Electrostatics - Part 4-2: Standard test methods for specific applications - Electrostatic properties of garments

IEC/TS 61340-4-2:2013 describes test methods and procedures that can be used to evaluate the electrostatic charging and discharging propensity, field suppression properties and charge dissipation properties of garments and materials from which garments are constructed.

Electrostatique - Partie 4-2: Méthodes d'essai normalisées pour des applications spécifiques - Propriétés électrostatiques des vêtements

La CEI/TS 61340-4-2:2013 décrit les méthodes et les procédures d'essai qui peuvent être utilisées pour évaluer l'aptitude à acquérir et à perdre des charges électrostatiques, les propriétés de suppression de champ et les propriétés de dissipation de charge des vêtements et des matériaux à partir desquels des vêtements sont fabriqués.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Jun-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
20-Jun-2013
Completion Date
20-Jun-2013
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IEC TS 61340-4-2:2013 - Electrostatics - Part 4-2: Standard test methods for specific applications - Electrostatic properties of garments
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IEC/TS 61340-4-2
Edition 1.0 2013-06
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 4-2: Standard test methods for specific applications – Electrostatic
properties of garments
Électrostatique –
Partie 4-2: Méthodes d’essai normalisées pour des applications spécifiques –
Propriétés électrostatiques des vêtements
IEC/TS 61340-4-2:2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/TS 61340-4-2
Edition 1.0 2013-06
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 4-2: Standard test methods for specific applications – Electrostatic
properties of garments
Électrostatique –
Partie 4-2: Méthodes d’essai normalisées pour des applications spécifiques –
Propriétés électrostatiques des vêtements
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX XA
ICS 17.220.99; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-83220-891-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 8

4 Atmosphere for conditioning and testing ........................................................................... 8

5 Preparation of samples and test materials ........................................................................ 9

5.1 Samples .................................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Test equipment and materials .................................................................................. 9

6 Test methods.................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Resistance and resistivity ...................................................................................... 10

6.2.1 Selection of the appropriate resistance measurement test method ............. 10

6.2.2 Conversion to resistivity values ................................................................. 11

6.3 Charge decay time ................................................................................................ 11

6.3.1 Selection of the appropriate charge decay time test method ...................... 11

6.3.2 Corona charging method ........................................................................... 12

6.3.3 Induction charging method ......................................................................... 12

6.3.4 Charge decay by conduction through a garment to a human body ............. 12

6.3.5 Surface potential suppression of isolated garments ................................... 12

6.4 Measurement of electrostatic discharges ............................................................... 12

6.5 Field suppression .................................................................................................. 13

6.6 Tribocharging tests ................................................................................................ 13

6.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 13

6.6.2 Tribocharging by removal of garments ....................................................... 14

6.6.3 Tribocharging the outer surface of garments .............................................. 14

6.6.4 Tribocharging using seats .......................................................................... 14

6.7 Clinging tests ........................................................................................................ 14

6.8 Capacitance loading .............................................................................................. 14

Annex A (normative) Tribocharging by removal of garments................................................. 16

Annex B (normative) Tribocharging using seats ................................................................... 20

Annex C (normative) Test of chargeability ............................................................................ 25

Annex D (normative) Capacitance loading ........................................................................... 37

Annex E (informative) Simple tribocharging tests ................................................................. 49

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 50

Figure A.1 – Test equipment for measuring body voltage and charge on removed

garments .............................................................................................................................. 17

Figure B.1 – Example of test equipment set up for measuring body voltage when rising

from a seat ........................................................................................................................... 22

Figure B.2 – Typical body voltage recordings ........................................................................ 24

Figure C.1 – Diagram of the test stand with a mannequin ..................................................... 26

Figure C.2 – Measuring scheme with a mannequin and Faraday cage .................................. 27

Figure C.3 – Measuring scheme with a mannequin and net table .......................................... 27

Figure C.4 – Net table used to measure the charging level of clothes ................................... 28

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013 – 3 –

Figure C.5 – Measuring scheme with a test person and net table .......................................... 29

Figure C.6 – Possible ways of taking off clothes from the mannequin trunk or from the

test person ............................................................................................................................ 32

