Fire hazard testing - Part 7-2: Toxicity of fire effluent - Summary and relevance of test methods

IEC 60695-7-2:2021 gives a brief summary of the test methods that are in common use in the assessment of the toxicity of fire effluent. It includes special observations on their relevance to real fire scenarios and gives recommendations on their use.
It advises which tests provide toxic potency data that are relevant to real fire scenarios, and which are suitable for use in fire hazard assessment and fire safety engineering.
The list of test methods is not to be considered exhaustive.
This summary cannot be used in place of published standards which are the only valid reference documents.
This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51.
One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to or included in the relevant publications.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2011. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
– New text in the introduction;
– New text in the scope;
– Clause 2 has been updated;
– Many terms and definitions in Clause 3 reproduced from ISO 13943 have been deleted. Other terms and definitions have been added.
– New text in Subclauses 4.3 and 4.4;
– New text in Subclause 6.1;
– References to IEC 60695-7-50 and -51 (now withdrawn) have been removed;
– Reference to DEF STAN 07-247 has been added;
– Details of ISO/TS 19021 have been added;
– Details of EN 17084 have been added;
– New text added concerning ISO/TS 19700;
– New text added concerning the IMO FTP toxicity test;
– New Subclause 7.1 has been added;
– The Annex in Edition1 has been replaced by new Clause 8;
– The bibliography has been updated.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 7-2: Toxicité des effluents du feu - Résumé et pertinence des méthodes d'essai

IEC 60695-7-2:2021 fournit un bref résumé des méthodes d'essai qui sont d'un usage courant dans l'évaluation de la toxicité des effluents du feu. Elle comprend des observations particulières sur leur pertinence par rapport aux scénarios d'incendies réels, et donne des recommandations sur leur utilisation.
Elle indique quels sont les essais fournissant des données de potentiel toxique pertinentes pour les scénarios d'incendies réels, et quels sont ceux qui sont adaptés à l'utilisation dans l'évaluation des dangers d’incendie et l'ingénierie de sécurité incendie.
La liste des méthodes d’essai ne doit pas être considérée comme exhaustive.
Ce résumé ne peut pas remplacer les normes publiées, qui sont les seuls documents de référence valables.
Cette publication fondamentale de sécurité est destinée à être utilisée par les comités d’études pour l’établissement de leurs normes, conformément aux principes exposés dans le Guide 104 de l’IEC et dans le Guide ISO/IEC 51.
L'une des responsabilités d'un comité d'études consiste, le cas échéant, à utiliser les publications fondamentales de sécurité dans le cadre de l'élaboration de ses publications. Les exigences, les méthodes ou les conditions d'essai de la présente publication fondamentale de sécurité s'appliquent seulement si elles servent spécifiquement de référence ou sont intégrées dans les publications correspondantes.
Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2011. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition antérieure sont énumérées ci-dessous:
– Nouveau texte d'introduction;
– Nouveau texte de domaine d’application;
– L’Article 2 a été mis à jour;
– De nombreux termes et définitions de l’Article 3 issus de l’ISO 13943 ont été supprimés. D’autres termes et définitions ont été ajoutés.
– Nouveau texte en 4.3 et 4.4;
– Nouveau texte en 6.1;
– Les références à l’IEC 60695-7-50 et -51 (à présent supprimées) ont été retirées;
– Une référence à la DEF STAN 07-247 a été ajoutée;
– Des éléments détaillés tirés de l’ISO/TS 19021 ont été ajoutés;
– Des éléments détaillés tirés de l’EN 17084 ont été ajoutés;
– Nouveau texte ajouté relatif à l’ISO/TS 19700;
– Nouveau texte relatif à l'essai de toxicité de l’OMI FTP;
– Nouveau paragraphe 7.1;
– L’Annexe de la première édition est devenue le nouvel Article 8;
– La bibliographie a été mise à jour.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Oct-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Oct-2021
Ref Project

