Fire hazard testing - Part 9-2: Surface spread of flame - Summary and relevance of test methods

IEC 60695-9-2:2021 presents a summary of published test methods that are used to determine the surface spread of flame of electrotechnical products or materials from which they are formed.
It represents the current state of the art of the test methods and, where available, includes special observations on their relevance and use.
The list of test methods is not to be considered exhaustive, and test methods that were not developed by the IEC are not to be considered as endorsed by the IEC unless this is specifically stated.
This summary cannot be used in place of published standards which are the only valid reference documents.
This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and
ISO/IEC Guide 51.
One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to or included in the relevant publications.
This International Standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-1.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60695-9-2 published in 2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) Updated introduction
b) Updated normative references
c) Updated terms and definitions
d) New Subclauses 4.1 and 4.2
e) Reference to fire stages as defined in ISO 19706 (Table 1)
f) New sub-division of tests into the following subclauses:
4.3 Small-scale fire tests
4.4 Medium and intermediate-scale fire tests
4.5 Intermediate and large-scale fire tests for cables
4.6 Real-scale fire tests for cables
g) Updated text in parts of Clause 4
h) Addition of the following test methods:
IEC TS 60695-11-21
IEC 60684-2:2011, Clause 26
ISO 3582
ISO 9772
ISO 9773
ISO 12992
ISO 21367
i) New Clause 5 and Table 4 giving an overview of test methods
j) Deletion of all the Annexes
k) Updated bibliography

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 9-2: Propagation des flammes en surface - Résumé et pertinence des méthodes d'essai

IEC 60695-9-2:2021 propose un résumé des méthodes d'essai publiées utilisées pour déterminer la propagation de flamme en surface des produits électrotechniques ou des matériaux dont ils sont constitués.
Elle représente l'état actuel de l'art des méthodes d'essai et, le cas échéant, elle comprend des observations particulières sur leur pertinence et leur utilisation.
La liste des méthodes d’essai ne doit pas être considérée comme exhaustive, et les méthodes d'essai qui n'ont pas été élaborées par l’IEC ne doivent pas être considérées comme étant entérinées par l’IEC, sauf si cela est spécifiquement stipulé.
Ce résumé ne peut pas se substituer aux normes publiées, qui sont les seuls documents de référence valables.
Cette publication fondamentale de sécurité est destinée à être utilisée par les comités d’études pour l’établissement de leurs normes, conformément aux principes exposés dans le Guide IEC 104 et dans le Guide ISO/IEC 51.
L'une des responsabilités d'un comité d'études consiste, le cas échéant, à utiliser les publications fondamentales de sécurité dans le cadre de l'élaboration de ses publications. Les exigences, les méthodes d'essai ou les conditions d'essai indiquées dans la présente publication fondamentale de sécurité ne s'appliquent que si elles sont référencées ou incluses dans les publications appropriées.
Cette Norme internationale doit être utilisée conjointement avec l’IEC 60695-9-1.
Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition de l’IEC 60695-9-2 parue en 2014. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) Mise à jour de l’introduction
b) Mise à jour des références normatives
c) Mise à jour des termes et définitions
d) Nouveaux Paragraphes 4.1 et 4.2
e) Référence aux stades d’incendie tels qu'ils sont définis dans l’ISO 19706 (Tableau 1)
f) Nouvelle répartition des essais dans les paragraphes suivants:
4.3 Essais au feu à petite échelle
4.4 Essais au feu à échelles moyenne et intermédiaire
4.5 Essais au feu à échelle intermédiaire et à grande échelle pour les câbles
4.6 Essais au feu en grandeur réelle pour les câbles
g) Mise à jour du texte de certaines parties de l’Article 4
h) Ajout des méthodes d'essai suivantes:
IEC TS 60695-11-21
IEC 60684-2:2011, Article 26
ISO 3582
ISO 9772
ISO 9773
ISO 12992
ISO 21367
i) Nouvel Article 5 et nouveau Tableau 4 qui donnent une vue générale des méthodes d'essai
j) Suppression de toutes les Annexes
k) Mise à jour de la bibliographie

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-Aug-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 60695-9-2:2021 - Fire hazard testing - Part 9-2: Surface spread of flame - Summary and relevance of test methods
English and French language
84 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 60695-9-2
Edition 2.0 2021-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
HORIZONTAL PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION HORIZONTALE
Fire hazard testing –
Part 9-2: Surface spread of flame – Summary and relevance of test methods
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 9-2: Propagation des flammes en surface – Résumé et pertinence
des méthodes d'essai
IEC 60695-9-2:2021-08(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2021 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'IEC ou du Comité national de l'IEC du pays du demandeur. Si vous avez des

questions sur le copyright de l'IEC ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette publication, utilisez

les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform IEC online collection - oc.iec.ch

