Fire hazard testing - Part 11-40: Test flames - Confirmatory tests - Guidance

IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 presents a general characterization of small-scale test flames and associated confirmatory tests based on copper block calorimetry. Guidance is presented for the selection of critical parameters in confirmatory test designs.
This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committee in the preparation of safety publications in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51.
One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to or included in the relevant publications.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) former Clause 4 split into updated/rearranged new Clause 4 and Clause 5;
b) Table 1 updated and moved to new Clause 4;
c) former Clause 5 transformed to Clause 6;
d) former Clause 6 transformed to Clause 7;
e) former Clause7, Clause 8 and Clause 9 combined into an updated/rearranged new Annex A; and
f) all figures were updated.
This Technical Specification is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-11-2, IEC 60695-11-3, IEC 60695-11-4 and IEC 60695-11-5.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Jun-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
24-Jun-2021
Ref Project

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IEC TS 60695-11-40
Edition 2.0 2021-06
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
Fire hazard testing –
Part 11-40: Test flames – Confirmatory tests – Guidance
IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021-06(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-40
Edition 2.0 2021-06
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
Fire hazard testing –
Part 11-40: Test flames – Confirmatory tests – Guidance
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-9862-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Test flames ...................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Diffusion flames ...................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Pre-mixed flames .................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Standardized test flames ......................................................................................... 8

4.5 Critical parameters .................................................................................................. 9

5 Burners and fuel gases .................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Diffusion flame burners ........................................................................................... 9

5.2 Pre-mixed burners .................................................................................................. 9

5.2.1 Metered air pre-mixed burners ......................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Venturi air pre-mixed burners ........................................................................ 10

5.3 Flame stabilizer .................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Fuel gases ............................................................................................................ 10

6 Confirmatory test hardware ............................................................................................ 10

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Copper blocks ....................................................................................................... 10

6.2.1 Material ......................................................................................................... 10

6.2.2 Mass ............................................................................................................. 11

6.2.3 Geometry....................................................................................................... 11

6.3 Thermocouple ....................................................................................................... 11

7 Confirmatory test procedure .......................................................................................... 11

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 Copper block positioning ....................................................................................... 11

7.3 Test temperature ranges ....................................................................................... 12

7.4 Test time ranges ................................................................................................... 12

7.5 Purpose of the confirmatory test ........................................................................... 12

Annex A (informative) Copper block calorimetry dynamics and theory .................................. 14

A.1 Fundamentals of thermal dynamics of copper block .............................................. 14

A.2 Calculation method for obtaining parameters A, B and C....................................... 15

A.3 Summary and conclusions .................................................................................... 18

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 1 – Positioning of the copper block ............................................................................ 12

Figure A.1 – Results using data from Table A.1 .................................................................... 18

Figure A.2 – Parabolic fit of data to 800 °C ........................................................................... 19

Table 1 – Standardized test flames with confirmatory tests ..................................................... 9

Table A.1 – Typical data for a nominal 500 W methane flame ............................................... 14

Table A.2 – Parabolic fit to initial data ................................................................................... 15

Table A.3 – Calculated best fit data ...................................................................................... 17

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IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 11-40: Test flames –
Confirmatory tests – Guidance
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TS 60695-11-40 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire hazard testing. It

is a Technical Specification.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51.
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
DTS Report on voting
89/1498/DTS 89/1512/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.

The language used for the development of this Technical Specification is English.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 © IEC 2021

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) former Clause 4 split into updated/rearranged new Clause 4 and Clause 5;
b) Table 1 updated and moved to new Clause 4;
c) former Clause 5 transformed to Clause 6;
d) former Clause 6 transformed to Clause 7;

e) former Clause7, Clause 8 and Clause 9 combined into an updated/rearranged new Annex A;

and
f) all figures were updated.