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IEC 60695-7-2
Edition 2.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
HORIZONTAL PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION HORIZONTALE
Fire hazard testing –
Part 7-2: Toxicity of fire effluent – Summary and relevance of test methods
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 7-2: Toxicité des effluents du feu – Résumé et pertinence des méthodes
d'essai
IEC 60695-7-2:2021-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-7-2
Edition 2.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
HORIZONTAL PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION HORIZONTALE
Fire hazard testing –
Part 7-2: Toxicity of fire effluent – Summary and relevance of test methods
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 7-2: Toxicité des effluents du feu – Résumé et pertinence des méthodes
d'essai
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-1003-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60695-7-2:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Role of small-scale toxicity tests .................................................................................... 13

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

4.2 Toxic potency ....................................................................................................... 13

4.3 Toxic hazard, exposure dose and fractional effective dose (FED) .......................... 14

4.4 Fractional effective concentration (FEC) ................................................................ 14

4.5 Generic toxic potencies ......................................................................................... 14

5 General aspects of small-scale toxicity tests .................................................................. 15

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

5.2 Physical fire models .............................................................................................. 15

5.3 Fire stages in a compartment fire .......................................................................... 16

5.4 Methods of analysis .............................................................................................. 16

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

5.4.2 Chemical analysis based methods ................................................................. 19

5.4.3 Methods based on animal exposure ............................................................... 19

6 Summary of published chemical analysis based test methods ....................................... 19

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

6.2 UK Ministry of Defence – DEF STAN 02-713 ......................................................... 19

6.2.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 19

6.2.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 20

6.2.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 20

6.2.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 20

6.2.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 21

6.2.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 21

6.3 Airbus industry ...................................................................................................... 22

6.3.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 22

6.3.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 22

6.3.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 22

6.3.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 22

6.3.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 22

6.3.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 23

6.4 Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano (CEI) ................................................................... 23

6.4.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 23

6.4.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 23

6.4.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 23

6.4.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 23

6.4.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 23

6.4.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 23

6.5 Norme Française (NF) .......................................................................................... 24

6.5.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 24

6.5.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 24

6.5.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 24

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60695-7-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

6.5.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 24

6.5.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 24

6.5.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 24

6.6 ISO test methods .................................................................................................. 25

6.6.1 ISO/TS 19021 ................................................................................................ 25

6.6.2 ISO/TS 19700 ................................................................................................ 26

6.7 International Maritime Organization (IMO) ............................................................. 27

6.7.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 27

6.7.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 27

6.7.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 27

6.7.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 27

6.7.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 28

6.7.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 28

6.8 Toxicity test for rolling stock cables....................................................................... 28

6.8.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 28

6.8.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 29

6.8.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 29

6.8.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 29

6.8.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 29

6.8.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 30

6.9 Toxicity test of materials and components (other than cables) used in railway

applications .......................................................................................................... 30

6.9.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 30

6.9.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 30

6.9.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 30

6.9.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 30

6.9.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 31

6.9.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 31

7 Summary of published test methods relating to animal exposure ................................... 31

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

7.2 Deutsches Institut für Normung, DIN 53436 .......................................................... 31

7.2.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 31

7.2.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 31

7.2.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 31

7.2.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 32

7.2.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 32

7.2.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 32

7.3 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) ..................................................................... 33

7.3.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 33

7.3.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 33

7.3.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 33

7.3.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 33

7.3.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 33

7.3.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 34

7.3.7 Reference documents .................................................................................... 34

7.4 National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST Radiant furnace ................. 34

7.4.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 34

7.4.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 34

7.4.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 35

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60695-7-2:2021 © IEC 2021

7.4.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 35

7.4.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 35

7.4.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 35

7.4.7 Reference documents .................................................................................... 36

7.5 University of Pittsburgh, Upitt Box furnace ............................................................ 36

7.5.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 36

7.5.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 36

7.5.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 36

7.5.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 36

7.5.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 37

7.5.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 37

7.5.7 Reference documents .................................................................................... 37

7.6 Japanese fire toxicity test for building components ............................................... 37

7.6.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 37

7.6.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 37

7.6.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 37

7.6.4 Test method .................................................................................................. 38

7.6.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 38

7.6.6 Relevance of test data and special observations............................................ 38

8 Overview of methods and relevance of data .................................................................. 38

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 41

Figure 1 – Different phases in the development of a fire within a compartment ..................... 16

