Fire hazard testing - Part 1-20: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products - Ignitability - General guidance

IEC 60695-1-20:2016 provides guidance on the ignitability of electrotechnical products and the materials from which they are formed. It gives guidance on the principles of ignitability; the selection of appropriate test methods and the use and interpretation of results. This first edition of IEC 60695-1-20 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC TS 60695-1-20 published in 2008. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- ISO 5660-1 has been added to the normative references;
- definitions of pyrolysis and short-circuit have been added to Clause 3;
- some text from the introduction has been moved to Clause 5 and is now part of the normative text and Clause 5 now contains several mandatory statements. This part of IEC 60695 is intended for use by technical committees in preparation of standards in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51. Key words: Fire Hazard, Fire Test Method, Fire Safety Engineering, Ignitability.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 1-20: Lignes directrices pour l'évaluation des risques du feu des produits électrotechniques - Allumabilité - Lignes directrices générales

L'IEC 60695-1-20:2016 donne des lignes directrices concernant l'allumabilité des produits électrotechniques et des matériaux dont ils sont constitués. Elle fournit des lignes directrices sur: les principes de l'allumabilité; le choix des méthodes d'essai appropriées, et l'utilisation et l'interprétation des résultats. Cette première édition de l'IEC 60695-1-20 annule et remplace la première édition de l'IEC TS 60695-1-20 parue en 2008. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- l'ISO 5660-1 a été ajoutée aux références normatives;
- les définitions de "pyrolyse" et de "court-circuit" ont été ajoutées à l'Article 3;
- des parties de l'introduction ont été déplacées vers l'Article 5 et font maintenant partie du texte normatif;
- et l'Article 5 comprend maintenant plusieurs énoncés obligatoires. La présente partie de l'IEC 60695 est destinée à être utilisée par les comités d'études pour l'établissement de leurs normes conformément au IEC Guide 104 et dans le Guide ISO/IEC 51. Mots clés: Risque du feu, Méthode d'essai du feu, Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie, Allumabilité

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Jan-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
27-Jan-2016
Completion Date
27-Jan-2016
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IEC 60695-1-20
Edition 1.0 2016-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 1-20: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products –
Ignitability – General guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –

Partie 1-20: Lignes directrices pour l'évaluation des risques du feu des produits

électrotechniques – Allumabilité – Lignes directrices générales
IEC 60695-1-20:2016-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-20
Edition 1.0 2016-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 1-20: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products –
Ignitability – General guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –

Partie 1-20: Lignes directrices pour l'évaluation des risques du feu des produits

électrotechniques – Allumabilité – Lignes directrices générales
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40, 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-3146-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 6

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 7

4 Principles of ignitability ................................................................................................ 12

4.1 Gases ................................................................................................................. 12

4.1.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 12

4.1.2 Flammability limits ....................................................................................... 12

4.1.3 Arc fires ....................................................................................................... 12

4.2 Liquids ................................................................................................................ 13

4.2.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 13

4.2.2 Ignition parameters ...................................................................................... 13

4.2.3 Insulating liquids .......................................................................................... 13

4.3 Solids ................................................................................................................. 13

4.3.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 13

4.3.2 Parameters affecting ignition ........................................................................ 14

4.3.3 Metals ......................................................................................................... 14

4.3.4 Carbon (graphite) and carbonaceous char .................................................... 15

4.3.5 Reactive substances .................................................................................... 15

4.3.6 Dust clouds .................................................................................................. 15

5 Consideration for the selection of test methods ............................................................ 15

5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 15

5.2 Fire scenario ....................................................................................................... 16

5.3 Ignition sources ................................................................................................... 16

5.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 16

5.3.2 Internal ignition sources ............................................................................... 16

5.3.3 External ignition sources .............................................................................. 17

5.3.4 Arc ignition of materials ................................................................................ 18

5.4 Types of test specimen........................................................................................ 19

5.5 Test procedure and apparatus ............................................................................. 20

6 Use and interpretation of results .................................................................................. 20

Annex A (informative) Examples of accidents due to arc fires in underground

hydroelectric power plants or urban substations .................................................................. 21

A.1 General ............................................................................................................... 21

A.2 Examples which are generally available (non-exhaustive list) ............................... 21

A.2.1 Underground hydroelectric power plants ....................................................... 21

A.2.2 Urban substations (non-exhaustive list) ........................................................ 21

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 1-20: Guidance for assessing the
fire hazard of electrotechnical products –
Ignitability – General guidance
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-1-20 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89:

Fire hazard testing.

