Communication networks and systems for power utility automation - Part 90-13: Deterministic networking technologies

IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021(E), which is a Technical Report, provides information, use cases, and guidance on whether and how to use deterministic networking technologies. Furthermore, this document comprises technology descriptions, provides guidance how to achieve compatibility and interoperability with existing technologies, and lays out migration paths. It will separate the problem statement from the possible solutions.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Feb-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
03-Feb-2021
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IEC TR 61850-90-13
Edition 1.0 2021-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 90-13: Deterministic networking technologies
IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021-02(en)
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 61850-90-13
Edition 1.0 2021-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 90-13: Deterministic networking technologies
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-9283-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions, abbreviated terms and acronyms .................................................. 9

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 9

3.2 Abbreviated terms and acronyms .......................................................................... 11

4 Characteristics of determinism ....................................................................................... 13

4.1 Deterministic latency ............................................................................................. 13

4.2 Deterministic jitter ................................................................................................. 14

5 Problem Statement ........................................................................................................ 15

5.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 15

5.2 Problems with existing technologies ...................................................................... 16

5.3 Improvements in networking communication from using the capabilities of

deterministic communication technologies ............................................................ 17

5.4 Drawbacks of deterministic networking ................................................................. 17

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

5.4.2 Change in network design ............................................................................. 18

5.4.3 Changes to the network infrastructure ........................................................... 18

5.4.4 Change to the network tools .......................................................................... 18

5.4.5 Hardware changes to the IEDs ...................................................................... 18

5.4.6 Change to the IED applications ...................................................................... 18

5.4.7 Change to the standard ................................................................................. 18

5.4.8 Backward compatibility and transition phase .................................................. 19

5.5 Survey about problem statement ........................................................................... 19

6 Deterministic networking – support and improvements for existing use cases ................ 19

6.1 Use cases for the LAN .......................................................................................... 19

6.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 19

6.1.2 Substation automation ................................................................................... 20

6.1.3 WAN-based use cases ................................................................................... 23

6.1.4 Protection and control for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) ..................... 26

6.1.5 Use cases in which determinism supports non-functional requirements ......... 28

6.2 New use cases (in substation automation and over the WAN) ............................... 29

6.2.1 Large control loops ........................................................................................ 29

6.2.2 Multi-service networks ................................................................................... 30

7 Deterministic networking ................................................................................................ 31

7.1 Capabilities and improvements ............................................................................. 31

7.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

7.1.2 Time synchronization ..................................................................................... 31

7.1.3 Quality of service (QoS)................................................................................. 31

7.1.4 Network configuration and management ........................................................ 32

7.2 Deterministic networking technologies .................................................................. 32

7.2.1 Deterministic HSR ......................................................................................... 32

7.2.2 IEEE 802.1 Time-sensitive networking (TSN) ................................................. 34

7.2.3 IETF DetNet .................................................................................................. 41

7.2.4 Other technologies ........................................................................................ 42

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IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021 – 3 –
8 Co-existence and interoperability with existing and emerging technologies (and

how to address technology changes) ............................................................................. 47

8.1 Relation of TSN to technologies such as SDN (Software Defined Networking)

and NFV (Network Function Virtualization) ............................................................ 47

8.2 Relation and interoperability to existing architectures for high-availability and

redundancy based on PRP/HSR ........................................................................... 48

8.3 Relation and interoperability to existing WAN-architectures based on MPLS

(IP/MPLS, MPLS-TP) ............................................................................................ 48

8.4 Brownfield deployment options .............................................................................. 48

8.5 Migration path ....................................................................................................... 49

9 Design consideration for a future utility profile using deterministic networking

technologies .................................................................................................................. 50

9.1 IEC 61850 traffic patterns and protocols ............................................................... 50

9.2 Non-IEC 61850 traffic patterns and protocols ........................................................ 52

9.3 High-availability and reliability ............................................................................... 53

9.4 Deterministic traffic classification .......................................................................... 53

9.5 Conceptual model ................................................................................................. 53

9.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 53

9.5.2 Utility profile considerations using 802.1 TSN technologies ........................... 54

9.5.3 Specific IEEE 802.1Q-2018 clauses and related amendments ....................... 54

9.5.4 Time synchronization ..................................................................................... 54

10 Harmonization of deterministic networking requirements................................................ 54

10.1 IEC 61850-5 ......................................................................................................... 54

10.2 IEC 61850-9-2 ...................................................................................................... 54

10.3 IEC/IEEE 61850-9-3 .............................................................................................. 54

