Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement - Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters

IEC 62037-5:2013 defines test fixtures and procedures recommended for measuring levels of passive intermodulation generated by filters, typically used in wireless communication systems. The purpose is to define qualification and acceptance test methods for filters for use in low intermodulation (low IM) applications.

Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d'intermodulation - Partie 5: Mesure de l'intermodulation passive dans les filtres

La CEI 62037-5:2013 définit les dispositifs et les procédures d'essai recommandés pour mesurer les niveaux d'intermodulation passive générés par les filtres, généralement utilisés dans les systèmes de communication sans fil. L'objectif est de définir des méthodes d'essai de qualification et d'acceptation pour les filtres destinés à être utilisés dans des applications d'intermodulation basse (IM basse).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jan-2013
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
19-Nov-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 62037-5:2013 - Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement - Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
English and French language
24 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 62037-5
Edition 1.0 2013-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d’intermodulation –
Partie 5: Mesure de l’intermodulation passive dans les filtres
IEC 62037-5:2013-01(EN-FR)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2013 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'IEC ou du Comité national de l'IEC du pays du demandeur. Si vous avez des

questions sur le copyright de l'IEC ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette publication, utilisez

les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
CH-1211 Geneva 20 info@iec.ch
Switzerland www.iec.ch
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
IEC Catalogue - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The stand-alone application for consulting the entire The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and

bibliographical information on IEC International Standards, electrical terms containing more than 30 000 terms and

Technical Specifications, Technical Reports and other definitions in English and French, with equivalent terms in 14

documents. Available for PC, Mac OS, Android Tablets and additional languages. Also known as the International

iPad. Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) online.

IEC publications search - www.iec.ch/searchpub IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a More than 55 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical English and French extracted from the Terms and Definitions

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced clause of IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries

and withdrawn publications. have been collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37,

77, 86 and CISPR.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc

details all new publications released. Available online and If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or

also once a month by email. need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service

Centre: csc@iec.ch.
A propos de l'IEC

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications IEC

Le contenu technique des publications IEC est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez l’édition la

plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Catalogue IEC - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
Application autonome pour consulter tous les renseignements
Le premier dictionnaire en ligne de termes électroniques et
bibliographiques sur les Normes internationales,
électriques. Il contient plus de 30 000 termes et définitions en
Spécifications techniques, Rapports techniques et autres
anglais et en français, ainsi que les termes équivalents dans
documents de l'IEC. Disponible pour PC, Mac OS, tablettes
14 langues additionnelles. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire
Android et iPad.
Electrotechnique International (IEV) en ligne.
Recherche de publications IEC - www.iec.ch/searchpub
Glossaire IEC - std.iec.ch/glossary

La recherche avancée permet de trouver des publications IEC Plus de 55 000 entrées terminologiques électrotechniques, en

en utilisant différents critères (numéro de référence, texte, anglais et en français, extraites des articles Termes et

comité d’études,…). Elle donne aussi des informations sur les Définitions des publications IEC parues depuis 2002. Plus

projets et les publications remplacées ou retirées. certaines entrées antérieures extraites des publications des

CE 37, 77, 86 et CISPR de l'IEC.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc
Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications IEC. Just

Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues. Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette

Disponible en ligne et aussi une fois par mois par email. publication ou si vous avez des questions contactez-nous:

csc@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62037-5
Edition 1.0 2013-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d’intermodulation –
Partie 5: Mesure de l’intermodulation passive dans les filtres
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX M
ICS 33.040.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1346-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 62037-5 © IEC:2013
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 5

3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................... 5

4 General comments on PIM testing of filter assemblies ...................................................... 5

4.1 Sources of error: back-to-back filters ....................................................................... 5

4.2 Environmental and dynamic PIM testing .................................................................. 6

4.3 General test procedure ............................................................................................ 7

5 Example test equipment schematics for filter testing ......................................................... 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Transmit band testing .............................................................................................. 7