This first edition of IEC 60695-1-20 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC TS 60695-1-

20 published in 2008. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) ISO 5660-1 has been added to the normative references;
b) definitions of “pyrolysis” and “short-circuit” have been added to Clause 3;

c) some text from the introduction has been moved to Clause 5 and is now part of the

normative text;
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016
d) Clause 5 now contains several mandatory statements.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1296/FDIS 89/1302/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51.
In this standard, the terms defined in Clause 3 are printed in bold type.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60695 series, published under the general title Fire hazard testing,

can be found on the IEC website.

The IEC 60695-1 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, consists of the following

parts:

Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – General

guidelines

Part 1-11: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Fire hazard

assessment

Part 1-12: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Fire safety

engineering

Part 1-20: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Ignitability

– General guidance

Part 1-21: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Ignitability

– Summary and relevance of test methods
Part 1-30: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products –
Preselection testing procedures – General guidelines

Part 1-40: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Insulating

liquids

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Fires are responsible for creating hazards to life and property as a result of the generation of

heat (thermal hazard), and also as a result of the production of toxic effluent, corrosive

effluent and smoke (non-thermal hazard). Fires start with ignition and then can grow, leading

in some cases to flash-over and a fully developed fire. Ignition resistance is therefore one of

the most important parameters of a material to be considered in the assessment of fire

hazard. If there is no ignition, there is no fire.

For most materials (other than metals and some other elements), ignition occurs in the gas

phase. Ignition occurs when combustible vapour, mixed with air, reaches a high enough

temperature for exothermic oxidation reactions to rapidly propagate. The ease of ignition is a

function of the chemical nature of the vapour, the fuel/air ratio and the temperature.

In the case of liquids, the combustible vapour is produced by vaporization of the liquid, and

the vaporization process is dependent on the temperature and chemical composition of the

liquid.

In the case of solids, the combustible vapour is produced by pyrolysis when the temperature

of the solid is sufficiently high. The vaporization process is dependent on the temperature and

chemical composition of the solid, and also on the thickness, density, specific heat, and

thermal conductivity of the solid.

The ease of ignition of a test specimen depends on many variables. Factors to be considered

for the assessment of ignitability are:

a) the geometry of the test specimen, including thickness and the presence of edges,

corners or joints;
b) the surface orientation;
c) the rate and direction of air flow;
d) the nature and position of the ignition source;
e) the magnitude and position of any external heat flux; and
f) whether the combustible material is a solid or a liquid.

The primary aims are to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energized component part,

and in the event of ignition, to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of

the electrotechnical product.

Secondary aims include the minimization of any flame spread beyond the product’s enclosure

and the minimization of harmful effects of fire effluents including heat, smoke, and toxic or

corrosive combustion products.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can also be initiated from external non-electrical

sources. Considerations of this nature are dealt with in an overall fire hazard assessment.

This international standard gives an overview of ignitability and its relevance to the fire hazard

of electrotechnical products.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 1-20: Guidance for assessing the
fire hazard of electrotechnical products –
Ignitability – General guidance
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695 provides guidance on the ignitability of electrotechnical products and

the materials from which they are formed. It gives guidance on:
a) the principles of ignitability;
b) the selection of appropriate test methods, and
c) the use and interpretation of results.

This part of IEC 60695 is intended for use by technical committees in preparation of standards

in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods

or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to

or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-1-10, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – General guidelines

IEC 60695-1-11, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-11: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – Fire hazard assessment

IEC 60695-1-12, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-12: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – Fire safety engineering

IEC TR 60695-1-21, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-21: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – Ignitability – Summary and relevance of test methods

IEC 60695-2-11, Fire hazard testing – Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –

Glow-wire flammability test method for end-products (GWEPT)

IEC 60695-2-12, Fire hazard testing – Part 2-12: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –

Glow-wire flammability index (GWFI) test method for materials

IEC 60695-2-13, Fire hazard testing – Part 2-13: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –

Glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT) test method for materials
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products

IEC 60695-11-5, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-5: Test flames – Needle-flame test method –

Apparatus, confirmatory test arrangement and guidance

IEC 60695-11-10, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-10: Test flames – 50 W horizontal and vertical

flame test methods

IEC TS 60695-11-11, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-11: Test flames – Determination of the

characteristic heat flux for ignition from a non-contacting flame source

IEC 60695-11-20, Fire hazard testing – Part 11-20: Test flames – 500 W flame test methods

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
ISO 13943, Fire safety – Vocabulary

ISO 871:2006, Plastics – Determination of ignition temperature using a hot-air furnace

ISO 2592, Determination of flash and fire points – Cleveland open cup method
ISO 2719, Determination of flash point – Pensky-Martens closed cup method

ISO 5657, Reaction to fire tests – Ignitability of building products using a radiant heat source

ISO 5660-1, Reaction to fire tests – Heat release smoke production and mass loss rate –

Part 1: Heat release rate (cone calorimeter method)
ISO 10840, Plastics – Guidance for the use of standard fire tests
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943:2008 and

IEC 60695-4:2012 (some of which are reproduced below), as well as the following, apply.

