Insulating liquids - Unused modified or blended esters for electrotechnical applications

IEC 63012:2019 defines requirements for the characterization of unused modified esters or blends of unused esters used as insulating liquids for electrotechnical applications. It does not cover liquids that contain any proportion of used liquids. The liquids covered by this document are intended mainly for transformer applications.
Unused modified/synthetized esters are derived from a natural or synthetic base, or are blends of both. This document covers a variety of ester liquids not covered by other standards specific to natural esters (IEC 62770) or synthetic esters (IEC 61099). As it addresses various categories of liquids, this document also covers a wide range of values for certain performance characteristics. An important property is viscosity, which can affect the design and cooling performance of electrical equipment. A categorization is defined based on the kinematic viscosity of the different liquids. The category of low viscosity ester liquids is established.

Isolants liquides - Esters neufs modifiés ou mélangés pour applications électrotechniques

L'IEC 63012:2019 définit les exigences relatives à la caractérisation des esters neufs modifiés ou des mélanges d'esters neufs, utilisés comme isolants liquides pour des applications électrotechniques. Il ne couvre pas les liquides contenant une proportion quelconque de liquides usagés. Les liquides couverts par le présent document sont principalement destinés aux applications dans des transformateurs. Les esters neufs synthétiques/modifiés sont dérivés d'une base naturelle ou synthétique, ou sont des mélanges des deux. Le présent document couvre une variété de liquides à base d'esters non couverts par d'autres normes spécifiques aux esters naturels (IEC 62770) ou aux esters synthétiques (IEC 61099). Traitant d'une grande variété de liquides, le présent document couvre également une large plage de valeurs pour certaines caractéristiques de performance. La viscosité est une propriété importante qui peut influencer la conception et les performances de refroidissement du matériel électrique. Une classification est définie sur la base de la viscosité cinématique des différents liquides. La catégorie des liquides à base d'esters à faible viscosité est donc établie.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-May-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
09-May-2019
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IEC 63012
Edition 1.0 2019-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Insulating liquids – Unused modified or blended esters for electrotechnical
applications
Isolants liquides – Esters neufs modifiés ou mélangés pour applications
électrotechniques
IEC 63012:2019-05(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63012
Edition 1.0 2019-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Insulating liquids – Unused modified or blended esters for electrotechnical
applications
Isolants liquides – Esters neufs modifiés ou mélangés pour applications
électrotechniques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.040.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-6894-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Classification ................................................................................................................. 10

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.2 Fire performance classification ............................................................................. 10

4.3 Viscosity classification .......................................................................................... 10

5 Properties, significance and test methods ...................................................................... 10

5.1 Physical properties ............................................................................................... 10

5.1.1 Appearance ................................................................................................... 10

5.1.2 Colour ........................................................................................................... 11

5.1.3 Viscosity ........................................................................................................ 11

5.1.4 Lubricity ......................................................................................................... 11

5.1.5 Thermal conductivity ...................................................................................... 11

5.1.6 Thermal expansion coefficient ....................................................................... 11

5.1.7 Specific heat capacity .................................................................................... 11

5.1.8 Pour point ...................................................................................................... 11

5.1.9 Water content ................................................................................................ 12

5.1.10 Water saturation ............................................................................................ 12

5.1.11 Density .......................................................................................................... 12

5.1.12 Interfacial tension .......................................................................................... 12

5.2 Electrical properties .............................................................................................. 12

5.2.1 AC breakdown voltage ................................................................................... 12

5.2.2 Lightning impulse breakdown voltage ............................................................ 12

5.2.3 Partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) ..................................................... 13

5.2.4 Dielectric dissipation factor (DDF) ................................................................. 13

5.2.5 Relative permittivity (dielectric constant) ........................................................ 13

5.2.6 DC resistivity ................................................................................................. 13

5.2.7 Electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) ........................................................... 13

5.3 Chemical properties .............................................................................................. 13

5.3.1 Acidity ........................................................................................................... 13

5.3.2 Additive content ............................................................................................. 13

5.3.3 Corrosive and potentially corrosive sulphur compounds ................................. 13

5.3.4 Methanol content ........................................................................................... 14

5.4 Properties related to long term performance ......................................................... 14

5.4.1 Oxidation stability .......................................................................................... 14

5.4.2 Operating temperature ................................................................................... 14

5.4.3 Material compatibility ..................................................................................... 15

5.4.4 Stray gassing ................................................................................................. 15

5.4.5 Gassing tendency .......................................................................................... 15

5.5 Health, safety and environmental properties ......................................................... 15

5.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.5.2 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) .................................................................. 15

5.5.3 Environmental toxicity .................................................................................... 15

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

5.5.4 Flash point and fire point ............................................................................... 15

5.5.5 Sustainability ................................................................................................. 16

5.5.6 Biodegradation .............................................................................................. 16

5.5.7 Disposal ........................................................................................................ 16

