Primary batteries - Part 6: Guidance on environmental aspects

IEC 60086-6:2020 applies to all chemistries of portable primary cells and batteries standardized in the 60086 series.
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on the proper scientific protocols for testing the environmental performance of batteries; the symbols used to convey messages for collection, recycling, or other ideas; and the aspects and functional unit(s) to be included in assessing the environmental impact of batteries with modern life-cycle analysis techniques

Piles électriques - Partie 6: Recommandation sur les aspects liés à l'environnement

IEC 60086-6:2020 s'applique à toutes les compositions chimiques présentes dans les piles électriques et éléments portables normalisés dans la série IEC 60086.
Le présent document a pour but de fournir des recommandations sur les protocoles scientifiques corrects pour les essais sur les performances environnementales des piles, sur les symboles des messages relatifs à la collecte, au recyclage et autres opérations, et sur les aspects et les unités fonctionnelles à prendre en compte lors de l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement des piles par des techniques modernes d'analyse du cycle de vie.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Feb-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Feb-2020
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IEC 60086-6
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Primary batteries –
Part 6: Guidance on environmental aspects
Piles electriques –
Partie 6: Recommandation sur les aspects liés à l'environnement
IEC 60086-6:2020-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60086-6
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Primary batteries –
Part 6: Guidance on environmental aspects
Piles electriques –
Partie 6: Recommandation sur les aspects liés à l'environnement
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-7810-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 General considerations .................................................................................................. 10

4.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 10

4.2 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.3 Intent of this document ......................................................................................... 10

4.4 Battery selection ................................................................................................... 10

4.5 Collection rate ...................................................................................................... 11

5 Requirements and recommendations for the environment .............................................. 11

5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 11

5.2 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.3 Requirements and recommendations in regards to heavy metals .......................... 11

5.4 Disassembly method ............................................................................................. 12

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

5.4.2 Sorting components ....................................................................................... 12

5.4.3 Outline of disassembly procedure .................................................................. 13

5.4.4 Qualifications for disassembly ....................................................................... 13

5.5 Sample preparation and analysis method .............................................................. 13

5.6 Marking ................................................................................................................. 13

6 Disposal of battery......................................................................................................... 14

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

6.2 Confirmation of characteristics of hazardous waste ............................................... 14

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

6.2.2 Toxicity .......................................................................................................... 14

6.2.3 Ignitability ...................................................................................................... 14

6.2.4 Reactivity ...................................................................................................... 15

6.2.5 Corrosivity ..................................................................................................... 15

6.3 Control of hazardous waste................................................................................... 15

7 Environmental considerations ........................................................................................ 16

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

7.2 Environmental assessment ................................................................................... 16

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

7.2.2 Reduction ...................................................................................................... 16

7.2.3 Reuse ............................................................................................................ 16

7.2.4 Recycling ....................................................................................................... 16

7.2.5 Raw material usage ....................................................................................... 17

7.2.6 Manufacturing ................................................................................................ 17

7.3 Packaging considerations ..................................................................................... 18

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

7.3.2 Maintain safety and quality ............................................................................ 18

7.3.3 Convey required information that is both regulated and voluntary .................. 18

8 Identifying product environmental aspects using a systematic approach ........................ 18

9 Life cycle assessment ................................................................................................... 18

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IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

Annex A (informative) Battery specific laws and regulations ................................................. 19

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

A.2 Minamata Convention on Mercury ......................................................................... 19

A.3 Africa – Tunisia ..................................................................................................... 19

A.4 Asia ...................................................................................................................... 20

A.4.1 China ............................................................................................................. 20

A.4.2 Chinese Taiwan (Province of China) .............................................................. 21

A.4.3 Japan ............................................................................................................ 21

A.4.4 Korea, Republic of ......................................................................................... 22

A.5 Europe .................................................................................................................. 23

A.5.1 EU ................................................................................................................. 23

A.5.2 Norway .......................................................................................................... 23

A.5.3 Switzerland .................................................................................................... 24

A.6 Latin America ........................................................................................................ 24

A.6.1 Argentina ....................................................................................................... 24

A.6.2 Brazil ............................................................................................................. 24

A.6.3 Colombia ....................................................................................................... 25

A.6.4 Costa Rica ..................................................................................................... 25

A.7 North America ....................................................................................................... 26

A.7.1 Canada .......................................................................................................... 26

A.7.2 United States of America ............................................................................... 26

Annex B (informative) Global regulations not applicable to batteries .................................... 28

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

B.2 WEEE Directive 2012/19/EU ................................................................................. 28

B.3 EuP Directive 2005/32/EC..................................................................................... 28

B.4 ErP 2009/125/EC .................................................................................................. 28

B.5 PVC and Halogens per IEC 61249-2-21 ................................................................ 29

B.6 Directive 2005/84/EC Phthalate Directive .............................................................. 29

B.7 ELV Directive 2012/19/EU..................................................................................... 29

Annex C (informative) Compliance Checklist ........................................................................ 30

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 30

Annex D (informative) Basel Convention .............................................................................. 31

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

D.2 Classification of hazardous wastes ....................................................................... 31

D.3 Hazardousness of primary batteries ...................................................................... 31

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 33

Figure 1 – Crossed-out wheeled bin ...................................................................................... 14

Figure A.1 – Chinese Taiwan (Province of China) collection symbol...................................... 21

Figure A.2 – The symbol of KC mark ..................................................................................... 22

Figure A.3 – Crossed-out wheeled bin .................................................................................. 23

Figure A.4 – The symbols for collection of batteries .............................................................. 25