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a Discover our powerful search engine and read freely all the

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical publications previews. With a subscription you will always

committee, …). It also gives information on projects, replaced have access to up to date content tailored to your needs.

and withdrawn publications.
Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,
Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published
containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English
details all new publications released. Available online and
and French, with equivalent terms in 18 additional languages.
once a month by email.
Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
(IEV) online.
IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc
If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
A propos de l'IEC

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications IEC

Le contenu technique des publications IEC est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez l’édition la

plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Recherche de publications IEC - IEC online collection - oc.iec.ch

webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Découvrez notre puissant moteur de recherche et consultez

La recherche avancée permet de trouver des publications IEC gratuitement tous les aperçus des publications. Avec un

en utilisant différents critères (numéro de référence, texte, abonnement, vous aurez toujours accès à un contenu à jour

comité d’études, …). Elle donne aussi des informations sur adapté à vos besoins.
les projets et les publications remplacées ou retirées.
Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
Le premier dictionnaire d'électrotechnologie en ligne au
Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications IEC. Just
monde, avec plus de 22 000 articles terminologiques en
Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues.
anglais et en français, ainsi que les termes équivalents dans
Disponible en ligne et une fois par mois par email.
16 langues additionnelles. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire
Electrotechnique International (IEV) en ligne.
Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc
Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette
publication ou si vous avez des questions contactez-nous:
sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-9-2
Edition 2.0 2021-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
HORIZONTAL PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION HORIZONTALE
Fire hazard testing –
Part 9-2: Surface spread of flame – Summary and relevance of test methods
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 9-2: Propagation des flammes en surface – Résumé et pertinence
des méthodes d'essai
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-9997-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Summary of published test methods .............................................................................. 12

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 The physical fire model ......................................................................................... 12

4.3 Small-scale fire tests............................................................................................. 14

4.3.1 Horizontal and vertical 50 W and 500 W flame tests – IEC 60695-11-10

and IEC 60695-11-20 ..................................................................................... 14

4.3.2 Fire hazard testing – Part 11-21: Test flames – 500 W vertical flame

test method for tubular polymeric materials – IEC TS 60695-11-21 [5] ........... 14

4.3.3 Flexible insulating sleeving – Part 2: Methods of test, Clause 26: Flame

propagation tests – IEC 60684-2:2011 [7], Clause 26 .................................... 15

4.3.4 Vertical burning test for cables – IEC 60332-1 [9] .......................................... 16

4.3.5 Vertical burning test for cables – IEC 60332-2 [10] ........................................ 17

4.3.6 Flexible cellular polymeric materials – Laboratory assessment of horizontal

burning characteristics of small specimens subjected to a small flame –

ISO 3582 [11] ................................................................................................ 18

4.3.7 Horizontal burning rate for road vehicle materials – ISO 3795 [12]. ................ 19

4.3.8 Cellular plastics – Determination of horizontal burning characteristics of

small specimens subjected to a small flame – ISO 9772 [13] ......................... 19

4.3.9 Plastics – Determination of burning behaviour of thin flexible vertical

specimens in contact with a small-flame ignition source – ISO 9773 [15] ....... 20

4.3.10 Fire propagation apparatus – ISO 12136 [16] ................................................ 21

4.3.11 Plastics – Vertical flame spread determination for film and sheet –

ISO 12992 [27] .............................................................................................. 23

4.3.12 Vertical burning test for aircraft materials – FAR 25 [29] ................................ 23

4.4 Medium and intermediate-scale fire tests .............................................................. 24

4.4.1 Lateral flame spread on building and transport products – ISO 5658-2 [30] ... 24

4.4.2 Intermediate-scale fire test of vertical flame spread – ISO 5658-4 [33]........... 25

4.4.3 Plastics – Reaction to fire – Test method for flame spread and combustion

product release from vertically oriented specimens – ISO 21367 [35] ............ 26

4.5 Intermediate and large-scale fire tests for cables .................................................. 26

4.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

4.5.2 Vertical burning tests for cables (ladder tests) ............................................... 27

4.5.3 Vertical burning test for cables – NF C 32-070 [60] ........................................ 31

4.6 Real-scale fire tests for cables .............................................................................. 31

4.6.1 Standard for test for flame propagation height of electrical and optical-

fiber cables installed vertically in shafts – UL 1666 [61] ................................. 31

4.6.2 Horizontal flame spread test for cables – EN 50289-4-11 [62] ........................ 32

5 Overview of methods and relevance of data .................................................................. 33

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 38

Table 1 – Characteristics of fire stages (ISO 19706:2011) .................................................... 13

Table 2 – Summary and comparison of IEC 60332 vertical ladder test methods [37] .......... 28

Table 3 – Summary and comparison of non-IEC vertical ladder test methods ........................ 29

Table 4 – Overview of flame spread methods ........................................................................ 34

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 9-2: Surface spread of flame –
Summary and relevance of test methods
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-9-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire

hazard testing.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60695-9-2 published in 2014.

