Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement - Part 3: Measurement of passive intermodulation in coaxial connectors

IEC 62037-3:2021 is available as IEC 62037-3:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 62037-3:2021 defines the impact test on coaxial connectors to evaluate their robustness against weak connections and particles inside the connector, as independently as possible from the effects of cable PIM (passive intermodulation). For other connectors (e.g. panel mounted connectors), the cable can be replaced by an adequate transmission-line (e.g. airline, stripline). In order to evaluate the effects of mechanical stresses on the connectors, a series of impacts is applied to the connectors while measuring the PIM. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2012. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. impact method changed to utilize a steel ball rather than a brass rod;
b. impact energy required to test each connector type added;
c. method added to calculate impact energy for connector types not listed in the document.

Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d'intermodulation - Partie 3: Mesure de l'intermodulation passive dans les connecteurs coaxiaux

IEC 62037-3:2021 est disponible sous forme de IEC 62037-3:2021 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 62037-3:2021 définit l’essai de choc sur des connecteurs coaxiaux pour évaluer leur robustesse dans le cas de connexions faibles et de particules à l’intérieur des connecteurs, aussi indépendamment que possible des effets de l’intermodulation passive des câbles. Pour les autres connecteurs (par exemple les connecteurs montés sur panneaux), le câble peut être remplacé par une ligne de transmission adéquate (par exemple une ligne à air, une ligne à ruban). Afin d’évaluer les effets des contraintes mécaniques sur les connecteurs, une série de chocs est appliquée aux connecteurs, tout en mesurant l’intermodulation passive. Cette seconde édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2012. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a. modification de la méthode d’impact pour utiliser une bille en acier plutôt qu’une tige en laiton;
b. ajout de l’énergie de choc exigée pour soumettre à l’essai chaque type de connecteur;
c. ajout de la méthode pour calculer l’énergie de choc pour les types de connecteurs non répertoriés dans le document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Nov-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
19-Nov-2021
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IEC 62037-3
Edition 2.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement –
Part 3: Measurement of passive intermodulation in coaxial connectors
Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d’intermodulation –
Partie 3: Mesure de l’intermodulation passive dans les connecteurs coaxiaux
IEC 62037-3:2021-11(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62037-3
Edition 2.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement –
Part 3: Measurement of passive intermodulation in coaxial connectors
Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d’intermodulation –
Partie 3: Mesure de l’intermodulation passive dans les connecteurs coaxiaux
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.040.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1049-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62037-3:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 5

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 5

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 5

4 Test method .................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Samples for testing ................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Connection of unit ................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Set-up 1 – Fixed frequency test considerations ....................................................... 6

4.4 Set-up 2 considerations .......................................................................................... 6

4.5 Impacts ................................................................................................................... 6

5 Report ............................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (normative) Calculating equivalent impact energy .................................................... 8

Annex B (normative) Calculating impact energy for different connector types ......................... 9

Figure 1 – Impact test illustration ............................................................................................ 7

Table 1 – Impact information for some popular connectors...................................................... 7

Table A.1 – Estimated mass of various diameter steel balls .................................................... 8

Table B.1 – Impact energy calculation for RF connector type .................................................. 9

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62037-3:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PASSIVE RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES,
INTERMODULATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT –
Part 3: Measurement of passive intermodulation in coaxial connectors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62037-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 46: Cables, wires, waveguides, RF

connectors, RF and microwave passive components and accessories. It is an International

Standard.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2012. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) impact method changed to utilize a steel ball rather than a brass rod;
b) impact energy required to test each connector type added;

c) method added to calculate impact energy for connector types not listed in the document.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62037-3:2021 © IEC 2021
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
46/836/FDIS 46/857/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 62037 series, published under the general title Passive RF and

microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62037-3:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
PASSIVE RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES,
INTERMODULATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT –
Part 3: Measurement of passive intermodulation in coaxial connectors
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62037 defines the impact test on coaxial connectors to evaluate their robustness

against weak connections and particles inside the connector, as independently as possible from

the effects of cable PIM (passive intermodulation).

