Fire hazard testing - Part 11-5: Test flames - Needle-flame test method - Apparatus, confirmatory test arrangement and guidance

IEC 60695-11-5:2016 is also available as IEC 60695-11-5:2016 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60695-11-5:2016 specifies a needle-flame test to simulate the effect of a small flame which may result from fault conditions, in order to assess the fire hazard by a simulation technique. The results of this test may be used as elements of a fire hazard assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use. It is applicable to electrotechnical equipment, its sub-assemblies and components and to solid electrical insulating materials or other combustible materials. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2004. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- The scope has been broadened to allow this test method to also simulate the effects of small flames from outside the equipment;
- Propane and butane gas are the specified fuel source with a minimum purity of 95 %;
- A new concept has been added which allows the burner to be moved during the test to avoid dripping material from falling onto the tip of the burner tube;
- The burner tube material is now a referenced source;
- The reference for the copper block material has changed - the ISO publication (ISO 1337) has been withdrawn with no replacement. A new callout is now used and Informative Annex C and a bibliography have been added. This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 11-5: Flammes d'essai - Méthode d'essai au brûleur-aiguille - Appareillage, dispositif d'essai de vérification et lignes directrices

IEC 60695-11-5:2016 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60695-11-5:2016 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 60695-11-5:2016 spécifie un essai au brûleur-aiguille pour simuler l'effet d'une petite flamme qui peut provenir de conditions de défaut, afin d'évaluer le danger d'incendie par simulation. Les résultats de cet essai peuvent être utilisés comme éléments d'évaluation d'un danger d'incendie qui tient compte de tous les facteurs qui sont pertinents pour une évaluation de danger d'incendie dans une utilisation finale spécifique. Elle est applicable aux matériels électrotechniques, à leurs sous-ensembles et à leurs composants ainsi qu'aux matériaux isolants électriques solides ou à d'autres matériaux combustibles. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2004. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- Le domaine d'application de la présente méthode d'essai a été élargi pour simuler les effets des petites flammes d'origine externe à l'équipement;
- Le gaz propane et le gaz butane sont les sources de combustible spécifiées avec une pureté minimale de 95 %;
- Un nouveau concept a été ajouté qui permet le déplacement du brûleur au cours de l'essai pour éviter que du matériau qui s'écoule tombe sur l'extrémité du tube du brûleur;
- Le matériau du tube du brûleur est maintenant une source référencée;
- La référence pour le matériau du bloc de cuivre a changé - la publication ISO (ISO 1337) a été supprimée sans remplacement et une nouvelle désignation est désormais utilisée. L'Annexe informative C et une bibliographie ont été ajoutées. La présente publication fondamentale de sécurité est destinée à être utilisée par les comités d'études dans le cadre de l'élaboration de normes conformément aux principes établis dans le IEC Guide 104 et le Guide ISO/IEC 51.
Mots clés: danger d'incendie, Flammes d'essai, Méthode d'essai au brûleur-aiguille

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Dec-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
06-Dec-2016
Ref Project

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IEC 60695-11-5
Edition 2.0 2016-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method – Apparatus, confirmatory test
arrangement and guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 11-5: Flammes d'essai – Méthode d'essai au brûleur-aiguille –
Appareillage, dispositif d'essai de vérification et lignes directrices
IEC 60695-11-5:2016-12(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-11-5
Edition 2.0 2016-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method – Apparatus, confirmatory test
arrangement and guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 11-5: Flammes d'essai – Méthode d'essai au brûleur-aiguille –
Appareillage, dispositif d'essai de vérification et lignes directrices
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-3792-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Purpose of the test ........................................................................................................ 10

5 Description of the test apparatus ................................................................................... 10

5.1 Burner................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Gas supply ............................................................................................................ 10

5.3 Flame ................................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Control valve......................................................................................................... 10

5.5 Laboratory fumehood/chamber .............................................................................. 10

5.6 Layer .................................................................................................................... 11

5.6.1 Specified layer ............................................................................................... 11

5.6.2 Standardized layer ......................................................................................... 11

5.7 Timing device ....................................................................................................... 11

6 Test specimen ............................................................................................................... 11

7 Flame application times ................................................................................................. 11

8 Conditioning and test conditions .................................................................................... 12

8.1 Conditioning .......................................................................................................... 12

8.2 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 12

9 Test procedure .............................................................................................................. 12

