Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-5: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Antenna calibration sites and reference test sites for 5 MHz to 18 GHz

CISPR 16-1-5:2014 specifies the requirements for calibration sites in the frequency range 5 MHz to 18 GHz used to perform antenna calibrations according to CISPR 16-1-6. It also specifies the requirements for reference test sites that are used for the validation of compliance test sites in the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz according to CISPR 16-1-4. It has the status of a basic EMC standard in accordance with IEC Guide 107. Measurement instrumentation specifications are given in CISPR 16-1-1 and CISPR 16-1-4. Further information and background on uncertainties in general is given in CISPR 16-4, which can also be helpful in establishing uncertainty estimates for the calibration processes of antennas and site validation measurements. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2003, and its Amendment 1 (2012). It constitutes a technical revision which includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- site validation methods for other sites covered in CISPR 16-1-6 are added;
- smaller step sizes are specified for swept frequency measurements;
- the minimum ground plane size is increased;
- and other miscellaneous technical and editorial refinements are included. Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility
The contents of the corrigendum 1 of August 2020 have been included in this copy.

Spécification des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Partie 1-5: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Emplacements d'étalonnage d'antenne et emplacements d'essai de référence pour la plage comprise entre 5 MHz et 18 GHz

La CISPR 16-1-5:2014 spécifie les exigences relatives aux emplacements d'étalonnage dans la gamme de fréquences comprise entre 5 MHz et 18 GHz utilisée pour étalonner l'antenne conformément à la CISPR 16-1-6. Elle spécifie également les exigences relatives aux emplacements d'essai de référence utilisés pour valider les emplacements d'essais de conformité dans la gamme de fréquences comprises entre 30 MHz et 1 000 MHz conformément à la CISPR 16-1-4. Elle a le statut de Norme fondamentale en CEM en accord avec le Guide 107 de l'IEC. Les spécifications de l'instrumentation de mesure sont données dans la CISPR 16-1-1 et la CISPR 16-1-4. Des informations supplémentaires et générales sur les incertitudes sont données dans la CISPR 16-4, qui peut également être utile pour établir les estimations de l'incertitude pour les processus d'étalonnage des antennes et les mesures de validation d'emplacement. Cette seconde édition annule et remplace la première édition publiée en 2003 et son Amendement 1 (2012). Elle constitue une révision technique qui inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- des méthodes de validation d'autres emplacements couverts dans le CISPR 16-1-6 sont ajoutées;
- des tailles de pas plus petites sont spécifiées pour les mesures par balayage de fréquence;
- la dimension minimale du plan de sol a été augmentée;
- et d'autres améliorations techniques et éditoriales diverses sont incluses. Mot clé: compatibilité électromagnétique
Le contenu du corrigendum 1 d'août 2020 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

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Publication Date
16-Dec-2014
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
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Completion Date
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CISPR 16-1-5
Edition 2.0 2014-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM

Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods –

Part 1-5: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Antenna calibration

sites and reference test sites for 5 MHz to 18 GHz
Spécification des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –

Partie 1-5: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux

perturbations radioélectriques – Emplacements d'étalonnage d'antenne et
emplacements d'essai de référence pour la plage comprise entre 5 MHz et 18 GHz
CISPR 16-1-5:2014-12(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
CISPR 16-1-5
Edition 2.0 2014-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM

Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods –

Part 1-5: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Antenna calibration

sites and reference test sites for 5 MHz to 18 GHz
Spécification des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –

Partie 1-5: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux

perturbations radioélectriques – Emplacements d'étalonnage d'antenne et
emplacements d'essai de référence pour la plage comprise entre 5 MHz et 18 GHz
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX XD
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1932-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – CISPR 16-1-5:2014  IEC 2014
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ............................................................................. 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 10

3.1.1 Antenna terms ............................................................................................... 11

3.1.2 Measurement site terms ................................................................................ 13

3.1.3 Other terms ................................................................................................... 14

3.2 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ 15

4 Specifications and validation procedures for CALTS and REFTS from 5 MHz to

1 000 MHz ..................................................................................................................... 16

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

4.2 Antenna calibration test site (CALTS) specification ............................................... 16

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

4.2.2 Normative specification .................................................................................. 17

4.3 Test antenna specification .................................................................................... 17

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

4.3.2 Details of the required characteristics of the test antenna .............................. 18

4.4 Antenna calibration test site validation procedure ................................................. 20

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

4.4.2 Test set-up .................................................................................................... 20

4.4.3 Test frequencies and receive antenna heights ............................................... 22

4.4.4 SIL measurements ......................................................................................... 22

4.4.5 Swept frequency SIL measurements .............................................................. 25

4.4.6 Identifying and reducing reflections from antenna supports ............................ 28

4.5 Antenna calibration test site acceptance criteria ................................................... 28

4.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

4.5.2 Measurement uncertainties ............................................................................ 28

4.5.3 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 29

4.6 Calibration site with a metal ground plane for biconical antennas and tuned

dipole antennas over the frequency range 30 MHz to 300 MHz ............................. 30