10.4 IEC TR 61850-90-1 ............................................................................................... 55

10.5 IEC/TR 61850-90-2 ............................................................................................... 55

10.6 IEC TR 61850-90-4 ............................................................................................... 55

10.7 IEC TR 61850-90-12 ............................................................................................. 55

11 Impact on application operation ..................................................................................... 55

11.1 Scope and dependencies ...................................................................................... 55

11.2 Impact on existing applications ............................................................................. 56

11.3 Impact for new applications and application evolution ........................................... 56

Annex A (informative) Related work and liaisons ................................................................. 57

A.1 IEC/IEEE 60802 TSN-Profile for industrial automation .......................................... 57

A.2 IEEE 802.24.1 Smart Grid TG ............................................................................... 58

A.3 IEC SEG8 ............................................................................................................. 58

A.4 Power utility automation and control applications using 5G technology ................. 58

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 59

Figure 1 – Delay probability for hard- and soft-real-time system ............................................ 14

Figure 2 – Low jitter – jitter deterministic delay ..................................................................... 15

Figure 3 – Substation station bus, process bus and traffic example

(IEC TR 61850‑90‑4, Figure 11) ............................................................................................ 20

Figure 4 – Substation with Deterministic Ethernet ................................................................. 21

Figure 5 – Current differential tele-protection system (IEC TR 61850‑90‑12:2015) ................ 24

Figure 6 – Microgrid with renewable generation, storage and grid infeed .............................. 26

Figure 7 – Multi-Service Networks......................................................................................... 30

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– 4 – IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021

Figure 8 – Precise sending in HSR ....................................................................................... 33

Figure 9 – TSN Components ................................................................................................. 34

Figure 10 – Fully Distributed Model ....................................................................................... 38

Figure 11 – Hybrid Model ...................................................................................................... 39

Figure 12 – Central Model ..................................................................................................... 40

Figure 13 – Topology of a WAN network using VSN .............................................................. 44

Figure 14 – Frame Structure ................................................................................................. 45

Figure 15 – Mapping data in a single EtherCAT DLPDU ........................................................ 46

Figure 16 – Brownfield configuration options ......................................................................... 49

Figure 17 – GOOSE protocol time/space chart (Source IEC TR 61850-90-4) ........................ 52

Table 1 – Transfer time requirements of IEC 61850-5 ........................................................... 19

Table 2 – Station bus communication specifics in today's substations and possible

benefits / improvements with TSN ......................................................................................... 23

Table 3 – Process bus communication specifics in today's substations and possible

benefits / improvements with TSN ......................................................................................... 23

Table 4 – Latency requirements for protection schemes ........................................................ 25

Table 5 – IEEE 802.1 Qcc Configuration Models ................................................................... 36

Table 6 – DetNet documents ................................................................................................. 42

Table 7 – Traffic type characteristics of IEC 61850 protocols ................................................ 51

Table 8 – Traffic type characteristics of non-IEC 61850 protocols ......................................... 53

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IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND
SYSTEMS FOR POWER UTILITY AUTOMATION –
Part 90-13: Deterministic networking technologies
FOREWORD

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 61850-90-13, which is a technical report, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 57: Power systems management and associated information exchange.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft TR Report on voting
57/2236/DTR 57/2301/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.
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– 6 – IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61850 series, published under the general title Communication

networks and systems for power utility automation, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Deterministic networking technologies enable applications that require bounded communication

delays regardless of network load or reconfiguration. They allow traffic of different time-

criticality to share the same physical medium. Deterministic network technologies are based on

the pre-allocation of resources using for example scheduling, traffic shaping and the pre-

emption of low priority messages to guarantee the timely delivery of high-priority traffic.

Power automation and control is an industry domain where deterministic networking is needed

to support existing use cases and applications (requiring real-time communication), and to

enable new developments. This networking is currently being provided by SDH networks or

dedicated (for protection communications) Ethernet networks; however significant drives

(economic and political) are now emerging to use "converged" Ethernet networks.

In this document the term WAN is used for the inter-substation communication networks, with

the driving force usually being the desire of a utility to use the same network infrastructure for

IT as well as for operational tasks such as inter-substation protection communications.