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

9.2 Position of test specimen ...................................................................................... 12

9.3 Application of needle-flame ................................................................................... 12

9.4 Number of test specimens ..................................................................................... 13

10 Observations and measurements ................................................................................... 13

11 Evaluation of test results ............................................................................................... 13

12 Information to be given in the relevant specification ....................................................... 13

13 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 14

Annex A (normative) Confirmatory test arrangement ............................................................ 16

A.1 Confirmation of the test flame – Principle .............................................................. 16

A.2 Test apparatus ...................................................................................................... 16

A.2.1 Burner ........................................................................................................... 16

A.2.2 Control valve ................................................................................................. 16

A.2.3 Copper block ................................................................................................. 16

A.2.4 Thermocouple ................................................................................................ 16

A.2.5 Temperature/time indicating/recording devices .............................................. 16

A.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 16

Annex B (informative) Example of a product committee specification ................................... 21

Annex C (informative) Comparison of results of confirmatory tests using propane and

butane as fuel ....................................................................................................................... 22

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 23

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Burner and flame ................................................................................................. 14

Figure 2 – Test positions....................................................................................................... 15

Figure A.1 – Copper block .................................................................................................... 18

Figure A.2 – Confirmatory test arrangement .......................................................................... 19

Figure A.3 – Gauge to measure flame height and the distance between burner and

copper block (example) ......................................................................................................... 20

Table B.1 – Severities and requirements ............................................................................... 21

Table C.1 – Results of the confirmatory test using propane and butane as fuel ..................... 22

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method –
Apparatus, confirmatory test arrangement and guidance
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

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5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-11-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89:

Fire hazard testing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2004. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) The scope has been broadened to allow this test method to also simulate the effects of

small flames from outside the equipment;

b) Propane and butane gas are the specified fuel source with a minimum purity of 95 %;

c) A new concept has been added which allows the burner to be moved during the test to

avoid dripping material from falling onto the tip of the burner tube;
d) The burner tube material is now a referenced source;
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –

e) The reference for the copper block material has changed – the ISO publication (ISO 1337)

has been withdrawn with no replacement. A new callout is now used;
f) Informative Annex C and a bibliography have been added.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1346/FDIS 89/1351/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can

be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016
INTRODUCTION

The best method for testing electrotechnical products with regard to fire hazard is to duplicate

exactly the conditions occurring in practice. In most instances this is not possible.

Accordingly, for practical reasons, the testing of electrotechnical products with regard to fire

hazard is best conducted by simulating as closely as possible the actual effects occurring in

practice.

Parts of electrotechnical equipment might be exposed to excessive thermal stress due to

electric effects. This can result in deterioration that might impair the safety of the equipment.

Such parts should not be unduly affected by heat or by fire generated within the equipment.

Parts of insulating material or of other combustible material which are liable to propagate

flames inside the equipment may be ignited by flames produced by a failing component.

Under certain conditions, for example a fault current flowing over a tracking path, overloading

of components or parts and bad connections, flames may also occur; such flames may

impinge upon combustible parts in the vicinity.

This part of IEC 60695 is intended to be used to measure and describe the properties of

materials, products or assemblies in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory

conditions and is not intended to be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of

materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. This standard may involve

hazardous materials, operations and equipment.

It does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use.

It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health

practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method –
Apparatus, confirmatory test arrangement and guidance
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695 specifies a needle-flame test to simulate the effect of a small flame

which may result from fault conditions, in order to assess the fire hazard by a simulation

technique. The results of this test may be used as elements of a fire hazard assessment

which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire

hazard of a particular end use.

It is applicable to electrotechnical equipment, its sub-assemblies and components and to solid

electrical insulating materials or other combustible materials.

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of

standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and
ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods

or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to

or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
ISO 291, Plastics – Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 4046-4:2016, Paper, board, pulps and related terms – Vocabulary – Part 4: Paper and

board grades and converted products
ISO 13943:2008, Fire safety – Vocabulary

ASTM-B187, Standard specification for copper, bus bar, rod, and shapes and general purpose

rod, bar, and shapes
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943:2008,

IEC 60695-4:2012 and ISO 4046:2002, as well as the following, apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
combustible, adj.
capable of being ignited and burned
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.43]
3.2
draught-free environment

space in which the results of experiments are not significantly affected by the local air speed

Note 1 to entry: A qualitative example is a space in which a wax candle flame remains essentially undisturbed.