This Technical Specification is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-11-2, IEC 60695-11-3,

IEC 60695-11-4 and IEC 60695-11-5.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can be

found on the IEC website.
Part 11 consists of the following parts:

Part 11-2: Test flames – 1 kW nominal pre-mixed flame – Apparatus, confirmatory test

arrangement and guidance

Part 11-3: Test flames – 500 W flames – Apparatus and confirmational test methods

Part 11-4: Test flames – 50 W flame – Apparatus and confirmational test method
Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method – Apparatus, confirmatory test
arrangement and guidance
Part 11-10: Test flames – 50 W horizontal and vertical flame test methods

Part 11-11: Test flames – Determination of the characteristic heat flux for ignition from a non-

contacting flame source
Part 11-20: Test flames – 500 W flame test methods
Part 11-30: Test flames – History and development from 1979 to 1999
Part 11-40: Test flames – Confirmatory tests – Guidance

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Standard flames are specified for various small-scale fire tests. Apparatus design and test

parameters are specified in an effort to ensure consistent and defined flames. Burner designs,

material specifications and fuel and air specifications are typical necessary parameters.

Experience has shown that the quality of the flames and the resulting test measurements are

influenced significantly by subtle variations in the equipment and test technique. Simple checks

on flame qualities, such as flame colour and dimensions, or the melting characteristics of silver

wire, are also sometimes specified or recommended.

The need for a relatively simple check on the power of a flame has been recognized, leading to

the introduction of confirmatory tests based on copper block calorimetry. This document is

intended to provide information and guidance about small-scale standard flames and the

various copper block confirmatory tests.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 © IEC 2021
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 11-40: Test flames –
Confirmatory tests – Guidance
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695, which is a Technical Specification, presents a general characterization

of small-scale test flames and associated confirmatory tests based on copper block calorimetry.

Guidance is presented for the selection of critical parameters in confirmatory test designs.

NOTE A theory of thermal dynamics presents, in Annex A, additional performance parameters for confirmatory

tests, enabling a precise implicit mathematical characterization of confirmatory test heating curves.

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committee in the preparation of

safety publications in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods

or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to or

included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products

IEC 60695-11-2, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-2: Test flames – 1 kW pre-mixed flame –

Apparatus, confirmatory test arrangement and guidance

IEC 60695-11-3, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-3: Test flames – 500 W flames – Apparatus and

confirmational test methods

IEC 60695-11-4, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-4: Test flames – 50 W flame – Apparatus and

confirmational test method

IEC 60695-11-5, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method –

Apparatus, confirmatory test arrangement and guidance

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
ISO 13943:2017, Fire safety – Vocabulary
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60695-4 and

ISO 13943 (some of which are reproduced below), and the following, apply.
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
confirmatory test

calorimetric procedure intended as a diagnostic indicator to reveal anomalous behaviour or

conditions in a test flame, burner or associated hardware
[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.4]
3.2
draught-free environment

space in which the results of experiments are not significantly affected by the local air speed

Note 1 to entry: A qualitative example is a space in which a wax candle flame remains essentially undisturbed.

−1 −1

Quantitative examples are small-scale fire tests in which a maximum air speed of 0,1 m.s or 0,2 m.s is sometimes

specified.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.83]
3.3
diffusion flame

flame in which combustion occurs in a zone where the fuel and the oxidizing agent mix, having

been initially separate
Note 1 to entry: Compare with the term pre-mixed flame (3.5).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.82]
3.4
flame stabilizer

assembly normally fitted to the top of a standard laboratory Bunsen or Tirrill burner intended to

mitigate the destabilizing effect of the turbulent mixing of flame gases with the ambient air, by

providing an intervening layer of gas having an intermediate velocity between the ambient still

air and the faster flame gases
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.173]
3.5
pre-mixed flame

flame in which combustion occurs in an intimate mixture of fuel and oxidizing agent

Note 1 to entry: Compare with the term diffusion flame (3.3).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.307]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TS 60695-11-40:2021 © IEC 2021
3.6
small-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of small dimensions

Note 1 to entry: There is no clear upper limit for the dimensions of the test specimen in a small-scale fire test. In

some instances, a fire test performed on a test specimen with a maximum dimension of less than 1 m is called a

small-scale fire test. However, a fire test performed on a test specimen of which the maximum dimension is between

0,5 m and 1,0 m is often called a medium-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.346]
3.7
Venturi effect
reduction in pressure as a result of the increa
...

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