Figure A.5 – The symbols for collection and recycling of batteries ........................................ 25

Table 1 – Actual condition of hazardous substances in batteries ........................................... 12

Table A.1 – Products subject to Article 4, paragraph 1 .......................................................... 19

Table A.2 – GB 24428-2009 .................................................................................................. 20

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– 4 – IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020

Table A.3 – GB 24427-2009 .................................................................................................. 21

Table A.4 – Target and restriction (Chinese Taiwan Province of China) ................................ 21

Table A.5 – Target and restriction of Mercury (Japan) ........................................................... 22

Table C.1 – Compliance Checklist ........................................................................................ 30

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IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 6: Guidance on environmental aspects
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60086-6 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 35:

Primary cells and batteries.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
35/1436/FDIS 35/1440/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60086 series, published under the general title Primary batteries,

can be found on the IEC website.
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– 6 – IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

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colour printer.
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IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Every product has some effect on the environment during its manufacture, distribution, use,

and disposal. These effects can range from slight to significant; they can be short-term or

long-term; and they can occur at the global, regional, or local level. Provisions in battery

standards can significantly influence the extent of these environmental effects.

Environmental stewardship in the battery industry embraces a multiplicity of activities, from

design, manufacturing, transportation, storage, and recycling, to disposal of the batteries.

There are often questions on the applicability of regulations to batteries. This document

provides guidance on regulations applicable and not applicable to batteries, as well as

procedures for measuring environmental characteristics.
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– 8 – IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 6: Guidance on environmental aspects
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60086 applies to all chemistries of portable primary cells and batteries

standardized in the 60086 series.

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on the proper scientific protocols for

testing the environmental performance of batteries; the symbols used to convey messages for

collection, recycling, or other ideas; and the aspects and functional unit(s) to be included in

assessing the environmental impact of batteries with modern life-cycle analysis techniques.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60086-1:2015, Primary batteries-Part 1: General

ASTM Standard D 93-79 or D 93-80, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens

Closed Cup Tester

ASTM Standard D 3278-78, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point of Liquids by Small Scale

Closed-Cup Apparatus

United States EPA Publication SW–846, Method 1110A ‘‘Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,

Physical/Chemical Methods”

United States EPA Publication SW–846, Method 1311 “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,

Physical/Chemical Methods”

United States EPA Publication SW–846, Method 9040C ‘‘Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,

Physical/Chemical Methods’’
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
cadmium free

battery that contains less than 20 parts per million cadmium per the weight of the entire

battery
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IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
3.2
environmental impact assessment (EIA)

process to determine the magnitude and significance of environmental impacts within the

confines of the goals, scope, and objective defined in the life cycle assessment
3.3
end of life (EOL)
state of a product when it is finally removed from use
3.4
input fraction
mass of collected waste batteries entering the recycling process
3.5
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages, and all directly associated significant inputs and outputs,

of a system from the extraction or exploitation of natural resources to the final disposal of all

materials as irretrievable wastes or dissipated energy
3.6
mercury free

battery that contains less than 5 parts per million mercury per the weight of the entire battery

3.7
"natural" environment

(hereafter referred to as environment) attributes that affect quality of life, such as water, air,

and soil quality; conservation of energy and materials; and avoidance of wastes
3.8
output fraction

mass of materials produced from the input fraction as a result of the recycling process,

without undergoing further treatment, that have ceased to be waste or that will be used for

their original purpose or for other purposes, but excluding energy recovery
3.9
preparation for recycling

treatment of waste batteries prior to any recycling process, which includes but is not limited to

storage, handling, dismantling of battery packs, or separation of fractions that are not part of

the battery itself
3.10
recycling

reprocessing in a production process of waste materials for their original purpose or other

purposes, but excluding energy recovery
3.11
recyclability

property of a substance or a material and parts made thereof that makes it possible to be

recycled
3.12
recycling efficiency

ratio obtained by dividing the mass of output fractions accounting for recycling by the mass of

the waste batteries input fraction expressed as a percentage, to the highest degree that is

technically feasible while avoiding excessive costs
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– 10 – IEC 60086-6:2020 © IEC 2020
3.13
toxicity
degree to which a particular substance is harmful to health
4 General considerations
4.1 Overview

This document takes into account environmental aspects and considerations as follows.

4.2 General

Attempts to address a given environmental effect might have consequences at any or all of

the stages of a battery's life cycle. Nevertheless, a battery's environmental effects should be

considered when standards are developed. Provisions in standards should reflect generally

accepted environmental improvement strategies, including pollution prevention and resource

conservation.
4.3 Intent of this document

Requirements should reflect generally accepted environmental regulations or national laws

and should not reflect environmental improvement strategies of specific countries or regions.

A review of environmental aspects in battery standards should be considered when innovative

technology provides environmental benefits.

Provisions in standards that are too prescriptive might stifle innovation and environmental

improvements. Consideration about such negative effect is necessary for amendment of

standard.
4.4 Battery selection

Whether or not the selection of the electrochemical system is considered to be one of the

steps in the design of a battery, the choice of systems will have an effect on the battery’s

environmental impacts.

Selection of the appropriate electrochemical system for the performance requirements of the

device will have an effect on the battery’s environmental impact. Credible information and

clear guidance will help users to make the right choices when purchasing batteries.

In some applications, the use of rechargeable batteries might offer an environmental

advantage over other types of batteries as they can be recharged and reused. The use of

rechargeable batteries should be considered for those applications, but the decision should

address performance requirements, duty cycle, the presence of toxic or non-renewable

materials in the battery, recharging facilities, and total amount of energy consumed during

recharging over the li
...

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