requirements depending on the technology are described in the Annex A.
6.2.1 Basic signalling

[V2G3-M06-01] The basic signalling follows [IEC-1]. All timings shall be compliant with the [IEC-1],

Annex A.

Any charging process, no matter the presence of high-level communication, uses the bidirectional

signalling according to [IEC-1], indicating EV related information through control pilot states and EVSE

related information through the duty cycle of the control pilot signal.
6.2.2 High-level communication

[V2G3-M06-02] The HLC shall be used in addition to the basic signalling in order to enable a bidi-

rectional communication and offer additional features.

The sequence of the data exchange within the HLC-based charging session is done in accordance with

the [ISO-2] communication protocol.
It can be split into three periods as follows:
— data link setup;
— V2G setup;
— V2G charging loop.
NOTE The detailed descriptions are given in [ISO-2].
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 15118-3:2015(E)

[V2G3-M06-03] During the V2G charging loop, the PWM duty cycle shall not change due to dynam-

ically changed grid information. Those dynamically changed grid limitations shall

be provided through the high-level communication messages.

In case basic charging is used as back-up of HLC-C (e.g. when HLC-C has failed), the duty cycle is allowed

to change due to dynamically changed grid information, according [IEC-1] requirements.

6.3 Identification requirements

The initialization phase depends on whether identification “ID from EV” or EIM is required, as described

in [ISO-1], use-cases D1, D2, D3, and D4.

[V2G3-M06-04] When authorization (payment) is required for charging, the EVSE shall offer PnC

(ID from EV) or EIM means.

Any payment included in a package (parking fee, in a flat rate, etc.) is considered as “No ID required”

since the energy is paid for by means totally independent of the EVSE.
NOTE 1 The need for authentication can be externally triggered.

NOTE 2 The “ID required” covers only the ID for operating purposes and does not cover all the ide

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.