The term LAN is used for the intra-substation communication networks. Converged networks

are those supporting mixed traffic (e.g. process data, configuration management, voice and

video surveillance data) in the same network being used for critical power automation

applications. In the same way that using public transportation to get from A to B in a timely

(deterministic) manner requires the ability to be guaranteed a seat at a particular time, using a

communication network for the deterministic delivery of data also requires the guarantee of

access at a particular time. This document identifies, describes, and discusses the known

technologies to address this determinism issue.
Summary:
Clause 5 describes the problem (with non-deterministic networks);
Clause 6 provides use cases;
Clause 7 lists deterministic networking technologies;
Clause 8 discusses interoperability issues;

Clause 9 suggests changes to the IEC 61850 standards needed to support determinism;

Annex A lists some related works and liaisons.
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– 8 – IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND
SYSTEMS FOR POWER UTILITY AUTOMATION –
Part 90-13: Deterministic Networking Technologies
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61850, which is a Technical Report, provides information, use cases, and

guidance on whether and how to use deterministic networking technologies. Furthermore, this

document comprises technology descriptions, provides guidance how to achieve compatibility

and interoperability with existing technologies, and lays out migration paths. It will separate the

problem statement from the possible solutions.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60834-1:1999, Teleprotection equipment of power systems – Performance and testing –

Part 1: Command systems

IEC 60870-5-104:2006, Telecontrol equipment and systems – Part 5-104: Transmission

protocols – Network access for IEC 60870-5-101 using standard transport profiles

IEC/IEEE 61588:2009, Precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement

and control systems

IEC 61850 (all parts), Communication networks and systems for power utility automation

IEC 61850-5:2013, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – Part 5:

Communication requirements for functions and device models

IEC 61850-6:2009, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – Part 6:

Configuration description language for communication in electrical substations related to IEDs

IEC 61850-8-1:2011, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –

Part 8-1: Specific communication service mapping (SCSM) – Mappings to MMS (ISO 9506-1

and ISO 9506-2) and to ISO/IEC 8802-3

IEC 61850-9-2, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – Part 9-2:

Specific communication service mapping (SCSM) – Sampled values over ISO/IEC 8802-3

IEC/IEEE 60802, Time-sensitive networking profile for industrial automation

IEC/IEEE 61850-9-3-2016, IEC/IEEE International Standard – Communication networks and

systems for power utility automation – Part 9-3: Precision time protocol profile for power utility

automation

IEC TR 61850-90-1:2010, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –

Part 90-1: Use of IEC 61850 for the communication between substations
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021 – 9 –

IEC TR 61850-90-2:2016, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –

Part 90-2: Using IEC 61850 for communication between substations and control centres

IEC TR 61850-90-4:2020, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –

Part 90-4: Network engineering guidelines

IEC TR 61850-90-5:2012, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –

Part 90-5: Use of IEC 61850 to transmit synchrophasor information according to IEEE C37.118

IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation

– Part 90-12: Wide area network engineering guidelines

IEC 62351-7:2017, Power systems management and associated information exchange – Data

and communications security – Part 7: Network and System Management (NSM) data object

models

IEC 62439-3:2016, Industrial communication networks – High availability automation networks

– Part 3: Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) and High-availability Seamless Redundancy

(HSR)

IEEE 802.1AS, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks – Timing and

Synchronization for Time-Sensitive Applications, available at http://www.ieee.org

IEEE 802.1Q, IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks – Bridges and Bridged

Networks; available at

IEEE 802.1Qcc-2018, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks – Bridges and

Bridged Networks – Amendment 31: Stream Reservation Protocol (SRP) Enhancements and

Performance Improvements
IEEE 802.3-2018, IEEE Standard for Ethernet

IEEE C37.94-2017, IEEE Standard for N times 64 kbps Optical Fiber Interfaces between

Teleprotection and Multiplexer Equipment

IEEE C37.118.1-2011, IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor Measurements for Power Systems

3 Terms and definitions, abbreviated terms and acronyms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
Centralized Network Configuration
CNC

logical component that configures network resources on behalf of TSN applications (users)

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– 10 – IEC TR 61850-90-13:2021 © IEC:2021
3.1.2
Centralized User Configuration
CUC

logical component that discovers and configures application (user) resources in end stations;

the CUC exchanges information with the CNC in order to configure TSN features on behalf of

its end stations
3.1.3
convergence

heterogeneous applications running on devices connected to the same physical network (LAN,

WAN, or combination of both) which are able to exchange data, within the defined QoS

parameters derived from application requirements
3.1.4
deterministic jitter

property of a system to change its output in response to a change of its input after a guaranteed

minimum delay and before a guaranteed maximum delay, under error-free conditions
3.1.5
deterministic latency
...

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