This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) Updated introduction
b) Updated normative references
c) Updated terms and definitions
d) New Subclauses 4.1 and 4.2
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021
e) Reference to fire stages as defined in ISO 19706 (Table 1)
f) New sub-division of tests into the following subclauses:
4.3 Small-scale fire tests
4.4 Medium and intermediate-scale fire tests
4.5 Intermediate and large-scale fire tests for cables
4.6 Real-scale fire tests for cables
g) Updated text in parts of Clause 4
h) Addition of the following test methods:
IEC TS 60695-11-21
IEC 60684-2:2011, Clause 26
ISO 3582
ISO 9772
ISO 9773
ISO 12992
ISO 21367
i) New Clause 5 and Table 4 giving an overview of test methods
j) Deletion of all the Annexes
k) Updated bibliography
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
89/1469/CDV 89/1505/RVC

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by

IEC are described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60695 series, published under the general title Fire hazard testing,

can be found on the IEC website.
This International Standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-1.
In this standard, the following print types are used:
terms referred to in Clause 3: in italic type.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

In the design of an electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards

associated with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective of component, circuit

and equipment design, as well as the choice of materials, is to reduce the risk of fire to a

tolerable level even in the event of reasonably foreseeable (mis)use, malfunction or failure.

IEC 60695-1-10, IEC 60695-1-11 [1] , and IEC 60695-1-12 [2] provide guidance on how this is

to be accomplished.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can also be initiated from external non-electrical

sources. Considerations of this nature are dealt with in an overall fire hazard assessment.

The aim of the IEC 60695 series of standards is to save lives and property by reducing the

number of fires or reducing the consequences of the fire. This can be accomplished by:

• trying to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energised component part and, in the

event of ignition, to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the

electrotechnical product;

• trying to minimise flame spread beyond the product’s enclosure and to minimise the

harmful effects of fire effluents including heat, smoke, and toxic or corrosive combustion

products.

Fire hazard increases as the burning area increases, leading in some cases to flashover and

a fully developed fire. This is a typical fire scenario in buildings. It is therefore useful to

measure the rate and extent of the surface spread of flame.

This part of IEC 60695-9 describes surface spread of flame test methods in common use to

assess electrotechnical products or materials used in electrotechnical products. It forms part

of the IEC 60695-9 series which gives guidance to product committees wishing to incorporate

test methods for surface spread of flame in product standards.
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 9-2: Surface spread of flame –
Summary and relevance of test methods
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695-9 presents a summary of published test methods that are used to

determine the surface spread of flame of electrotechnical products or materials from which

they are formed.

It represents the current state of the art of the test methods and, where available, includes

special observations on their relevance and use.

The list of test methods is not to be considered exhaustive, and test methods that were not

developed by the IEC are not to be considered as endorsed by the IEC unless this is

specifically stated.

This summary cannot be used in place of published standards which are the only valid

reference documents.

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of

standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and
ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test

methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically

referred to or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-1-10, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – General guidelines

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products

IEC 60695-9-1, Fire hazard testing – Part 9-1: Surface spread of flame – General guidance

IEC GUIDE 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety

publications and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
ISO 13943:2017, Fire Safety – Vocabulary
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021
ISO 19706:2011, Guidelines for assessing the fire threat to people.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60695-4:2012 and

ISO 13943:2017 (some of which are reproduced below) and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
burned length
maximum extent in a specified direction of the burned area
Note 1 to entry: The typical unit is m.
Note 2 to entry: Compare with the term damaged length (3.5).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.37]
3.2
char length
length of charred area

Note 1 to entry: Compare with the terms burned length (3.1) and damaged length (3.5).