6 Minimum performance requirements .............................................................................. 16

7 Identification and general delivery requirements ............................................................ 16

Annex A (informative) Miscibility and compatibility of liquids and retrofilling of

transformers ......................................................................................................................... 19

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 20

Table 1 – Required performance characteristics of modified or blended esters ..................... 17

Table 2 – Optional performance characteristics of modified or blended esters ...................... 18

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
INSULATING LIQUIDS – UNUSED MODIFIED OR BLENDED ESTERS
FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

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consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

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indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63012 has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee 10: Fluids

for electrotechnical applications.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
10/1078/FDIS 10/1082/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019
INTRODUCTION

Electrical insulation and heat transfer are essential functions of insulating liquids for

electrotechnical applications. Until recently, these liquids have been normally homogeneous,

selected from different categories, such as most common mineral oils or newer synthetic

esters, natural esters or silicone liquids. The continuous research for improvement of

performance characteristics of equipment drives an interest in exploring benefits from

combinations of liquids. Some known examples of desired improved characteristics include

optimized liquid cost, increased cooling performance, improved flash point, extended

insulation life or reduced environmental impacts.

Currently, international standards exist for specifically defined liquid categories (mineral oils,

synthetic esters, natural esters, silicone liquids). None of them cover chemically modified

natural ester liquids or blends of various esters. Moreover, the existing standards do not

cover synthetic esters whose characteristics may go beyond the limits defined in IEC 61099.

Some modified esters or their blends are already available as commercial products by liquid

suppliers. Examples are:

• Palm fatty acid ester with low viscosity of 5 mm /s at 40 °C and with flash point of 176 °C.

• Blend of triglycerides (50 %) and monoesters (50 %) with low viscosity of 17 mm /s at

40 °C and with flash point of 200 °C.

The number of sources for ester liquids or their blends is expected to grow over the coming

years. Such liquids need to be characterized to confirm suitability for the intended application

by the user. Performance characteristics of blends should not be solely assumed from

performance characteristics of their individual components. This document is to provide

minimum requirements on characterization of new compositions.
WARNING

This document sets performance criteria for unused modified/synthetized or blended esters

earmarked for electrical applications. This document does not purport to address all the safety

problems associated with their use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to

establish appropriate health and safety practices and determine the applicability of regulatory

limitation prior to use.

Performance of some of the tests mentioned in this document could lead to a hazardous

situation. Attention is drawn to the relevant standard test method for guidance.

The disposal of liquids, chemicals and sample containers mentioned in this document should

be carried out in accordance with current local and national legislation with regards to the

impact on the environment. Every precaution should be taken to prevent the release of the

liquid into the environment.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
INSULATING LIQUIDS – UNUSED MODIFIED OR BLENDED ESTERS
FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS
1 Scope

This document defines requirements for the characterization of unused modified esters or

blends of unused esters used as insulating liquids for electrotechnical applications. It does not

cover liquids that contain any proportion of used liquids.

The liquids covered by this document are intended mainly for transformer applications.

Unused modified/synthetized esters are derived from a natural or synthetic base, or are

blends of both. This document covers a variety of ester liquids not covered by other standards

specific to natural esters (IEC 62770) or synthetic esters (IEC 61099).

As it addresses various categories of liquids, this document also covers a wide range of

values for certain performance characteristics. An important property is viscosity, which can

affect the design and cooling performance of electrical equipment. A categorization is defined

based on the kinematic viscosity of the different liquids. The category of low viscosity ester

liquids is established.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60156, Insulating liquids – Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency –

Test method

IEC 60247, Insulating liquids – Measurement of relative permittivity, dielectric dissipation

factor (tan δ) and d.c. resistivity

IEC 60666, Detection and determination of specified additives in mineral insulating oils

IEC 60628, Gassing of insulating liquids under electrical stress and ionization

IEC 60814, Insulating liquids – Oil-impregnated paper and pressboard – Determination of

water by automatic coulometric Karl Fischer titration

IEC 60897, Methods for the determination of the lightning impulse breakdown voltage of

insulating liquids

IEC 61099:2010, Insulating liquids – Specifications for unused synthetic organic esters for

electrical purposes

IEC 61125, Insulating liquids – Test methods for oxidation stability – Test method for

evaluating the oxidation stability of insulating liquids in the delivered state

IEC TR 61294, Insulating liquids – Determination of the partial discharge inception voltage

(PDIV) – Test procedure
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019

IEC 61619, Insulating liquids – Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – Method

of determination by capillary column gas chromatography

IEC 61620, Insulating liquids – Determination of the dielectric dissipation factor by

measurement of the conductance and capacitance – Test method

IEC 62021-3, Insulating liquids – Determination of acidity – Part 3: Test methods for non-

mineral insulating oils

IEC 62535, Insulating liquids – Test method for detection of potentially corrosive sulphur in

used and unused insulating oil

IEC 62697-1, Test method for quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds in

unused and used insulating liquids – Part 1: Test method for quantitative determination of

dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS)