5.3 Receive band testing: dual high-power carriers ....................................................... 8

5.4 Receive band testing: injected interferer ................................................................ 10

Figure 1 – Typical receive band PIM test set-up ...................................................................... 6

Figure 2 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring transmit-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT using two high-power carriers ..................................... 8

Figure 3 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers .................................... 9

Figure 4 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, reverse,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers .................................... 9

Figure 5 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, passive IM

products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers ................................................... 10

Figure 6 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using the injected interferer technique ..................... 11

Figure 7 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, reverse,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using the injected interferer technique ..................... 11

Figure 8 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, passive IM

products on an N-port DUT, using the injected interferer technique ....................................... 12

Table 1 – Summary table referencing example test equipment schematics for

measuring PIM on filter-type devices ...................................................................................... 7

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
62037-5 © IEC:2013 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PASSIVE RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES,
INTERMODULATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62037-5 has been prepared by technical committee 46: Cables,

wires, waveguides, r.f. connectors, r.f. and microwave passive components and accessories.

This bilingual version (2014-01) corresponds to the monolingual English version, published in

2013-01.The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
46/409/FDIS 46/421/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.This publication has been

drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 62037-5 © IEC:2013

A list of all the parts in the IEC 62037 series, published under the general title Passive RF

and microwave devices, Intermodulation level measurement can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62037-5 © IEC:2013 – 5 –
PASSIVE RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES,
INTERMODULATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62037 defines test fixtures and procedures recommended for measuring

levels of passive intermodulation generated by filters, typically used in wireless

communication systems. The purpose is to define qualification and acceptance test methods

for filters for use in low intermodulation (low IM) applications.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 62037-1:2012, Passive r.f. and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement –

Part 1: General requirements and measuring methods
3 Abbreviations
DUT Device under test
IM Intermodulation
PIM Passive intermodulation
4 General comments on PIM testing of filter assemblies
4.1 Sources of error: back-to-back filters

Testing filter assemblies for PIM may be error prone if certain precautionary guidelines are

not followed. Since PIM can be a frequency-dependent phenomena, mathematically related to

the harmonics of the input signals and combinations thereof, consideration should be given

not only to the behaviour of the test set-up under fundamental stimulation, but also its

harmonic performance. In particular, consider a receive-band PIM test set-up as shown in

Figure 1. As shown, this set-up could be used to measure the PIM in a two-port device under

test (DUT); however, the accuracy of the measurement could be in question due to the back-

to-back filters (diplexers) used.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 62037-5 © IEC:2013
Back-to-Back
filters
(diplexers)
High-power
Low IM
Tx-band termination
Diplexer Diplexer
signals
2-Port
DUT
Reverse- Forward-
direction, Rx- direction, Rx-
band PIM band PIM
To Rx-band
receiver
IEC 2477/12
Figure 1 – Typical receive band PIM test set-up

While the diplexers certainly appear as a matched load around the fundamental frequencies

and receive-band IM products, they may be very poorly matched at harmonics of the

fundamentals. A poor match will set up a standing wave at the harmonic frequencies which

may re-illuminate any PIM sources within the DUT with higher-than-typical current densities.

Furthermore, the measured IM response will become highly dependent upon the electrical

length of the DUT because the locations of the peaks and valleys of any standing waves will

move with respect to the PIM sources as the electrical length of the DUT changes.

4.2 Environmental and dynamic PIM testing

Environmental and dynamic PIM testing, which may include placing vibrational or thermal

stresses upon filter assemblies while concurrently measuring the PIM produced, may not give

accurate or repeatable results. There are several significant factors affecting the results of

these types of PIM tests.

a) DUT/test system isolation – it is highly desirable that any environmental and dynamic

stresses placed upon a DUT be isolated from the test system such that there are no

measurable residual effects. This not only addresses the practical issues of test system

reliability and maintenance, but it directly affects the issue of measurement repeatability.