Table 1 – Characteristics of fire types (ISO 19706) ............................................................... 18

Table 2 – C values for various gases ................................................................................... 21

Table 3 – Volume fraction limits for gas components ............................................................. 22

Table 4 – Decomposition conditions ...................................................................................... 26

The results are expressed as gas volume fractions. Maximum permitted values are

given below (see Table 5 – Volume fraction limits for gas component ................................... 28

Table 5 – Volume fraction limits for gas component .............................................................. 28

Table 6 – CC values taken from EN 50305 .......................................................................... 29

Table 7 – Reference concentrations of the gas components .................................................. 31

Table 8 – Overview of toxicity test methods .......................................................................... 39

Table 9 – Overview of toxicity test methods (continued, with comments) ............................... 40

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60695-7-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 7-2: Toxicity of fire effluent –
Summary and relevance of test methods
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-7-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire

hazard testing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2011. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
– New text in the introduction;
– New text in the scope;
– Clause 2 has been updated;

– Many terms and definitions in Clause 3 reproduced from ISO 13943 have been deleted.

Other terms and definitions have been added.
– New text in Subclauses 4.3 and 4.4;
– New text in Subclause 6.1;
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60695-7-2:2021 © IEC 2021
– References to IEC 60695-7-50 and -51 (now withdrawn) have been removed;
– Reference to DEF STAN 07-247 has been added;
– Details of ISO/TS 19021 have been added;
– Details of EN 17084 have been added;
– New text added concerning ISO/TS 19700;
– New text added concerning the IMO FTP toxicity test;
– New Subclause 7.1 has been added;
– The Annex in Edition1 has been replaced by new Clause 8;
– The bibliography has been updated.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
89/1489/CDV 89/1508/RVC

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all the parts in the 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can be

found on the IEC website.
IEC 60695-7 consists of the following parts:
Part 7-1: Toxicity of fire effluent – General guidance
Part 7-2: Toxicity of fire effluent – Summary and relevance of test methods
Part 7-3: Toxicity of fire effluent – Use and interpretation of test results
In this document the following print types are used:
– Words in italics in the text are defined in Clause 3.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60695-7-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

In the design of an electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards associated

with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective of component, circuit and

equipment design, as well as the choice of materials, is to reduce the risk of fire to a tolerable

level even in the event of reasonably foreseeable (mis)use, malfunction or failure.

IEC 60695-1-10, IEC 60695-1-11 [1] , and IEC 60695-1-12 [2] provide guidance on how this is

to be accomplished.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can also be initiated from external non-electrical

sources. Considerations of this nature are dealt with in an overall fire hazard assessment.

The aim of the IEC 60695 series of standards is to save lives and property by reducing the

number of fires or reducing the consequences of the fire. This can be accomplished by:

• trying to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energised component part and, in the

event of ignition, to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the

electrotechnical product;

• trying to minimise flame spread beyond the product’s enclosure and to minimise the harmful

effects of fire effluents including heat, smoke, and toxic or corrosive combustion products.

Electrotechnical products, primarily as the objects of a fire, may contribute to the fire hazard

due to the release of toxic effluent, which may be a significant contributing factor to the overall

fire hazard.

The IEC 60695-7 series provides guidance to IEC product committees on the adoption and

implementation of the recommendations of ISO for the minimization of toxic hazard from fires

involving electrotechnical products.This part of IEC 60695-7 describes fire effluent toxicity test

methods in common use to assess electrotechnical products or materials used in
electrotechnical products.

IEC product committees incorporating requirements for the assessment of toxic hazard from

fire in product standards should note that toxic potency and other measurements of toxicity

which are described in this part of IEC 60695 should not be used directly in product

specifications. Data from toxic potency test methods should only be used as part of a toxic

hazard assessment, in conjunction with other product-based reaction to fire data such as mass

loss rate.
___________
Numbers in square b
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