-1 -1

Quantitative examples are small-scale fire tests in which a maximum air speed of 0,1 m × s or 0,2 m × s is

sometimes specified.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.70]
3.3
fire

〈general〉 process of combustion characterized by the emission of heat and fire effluent and

usually accompanied by smoke, flame, glowing or a combination thereof

Note 1 to entry: In the English language the term “fire” is used to designate three concepts, two of which, fire

(3.4) and fire (3.5), relate to specific types of self-supporting combustion with different meanings and two of them

are designated using two different terms in both French and German.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.96]
3.4
fire

〈controlled〉 self-supporting combustion that has been deliberately arranged to provide useful

effects and is limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.97]
3.5
fire

〈uncontrolled〉 self-supporting combustion that has not been deliberately arranged to provide

useful effects and is not limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.98]
3.6
fire hazard

physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable consequence from fire (3.1)

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.112]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 –
3.7
fire risk

probability of a fire (3.3) combined with a quantified measure of its consequence

Note 1 to entry: It is often calculated as the product of probability and consequence.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.124]
3.8
flame, noun

rapid, self-sustaining, sub-sonic propagation of combustion in a gaseous medium, usually with

emission of light
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.133]
3.9
glowing, noun
luminosity caused by heat
cf. incandescence
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.168]
3.10
glowing combustion

combustion of a material in the solid phase without flame but with emission of light from the

combustion zone
cf. incandescence
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.169]
3.11
ignition
sustained ignition (deprecated)
〈general〉 initiation of combustion
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.187]
3.12
ignition
sustained ignition (deprecated)
〈flaming combustion〉 initiation of sustained flame
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.188]
3.13
wrapping tissue

soft and strong, lightweight wrapping paper of grammage generally between 12 g/m and

30 g/m , primarily intended for protective packaging of delicate articles and for gift wrapping

Note 1 to entry: In French, the word “mousseline” includes both white tissue and “bulle corde”, which is

unbleached or coloured tissue.
[SOURCE: ISO 4046-4:2016, 4.215]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016
4 Purpose of the test

The test is performed to determine that, under defined conditions, the test flame either does

not cause ignition of parts or if it does, combustible parts ignited by the test flame have a

limited duration of burning or a limited extent of burning, without spreading fire by flames or

burning or glowing particles falling from the test specimen.

The test flame, applied to the test specimen, imitates a flame that might arise from a

component that is close to the test specimen in the real application.Such a flame might have

occurred, for example, because of an electrical fault.

The relevant product specification shall specify, if applicable, the duration of the test flame

application and the acceptance criteria.
5 Description of the test apparatus
5.1 Burner

The burner to produce the test flame shall consist of a tube at least 35 mm long with a bore of

0,5 mm ± 0,1 mm and an outer diameter not exceeding 0,9 mm.

NOTE The tubing specified in ISO 9626:2016 [1] (0,8 mm normal walled or thin walled) meets these

requirements.
5.2 Gas supply

The burner is supplied with either propane or butane gas having a purity not less than 95 %.

5.3 Flame

With the axis of the burner in the vertical position, ignite the gas supply and adjust the gas

flow rate to ensure that the overall height of the flame is 12 mm ± 1 mm, when viewed in

subdued light against a dark background (see Figure 1), and that the flame is symmetrical.

Wait for a period of at least 5 min to allow the burner conditions to reach equilibrium. There

shall be no air admitted to the burner tube.

The flame shall be confirmed using the apparatus and procedure detailed in Annex A.

5.4 Control valve

A control valve is required to set the gas flow rate to ensure that the overall height of the

flame is within the required tolerances.
5.5 Laboratory fumehood/chamber
. The
The laboratory fumehood/chamber shall have an inside volume of at least 0,5 m

chamber shall provide a draught-free environment, whilst allowing normal thermal circulation

of air past the test specimen. The chamber shall permit observation of the test in progress.

The inside surfaces of the walls shall be of a dark colour. In case of dispute, the recorded

light level shall be less than 20 lx using a light meter, facing towards the rear of the chamber

and positioned in place of the test specimen.

For safety and convenience, it is desirable that this fumehood/chamber (which can be

completely closed) be fitted with an extraction device, such as an exhaust fan, to remove

products of combustion, which may be toxic. The extraction device, if used, shall be turned off

___________
1 Numbers in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60695-11-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 11 –

during the test and turned on immediately after the timing measurements have been made. A

positive closing damper may be needed.

NOTE Placing a mirror in the chamber, to provide a rear view of the test specimen, has been found to be useful.

5.6 Layer
5.6.1 Specified
...

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