That is, should a particular piece of the test system require replacement after a set

number of trials, then the results of subsequent measurements may be skewed by the

performance of the replaced part.

b) Measurement repeatability – it should be possible to repeat the results obtained from a

particular measurement within a specific precision. However, the inherent sensitivity of the

PIM response may prevent a desired precision from being achieved.

c) Stress repeatability – the particular stress placed upon the DUT shall be repeatable both

between tests upon the same DUT and tests between different DUTs. However, in the

experience of many, it is likely that the repeatability of the particular stress will be far

worse than that of the particular PIM test results so that the standard specifying the stress

may not be unnecessarily rigorous.

Based upon these factors, measuring PIM from a filter assembly whilst it undergoes thermal

or vibrational stresses is not currently recommended.

A less vigorous form of dynamic testing may be performed on a filter assembly, in order to

demonstrate that stability of the PIM level is maintained after certain vibrational stresses have

been applied. This style of dynamic test can take the form of tapping the assembly with an

instrument that will not damage the surface of the assembly, such as a length of nylon rod or

hard rubber hammer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62037-5 © IEC:2013 – 7 –
4.3 General test procedure

An appropriate test set-up can be selected from the example schematics described in

Clause 4, according to the specific test requirements called for. The procedure is as follows:

a) calibrate the test set-up for correct carrier signal level and IM receiver level as described

in Clause 7 of IEC 62037-1:2012;
b) connect the filter DUT in the test set-up;
c) measure the IM performance of the DUT on the receiver.

The results obtained should be expressed in one of the forms indicated in Clause 8 of

IEC 62037-1:2012.
5 Example test equipment schematics for filter testing
5.1 General

Several example schematics are presented. Each figure corresponds to a particular test

scenario as indicated in the matrix in Table 1. It will be noted that some of the example

schematics are modifications of the test configurations shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 of

IEC 62037-1:2012. These modifications allow the operator to satisfactorily perform a range of

tests which are more specific to the requirement of filter assemblies.

It is imperative that the residual PIM level of the test system be verified prior to measurement

of the filter assembly. It is strongly recommended that this level be at least 10 dB below the

PIM level requirement of the filter assembly, in order to minimize errors due to the system

itself. This measurement can be carried out in the following example set-ups by precluding the

DUT from the measurement system and monitoring the resultant PIM level under the normal

test conditions. The only systems which deviate slightly from this are Figure 5 and Figure 8

and notes are provided for these two set-ups, indicating the test point at which the system

residual intermodulation distortion can be measured with the DUT removed.
Table 1 – Summary table referencing example test equipment schematics
for measuring PIM on filter-type devices
Tx band Rx band

Measurement type 2 high-power carriers 2 high-power carriers 1 high-power carrier +

injected interferer
N-port, forward IM Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6
N-port, reverse IM Figure 4 Figure 7
N-port, receive port IM Figure 5 Figure 8

Figure 5 and Figure 8 outline equipment set-ups which measure the PIM present at a receive

port of the filter assembly. These set-ups are distinct from those measuring PIM in the reverse

direction (Figure 4 and Figure 7) and can give quite different results. It is therefore important

that consideration is given to using the appropriate measurement system, in order to measure

the required PIM performance.
5.2 Transmit band testing

Passive IM testing within the transmit band is typically performed on isolators and other

relatively high PIM components. For this test, two carriers are combined into a single

transmission line and then passed through the DUT. Once these are through the DUT, it is

advisable to sufficiently attenuate the two carriers to prevent the generation of active IM

products and possible damage within the receiver. A low noise amplifier is typically not

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 62037-5 © IEC:2013

required due to the high PIM signal levels present from the DUT in these tests. This is

described in Figure 2.
Low IM
Power directional
Low IM
RF source f1
coupler
termination
amplifier
N-Port
Combiner
DUT
RF source f2
Thru
IM out
Power
amplifier
Low IM
BP filter
Receiver or
spectrum
analyser
IEC 2478/12

The combiner port-to-port isolation plus band stop/low pass filters should be optimized to set the test bench system

residual to an acceptable level.