4.7 Validation of a REFTS .......................................................................................... 31

4.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

4.7.2 Validation for horizontal polarization .............................................................. 31

4.7.3 Validation for vertical polarization .................................................................. 31

4.8 Validation report for CALTS and REFTS ............................................................... 33

4.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

4.8.2 Validation report requirements ....................................................................... 33

4.9 Site validation for the calibration of biconical and dipole antennas, and the

biconical part of hybrid antennas in vertical polarization ........................................ 34

4.10 Validation of a CALTS using vertical polarization from 5 MHz to 30 MHz for

the calibration of monopole antennas .................................................................... 35

4.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

4.10.2 Uncertainty evaluation ................................................................................... 36

5 Validation methods for a FAR from 30 MHz to 18 GHz ................................................... 36

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
CISPR 16-1-5:2014  IEC 2014 – 3 –

5.2 Validation procedure 1 GHz to 18 GHz .................................................................. 37

5.2.1 Power transfer between two antennas ........................................................... 37

5.2.2 Measurement procedure for validation from 1 GHz to 18 GHz ........................ 37

5.2.3 Analysis of results ......................................................................................... 39

5.2.4 Acceptance criterion ...................................................................................... 40

5.2.5 Chamber performance versus polarization ..................................................... 41

5.2.6 Uncertainty .................................................................................................... 41

5.3 Validation of a FAR for the calibration of antennas by alternative methods............ 42

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 42

5.3.2 Validation of a FAR from 30 MHz to 1 GHz .................................................... 42

5.3.3 Alternative validation of a FAR for the calibration of LPDA antennas

above 1 GHz.................................................................................................. 42

5.3.4 Alternative validation of a FAR applying time-domain measurements

above 500 MHz.............................................................................................. 43

6 Validation methods for sites used for the calibration of directive antennas ..................... 43

6.1 Validation of the calibration site minimizing ground reflection by a height

≥ 4 m .................................................................................................................... 43

6.1.1 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 43

6.1.2 Uncertainties ................................................................................................. 45

6.2 Validation of the calibration site minimizing ground reflection by use of

absorber ............................................................................................................... 46

7 Site validation by comparison of antenna factors, and application of RSM to

evaluate the uncertainty contribution of a SAC site ........................................................ 47

7.1 Use of SAM for site validation by comparison of antenna factors .......................... 47

7.2 Application of RSM to evaluate the measurement uncertainty contribution of

a calibration site comprising a SAC ....................................................................... 48

Annex A (informative) CALTS characteristics and validation ................................................ 50

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 50

A.2 The reflecting plane .............................................................................................. 50

A.2.1 Reflecting plane construction ......................................................................... 50

A.2.2 Plane-edge effects and plane surroundings ................................................... 51

A.3 Ancillary equipment .............................................................................................. 51

A.4 Additional stringent CALTS validation testing ........................................................ 52

A.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 52

A.4.2 Antenna-height scan measurements .............................................................. 52

A.4.3 Frequency scan measurements ..................................................................... 53

Annex B (informative) Test antenna considerations............................................................. 56

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 56

B.2 Example and verification of a test antenna ............................................................ 56

B.3 Determination of balun properties ......................................................................... 58

B.3.1 The ideal lossless balun ................................................................................ 58

B.3.2 Relations between balun properties and S-parameters ................................... 59

B.3.3 Insertion loss measurements ......................................................................... 60

Annex C (informative) Antenna and SIL theory .................................................................... 63

C.1 Analytical relations ................................................................................................ 63

C.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 63

C.1.2 Total length of the test antenna ..................................................................... 64

C.1.3 Theoretical SIL .............................................................................................. 65

C.1.4 Calculation example ...................................................................................... 69

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – CISPR 16-1-5:2014  IEC 2014

C.2 Computations by the MoM..................................................................................... 72

C.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 72

C.2.2 Antenna input impedance .............................................................................. 73

C.2.3 Total length of the test antenna ..................................................................... 73

C.2.4 SIL computations ........................................................................................... 73

C.2.5 Antenna factor (AF) computations .................................................................. 80

Annex D (informative) Pascal Program used in C.1.4 ........................................................... 84

Annex E (informative) Validation procedure checklist ........................................................... 88

Annex F (informative) Evidence that field taper of VP site validation method has

negligible effect on measured antenna factor ........................................................................ 90

F.1 Investigation of vertical field taper ......................................................................... 90

F.2 Calibration of biconical antennas using vertical polarization .................................. 90

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 92

Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of the test antenna ................................................................ 18

Figure 2 – Adjustment of a telescopic wire element to the length L ................................... 19

Figure 3 – Determination of V (f) or V (f) ........................................................................... 23

r1 r2

Figure 4 – Determination of V (f) with the wire antennas in their specified positions ............. 23