Note 2 to entry: In some standards, char length is defined by a specific test method.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.49]
3.3
combustible, noun
item capable of combustion (3.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.53]
3.4
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizing agent

Note 1 to entry: Combustion generally emits fire effluent accompanied by flames (3.11) and/or glowing.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.55]
3.5
damaged length
maximum extent in a specified direction of the damaged area

Note 1 to entry: Compare with the terms char length (3.2) and burned length (3.1)

[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.73]
3.6
fire

〈general〉 process of combustion (3.4) characterized by the emission of heat and fire effluent

and usually accompanied by smoke, flame (3.11), glowing or a combination thereof
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

Note 1 to entry: In the English language the term “fire” is used to designate three concepts, two of which relate to

specific types of self-supporting combustion with different meanings. Of these three, two of them are designated

using two different terms in both French and German.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.114]
3.7
fire

〈controlled〉 self-supporting combustion (3.4) that has been deliberately arranged to provide

useful effects and is limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.115]
3.8
fire

〈uncontrolled〉 self-supporting combustion (3.4) that has not been deliberately arranged to

provide useful effects and is not limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.116]
3.9
fire hazard
potential for harm associated with fire (3.8)

Note 1 to entry: Alternatively, fire hazard can be a physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable

consequence from fire.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.131]
3.10
fire scenario

qualitative description of the course of a fire (3.8) with respect to time, identifying key events

that characterize the studied fire and differentiate it from other possible fires

Note 1 to entry: It typically defines the ignition (3.18) and fire growth processes, the fully developed fire (3.16)

stage, the fire decay stage, and the environment and systems that impact on the course of the fire.

Note 2 to entry: Unlike deterministic fire analysis, where fire scenarios are individually selected and used as

design fire scenarios, in fire risk assessment, fire scenarios are used as representative fire scenarios within fire

scenario clusters.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.152, modified – Note 1 removed as not relevant]

3.11
flame, noun

zone in which there is rapid, self-sustaining, sub-sonic propagation of combustion (3.4) in a

gaseous medium, usually with emission of light

[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.159 – modified by the addition of “zone in which

there is”]
3.12
flame front

boundary of flaming combustion at the surface of a material or propagating through a gaseous

mixture
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.162]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021
3.13
flame spread
propagation of a flame front (3.12)
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.168]
3.14
flame-spread rate
DEPRECATED: burning rate
DEPRECATED: rate of burning

distance travelled by a flame front (3.12) during its propagation, divided by the time of travel,

under specified conditions
Note 1 to entry: The typical unit is m.s .
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.169]
3.15
flashover

〈stage of fire〉 transition to a state of total surface involvement in a fire (3.8) of combustible

materials within an enclosure
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.184]
3.16
fully developed fire
state of total involvement of combustible materials in a fire (3.6)
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.192]
3.17
heat release rate
DEPRECATED: burning rate
DEPRECATED: rate of burning
rate of thermal energy production generated by combustion (3.4)
Note 1 to entry: The typical unit is W.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.206]
3.18
ignition
DEPRECATED: sustained ignition
〈general〉 initiation of combustion (3.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.217]
3.19
ignition source
source of energy that initiates combustion (3.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.219]
3.20
intermediate-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of medium dimensions
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen for which the maximum dimension is between 1 m and

3 m is usually called an intermediate-scale fire test.

Note 2 to entry: The dimensions in Note 1 to entry usually refer to reaction-to-fire testing and not to fire

resistance testing.

Note 3 to entry: ISO 29903 considers medium dimensions to be those with a maximum dimension between 1 m

and 3 m.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.233]
3.21
large-scale fire test

fire test that cannot be carried out in a typical laboratory chamber, performed on a test

specimen of large dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen of which the maximum dimension is greater than 3 m is

usually called a large-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.239]
3.22
medium-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of small-medium size dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen of which the maximum dimension is between 0,5 m and

1,0 m is often called a medium-scale fire test.

Note 2 to entry: The dimensions referenced in Note 1 to entry usually refer to reaction-to-fire testing and not to

fire resistance testing, where a maximum dimension of 1 m corresponds to a small-scale test.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.269]
3.23
pyrolysis
chemical decomposition of a substance by the action of heat

Note 1 to entry: Pyrolysis is often used to refer to a stage of fire (3.6) before flaming combustion has begun.

Note 2 to entry: In fire science, no assumption is made about the presence or absence of oxygen.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.316]
3.24
real-scale fire test

fire test that simulates a given application, taking into account the real scale, the real way the

item is installed and used, and the environment

Note 1 to entry: Such a fire test normally assumes that the products will be used in accordance with the

conditions laid down by the specifier and/or in accordance with normal practice.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2017, definition 3.325]
3.25
riser cable
cable that runs vertically between floors in a building
Note 1 to entry: This is a term used predominantly in North America
3.26
small-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of small dimensions
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 60695-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021

Note 1 to entry: There is no clear upper limit for the dimensions of the test specimen in a small-scale fire test. In

some instances, a fire test performed on a test specimen with a maximum dimension of less than 1 m is called

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.