Consideration should be given to the possible generation of IM products within the receiver/spectrum analyser and

whether a sufficient dynamic range can be obtained. An optional IM band pass filter may be used to allow these

conditions to be met.
Unused DUT ports shall be terminated in a matched load.

The low IM directional coupler could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate diplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement diplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx

and Rx bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement diplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized

that there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.

Figure 2 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring transmit-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT using two high-power carriers
5.3 Receive band testing: dual high-power carriers

When testing for PIM products in the receive band, a much greater measurement sensitivity is

required than for transmit band testing. For this reason, a low-noise amplifier and bandpass

filter are typically utilized before the measurement receiver (or spectrum analyser).

Example schematics for both forward and reverse PIM testing on N-port devices are shown in

Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
62037-5 © IEC:2013 – 9 –
Low IM
Power directional Low IM
RF source f1
coupler termination
amplifier
Diplexer
N-Port
Combiner
DUT
Power
Thru
RF source f2
amplifier
IM out
Low IM
BP filter
Receiver or
spectrum
analyser
Low noise
IEC 2479/12
amp lifier

The low IM directional coupler could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate diplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement diplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx

and Rx bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement diplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized

that there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.

The combiner and diplexer could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate triplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement triplexer has a good VSWR in both the

Tx and Rx bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement triplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized

that there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.
Figure 3 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, forward,
passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers
Power
RF source f1 Low IM
amplifier
termination
Diplexer N-Port
Combiner
DUT
Power
RF source f2
amplifier
Low IM
BP filter
Receiver or
spectrum
analyser
Low noise
amplifier IEC 2480/12
Figure 4 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, reverse,
passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 62037-5 © IEC:2013
Power
Low IM
RF source f1
amplifier
termination
Diplexer N-Port
Combiner
DUT
Power
RF source f2
amplifier
Receive
Low IM
PIM
BP filter
signal
Receiver or
path
spectrum
analyser
Low noise
IEC 2481/12
amp lifier

Point A can be used as a test point to monitor the system residual level (with the DUT removed). To be terminated

during DUT measurement.

The combiner and diplexer could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate triplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement triplexer has a good VSWR in both the

Tx and Rx bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement triiplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized

that there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.
Figure 5 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band,
passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers
Remarks to Figure 4 and Figure 5:

1) The combiner port-to-port isolation plus diplexer should be optimized to set the test bench system residual to

an acceptable level.

2) Consideration should be given to the possible generation of IM products within the receiver/spectrum analyser

and whether a sufficient dynamic range can be obtained. An optional IM band pass filter plus low noise

amplifier may be used to allow these conditions to be met.

3) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the diplexer and DUT, it should be recognized that there is a

mechanism that supports multipathing.

4) It is strongly recommended that the diplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx and Rx bands.

5) Unused DUT ports shall be terminated in a matched load.
5.4 Receive band testing: injected interferer

To simulate the PIM performance of filters due to signals originating both internal to the

system and external to the system, injected interferer testing may be performed. For these

tests, one carrier remains at full power. The other carrier is typically reduced in power by

some 20 dB to 40 dB relative to the strongest carrier. Typical test equipment schematics are

shown in Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
62037-5 © IEC:2013 – 11 –
f1 BP filter
Injected interferer carrier
Low IM
load
Power Low IM
RF source f1
termination
amplifier
Diplexer
N-Port
DUT
Power
RF source f2
amplifier
Low IM
dual-Directional
coupler
f2 BP filter
Forward
Low IM
PIM
BP filter
signal
Receiver or
path
spectrum
analyser
Low noise
IEC 2482/12
amp lifier

The low IM dual directional coupler could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate diplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement diplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx

and Rx bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement diplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized

that there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.
Figure 6 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, forward,
passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using the injected interferer technique
f1 BP filter
Injected interferer carrier
Low IM
load
Power Low IM
RF source f1
termination
ampli
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.