IEC 62770, Fluids for electrotechnical applications – Unused natural esters for transformers

and similar electrical equipment

IEC 62961, Insulating liquids – Test methods for the determination of interfacial tension of

insulating liquids – Determination with the ring method
ISO 2049, Petroleum products – Determination of colour (ASTM scale)

ISO 2211, Liquid chemical products – Measurement of colour in Hazen units (platinum-cobalt

scale)

ISO 2592, Petroleum and related products – Determination of flash and fire points –

Cleveland open cup method
ISO 2719, Determination of flash point – Pensky-Martens closed cup method
ISO 3016, Petroleum products – Determination of pour point

ISO 3104, Petroleum products – Transparent and opaque liquids – Determination of kinematic

viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity

ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products – Laboratory determination of

density – Hydrometer method

ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products – Determination of density – Oscillating

U-tube method

EN 14210, Surface active agents – Determination of interfacial tension of solutions of surface

active agents by the stirrup or ring method

ASTM D1275, Standard test method for corrosive sulphur in electrical insulating liquids

ASTM D1903, Standard practice for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion of

electrical insulating liquids of petroleum origin, and askarels

ASTM D3300, Standard test method for dielectric breakdown voltage of insulating oils of

petroleum origin under impulse conditions

ASTM D4172, Standard test method for wear preventive characteristics of lubricating fluid

(four-ball method)
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –

ASTM D7150, Standard test method for the determination of gassing characteristics of

insulating liquids under thermal stress

ASTM D7896, Standard test method for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and

volumetric heat capacity of engine coolants and related fluids by transient hot wire liquid

thermal conductivity method

ASTM E1269, Standard test method for determining specific heat capacity by differential

scanning calorimetry

DIN 51350-1, Testing of lubricants – Testing in the four-ball tester – Part 1: General working

principles

DIN 51350-2, Testing of lubricants – Testing in the four-ball tester – Part 2: Determination of

welding load of liquid lubricants

DIN 51350-3, Testing of lubricants – Testing in the four-ball tester – Part 3: Determination of

wearing characteristics of liquid lubricants

OECD 301-B, OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals – Section 3: Environmental fate

and behaviour – 301 Ready biodegradability – 301 B: CO Evolution test

OECD 301-C, OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals – Section 3: Environmental fate

and behaviour – 301 Ready biodegradability – 301 C: Modified MITI test

OECD 301-F, OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals – Section 3: Environmental fate

and behaviour – 301 Ready biodegradability – 301 F: Manometric respirometry test

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 712-C-98-076, US EPA OPPTS Series 835: Fate,

transport and transformation test guidelines – Group C: Laboratory biological transformation

test guidelines – 835.3110 Ready biodegradability
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/ui
3.1
unused insulating liquid

liquid as delivered by the supplier which has not been used in, or been in contact with

electrical equipment or other equipment not required for its manufacture, storage or transport

3.2
ester insulating liquid
insulating liquid consisting of fatty acid esters

Note 1 to entry: Fatty acid esters are commonly prepared from the reaction of alcohols and carboxylic acids or

found naturally in vegetable oils and fats.
3.3
modified ester insulating liquid

ester insulating liquid which has been made/synthesized or altered by chemical reaction

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63012:2019 © IEC 2019

Note 1 to entry: The chemical reaction could come about by means of organic chemistry processes, or

biochemical processes including enzymatic reactions.

Note 2 to entry: Modified ester insulating liquids can, for example, be composed of triglycerides, polyol esters,

fatty acid monoesters, fatty acid diesters or combinations thereof.
3.4
blended ester insulating liquid

homogeneous combination of unused natural, synthetic and/or modified esters that are

miscible

Note 1 to entry: The natural esters in this definition are those defined in IEC 62770, synthetic esters in this

definition are those defined in IEC 61099.
3.5
additive

chemical substance which is deliberately added to an insulating liquid in small proportion in

order to improve certain characteristics
4 Classification
4.1 General

As it addresses various compositions of insulating liquids, this document also covers a range

of values for certain performance characteristics when these are compared to other

recognized liquids with precisely defined performance characteristics. Therefore, the following

categorizations are established.
4.2 Fire performance classification

The insulating liquids are classified for fire performance according to IEC 61039.

4.3 Viscosity classification

Viscosity influences heat transfer and therefore the temperature rise of the equipment. The

lower the viscosity, the easier the liquid circulates leading to improved heat transfer.

Viscosity of natural esters and some synthetic esters is usually higher than that of mineral oil.

This requires special considerations at the equipment design stage and may affect

performance of equipment at low temperatures, too. Adjustment of modified or blended ester

composition allows for tailoring the viscosity and other properties to fit the equipment design

requirements.

Based on the viscosity, the liquids are classified as in Table 1. The category V1 refers to

esters of low
...

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