Figure 5 – Example NSIL: horizontal polarization, antenna height 2 m, separation

10 m ..................................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 6 – NSIL of the four pairs of calculable dipoles at 10 m separation and using

the alternative heights for the 600 MHz to 1 000 MHz pair according to Table 5 .................... 27

Figure 7 – Relation between the quantities used in the SIL acceptance criterion ................... 29

Figure 8 – Set-up of site validation for EMC antenna calibrations above 1 GHz in a

FAR, also showing distance between antenna phase centres ................................................ 38

Figure 9 – Example plots of [A (d) − A (d )] in dB against distance in m at 1 GHz

i m i m 3 m

to 18 GHz in 1 GHz steps, corrected for LPDA and horn phase centres ................................ 40

Figure 10 – Example of antenna set-up for an LPDA antenna calibration in the

frequency range above 200 MHz ........................................................................................... 44

Figure 11 – Example of SIL versus antenna height measured at 200 MHz with two
LPDA antennas in vertical polarization at 2,5 m distance between their midpoints

above the reflecting ground plane of an OATS ...................................................................... 45

Figure 12 – Illustration of distances of transmit horn to omni-directional receive

antenna and reflective building, and transmitted signal paths A and B .................................. 45

Figure B.1 – Example of a test antenna ................................................................................ 58

Figure B.2 – Diagram of the measurement of S and S , and of S and S , when
11 12 22 21

generator and load are interchanged .................................................................................... 59

Figure B.3 – Schematic diagram for determination of the insertion loss A (f) ........................ 61

Figure B.4 – Schematic diagram for determination of the insertion loss A (f) ........................ 61

Figure C.1 – Network model for A calculations .................................................................. 66

i c

Figure C.2 – Equivalent circuit to the network in Figure C.1 .................................................. 66

Figure C.3 – Definition of the mutual couplings, feed-terminal voltages and antenna

currents of the antennas above the reflecting plane and their images ................................... 67

Figure C.4 – Cascade combination of the baluns and the site two-port network .................... 74

Figure C.5 – Flow chart showing how SIL is obtained by combining the measured balun

S-parameters and the NEC calculated S-parameters of the site two-port network .................. 75

Figure F.1 – Field uniformity with height step 1 m to 2,6 m, normalized to field at 1,8 m

height; monocone at 15 m range ........................................................................................... 90

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
CISPR 16-1-5:2014  IEC 2014 – 5 –

Figure F.2 – Averaging of height steps, SAM, B.4.2 in CISPR 16-1-6:2014 ........................... 91

Table 1 – Summary of site validation methods by subclause number ...................................... 9

Table 2 – Maximum tolerances for d = 10 m .......................................................................... 18

Table 3 – Frequency and fixed receive antenna height data for SIL measurements at

24 frequencies, with h = 2 m and d = 10 m [specified in 4.4.2.3 and 4.4.2.4] ........................ 22

Table 4 – RSM frequency steps ............................................................................................ 25

Table 5 (informative) – Antenna heights for SIL measurements ............................................. 26

Table 6 – Antenna set-up for the SIL measurement of the calibration site using

horizontally polarized resonant dipole antennas (see also 4.4.4 for SIL at 250 MHz and

300 MHz) .............................................................................................................................. 31

Table 7 – Antenna heights .................................................................................................... 32

Table 8 – Example measurement uncertainty budget for SIL between two monopole

antennas ............................................................................................................................... 36

Table 9 – Example measurement uncertainty budget for FAR validation method at and

above 1 GHz ......................................................................................................................... 41

Table 10 – Example measurement uncertainty budget for the site validation method in

6.1.1 ..................................................................................................................................... 46

Table 11 – Maximum tolerances for validation set-up at d = 10 m ......................................... 49

Table A.1 – Example of fixed-length calculable dipole antennas and their subdivision of

the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz ........................................................................... 51

Table A.2 – Receive antenna heights and centre frequencies ............................................... 54

Table C.1 – Example numerical (analytical) calculation of L , A (see C.1.4.2) ................... 69

a i c

Table C.2 – Example numerical (analytical) calculation of ∆A (see C.1.4.3) ......................... 71

Table C.3 – Example numerical (analytical) calculation of h and ∆h ................................. 72

rc rt

Table C.4 – Example numerical (analytical) calculation of f and ∆f ..................................... 72

c t

Table C.5 – MoM example calculation of A for vertical polarization, h = 2 m, except

i c t

h = 2,75 m at 30 MHz, 35 MHz and 40 MHz ......................................................................... 78

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – CISPR 16-1-5:2014  IEC 2014
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
____________
SPECIFICATION FOR RADIO DISTURBANCE AND IMMUNITY
MEASURING APPARATUS AND METHODS –
Part 1-5: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus –
Antenna calibration sites and reference test sites for 5 MHz to 18 GHz
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