3.1
auto-ignition
spontaneous ignition
self-ignition CA, US
unpiloted ignition CA, US
DEPRECATED: spontaneous combustion

ignition (3.20) resulting from a rise in temperature without a separate ignition source (3.22)

Note 1 to entry: The ignition can be caused either by self-heating or by heating from an external source.

Note 2 to entry: In North America, “spontaneous ignition” is the preferred term used to designate ignition caused

by self-heating.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.18]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016
3.2
auto-ignition temperature
spontaneous ignition temperature
minimum temperature at which auto-ignition (3.1) is obtained in a fire test
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are degrees Celsius (°C).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.19]
3.3
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizing agent

Note 1 to entry: Combustion generally emits fire effluent accompanied by flames (3.11) and/or glowing.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.46]
3.4
fire 〈general〉

process of combustion (3.3) characterized by the emission of heat and fire effluent and

usually accompanied by smoke, flame (3.11), glowing or a combination thereof

Note 1 to entry: In the English language the term “fire” is used to designate three concepts, two of which, fire

(3.5) and fire (3.6), relate to specific types of self-supporting combustion with different meanings and two of them

are designated using two different terms in both French and German.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.96]
3.5
fire 〈controlled〉

self-supporting combustion (3.3) that has been deliberately arranged to provide useful

effects and is limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.97]
3.6
fire 〈uncontrolled〉

self-supporting combustion (3.3) that has not been deliberately arranged to provide useful

effects and is not limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.98]
3.7
fire hazard

physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable consequence from fire (3.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.112]
3.8
fire point

minimum temperature at which a material ignites and continues to burn for a specified time

after a standardized small flame (3.11) has been applied to its surface under specified

conditions

Note 1 to entry: In some countries the term "fire point" has an additional meaning: a location where fire-fighting

equipment is sited, which may also comprise a fire-alarm call point and fire instruction notices.

Note 2 to entry: The typical units are degrees Celsius (°C).
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 –
Note 3 to entry: See flash point (3.16)
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.119]
3.9
fire retardant, noun

substance added, or a treatment applied, to a material in order to delay ignition (3.20) or to

reduce the rate of combustion (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: The use of (a) fire retardant(s) does not necessarily suppress fire (3.4) or terminate combustion

(3.3).
Note 2 to entry: See flame retardant (3.12)
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.123]
3.10
fire scenario

qualitative description of the course of a fire (3.6) with respect to time, identifying key events

that characterise the studied fire and differentiate it from other possible fires

Note 1 to entry: It typically defines the ignition (3.20) and fire growth processes, the fully developed fire (3.17)

stage, the fire decay stage, and the environment and systems that impact on the course of the fire.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.129]
3.11
flame, noun

zone in which there is rapid, self-sustaining, sub-sonic propagation of combustion (3.3) in a

gaseous medium, usually with emission of light

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.133 – modified – The words "zone in which there is" have been

added at the beginning of the definition.]
3.12
flame retardant, noun

substance added, or a treatment applied, to a material in order to suppress or delay the

appearance of a flame (3.11) and/or reduce the flame-spread rate

Note 1 to entry: The use of (a) flame retardant(s) does not necessarily suppress fire (3.6) or terminate

combustion (3.3).
Note 2 to entry: See fire retardant (3.9).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.139]
3.13
flaming combustion
combustion (3.3) in the gaseous phase, usually with emission of light
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.148]
3.14
flash-ignition temperature
FIT

minimum temperature at which, under specified test conditions, sufficient flammable gases

are emitted to ignite momentarily on application of a pilot flame (3.11)
Note 1 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60695-1-20:2016 © IEC 2016
[SOURCE: ISO 871:2006, 3.1]
3.15
flashover, 〈stage of fire〉

transition to a state of total surface involvement in a fire (3.4) of combustible materials within

an enclosure
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.156]
3.16
flash point
...

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