For other connectors (e.g. panel mounted connectors), the cable can be replaced by an adequate

transmission-line (e.g. airline, stripline). In order to evaluate the effects of mechanical stresses

on the connectors, a series of impacts is applied to the connectors while measuring the PIM.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 62037-1, Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement – Part 1:

General requirements and measuring methods

IEC 62037-4, Passive RF. and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement – Part 4:

Measurement of passive intermodulation in coaxial cables
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.2 Abbreviated terms
DUT Device under test
IM Intermodulation
PIM Passive intermodulation
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62037-3:2021 © IEC 2021
4 Test method
4.1 Samples for testing
One of the two following set-ups may be used.

NOTE Correct assembly methods and techniques are critical to the proper operation of the connector on the cable.

a) Set-up 1 – Multi-port DUT

In order to minimize the effect of the transmission line, a short assembly should be tested.

Identical connectors should be assembled at each end. An assembly, as short as physically

practical, should be constructed.
b) Set-up 2 – One-port DUT

A single connector can be assembled on a length of transmission line for which it is designed

that exhibits at least 10 dB of attenuation in one direction at the lowest frequency in the

receive band.
4.2 Connection of unit
The unit shall be connected as described in IEC 62307-1.
4.3 Set-up 1 – Fixed frequency test considerations

Due to the phase interaction of the connectors and the length of the transmission line

(configuration A) when measured in the reverse (reflected) mode, the frequency at which

maximum PIM occurs within the band can vary and shall be determined.

An accepted method of sweeping is to fix f at the low end of the transmit band and step f down,

1 2

starting at the top of the band for all combinations of frequencies that result in IM in the receive

band. If desired, this procedure can be reversed by fixing f at the highest frequency in the

transmit band and then stepping f up, starting at the bottom of the band.

If fixed frequency is used, assemblies of varying lengths shall be made to ensure that the PIM

adds in-phase. Assemble two additional DUTs. The first one is to be λ/6 longer and the second

one is to be λ/3 longer at the receive frequency of the test. The PIM of the three (3) assemblies is

measured to determine which DUT exhibits maximum PIM. The impact test shall be performed

on this DUT.
Multiple fixed frequencies may be used in lieu of varying the cable length.

The impact test is to be conducted at the frequency where the maximum PIM is measured.

The cable used as a load shall be verified as having suitable PIM performance prior to being

used in testing as measured by IEC 62037-4.
4.4 Set-up 2 considerations

The cable used as a load shall be verified as having suitable PIM performance prior to being

used in testing as measured by IEC 62037-4.
4.5 Impacts

Mount the DUT as shown in Figure 1. A minimum of five (5) impacts in accordance with Table 1

shall be applied. (See Figure 1 for impact set-up.)

The drop mass is a steel ball, ensuring that no sharp edge will damage the DUT and minimizing

variation in the impact force. The steel ball is remotely released via a solenoid to prevent impact

force variation due to manual operation.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62037-3:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –

The points of impact should cover as many different areas along the length of the connector as

possible, but it is not necessary to rotate or otherwise disconnect and reposition the DUT.

The PIM is measured prior to, during, and after the impact.
Table 1 – Impact information for some popular connectors
Connector Connector Impact energy Steel ball Mass Drop height
interface nominal hex diameter (min.)
dimension
mm J mm g mm
7-16 31,8 0,083 19 28,4 300
4.3-10 22,2 0,058 19 28,4 210
N 19,1 0,050 19 28,4 180
TNC 14,3 0,037 19 28,4 130
SMA 7,9 0,021 19 28,4 75

Different steel ball diameters and drop heights may be used as long as equivalent impact energy

is maintained. See Annex A for guidelines for calculating equivalent impact energy.

Other connector types can be tested in accordance with this document. The required impact

energy for different connector types can be calculated as specified in Annex B.
Figure 1 – Impact test illustration
5 Report

The report should document the drop height, steel ball mass and impact energy if different from

Table 1 and the peak PIM values prior to, during, and after each impact.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62037-3:2021 © IEC 2021
Annex A
(normative)
Calculating equivalent impact energy
Impact energy in Joules = potential energy = PE = m × g × h
where:
m is the mass of the steel ball (kg);
g is the acceleration due to gravity = 9,8 m/s ;
h is the drop height (m).

Using an average density for carbon steel of 7,9 g/cm , the mass of the steel ball can be

calculated based on the volume of the steel ball.
Table A.1 provides the estimated mass of various diameter steel balls.
Table A.1 – Estimated mass of various diameter steel balls
Diameter Mass
mm kg
10 0,004 14
...

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