Figure C.7 – Diagram of the stand for testing mechanical tribocharging on the outer

surface of clothing ................................................................................................................ 34

Figure C.8 – Diagram of the system for measurement of the test person charging level

resulting from manual rubbing of its clothing ......................................................................... 35

Figure D.1 – Example of an arrangement for measurement of corona charge decay

and arrangements for ‘open backing’ and ‘earthed backing’ .................................................. 38

Figure D.2 – Equipment for charge decay time calibration ..................................................... 40

Figure D.3 – Arrangement for measuring received charge ..................................................... 41

Figure D.4 – Example of variation of capacitance loading with quantity of corona ................. 45

Figure D.5 – Adjustment of factor for matching induction to conduction measurements ......... 48

Table 1 – Suitability of test methods for garments and garment materials ............................. 10

Table 2 – Test method standards for resistance measurements ............................................ 10

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– 4 – TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROSTATICS –
Part 4-2: Standard test methods for specific applications –
Electrostatic properties of garments
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

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governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In

exceptional circumstances, a technical committee may propose the publication of a technical

specification when

• the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,

despite repeated efforts, or

• the subject is still under technical development or where, for any other reason, there is the

future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard.

Technical specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide

whether they can be transformed into International Standards.

This document is being issued in the Technical Specification series of publications

(according to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1, 3.1.1.1) as a “prospective standard for

provisional application” in the field of determination of the electrostatic properties of garments

and garment materials because there is an urgent need for guidance on how standards in this

field should be used to meet an identified need.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013 – 5 –

This document is not to be regarded as an “International Standard”. It is proposed for

provisional application so that information and experience of its use in practice may be

gathered. Comments on the content of this document should be sent to the IEC Central

Office.

A review of this technical specification will be carried out not later than 3 years after its

publication with the options of: extension for another 3 years; conversion into an

International Standard; or withdrawal.

IEC 61340-4-2, which is a technical specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 101: Electrostatics.
The text of this technical specification is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
101/374/DTS 101/388/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical specification can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 61340 series, published under the general title Electrostatics,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• transformed into an International Standard,
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013
INTRODUCTION

The garments worn by most people in their everyday lives are not usually designed to

dissipate static electricity. Some natural fibres, such as cotton or linen, have sufficient

retained moisture to provide some degree of conductivity and may dissipate charge at an

acceptable rate. However, synthetic fibres, such as polyester or polyamide, or natural fibres

under low humidity conditions are not able to dissipate charge quickly. If electrostatic charge

builds up on a garment it may cause a number of effects:

a) dust and airborne contaminants can be attracted to the surface of charged garments;

b) light-weight garments can cling to the body of the wearer;

c) the electric field associated with charge on garments can damage or disrupt sensitive

electronic systems or components;

d) electrostatic discharges from garments can ignite flammable or explosive materials and

can damage or disrupt sensitive electronic systems or components;

e) charge on garments induces a potential on the body of an isolated person wearing the

garments and this can lead to damaging or hazardous spark discharges from the body.

Some of the effects can often be tolerated but in many situations the presence of these

effects is unacceptable. In order to evaluate whether or not there is a potential problem, it is

necessary to determine the propensity of garments to acquire charge or produce electrostatic

discharges, or to determine their ability to dissipate charge within an acceptable time. If

normal garments are found to be unacceptable, they are replaced with garments specifically

designed and manufactured to prevent the undesirable effects of static electricity, i.e. static

control garments. Suitable test methods are required both to evaluate the extent of potential

problems and to determine the effectiveness of charge dissipation mechanisms in static

control garments.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013 – 7 –
ELECTROSTATICS –
Part 4-2: Standard test methods for specific applications –
Electrostatic properties of garments
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61340, which is a technical specification, describes test methods and

procedures that can be used to evaluate the electrostatic charging and discharging

propensity, field suppression properties and charge dissipation properties of garments and

materials from which garments are constructed.

The test methods described are suitable for evaluating garments worn on or about the upper

and lower body, including headwear, but excluding footwear, which is covered in other parts

of IEC 61340 (see IEC 61340-4-3 and IEC 61340-4-5)[1] , and excluding gloves and finger

cots.

The test methods described may not be suitable for evaluating garments and garment

materials in relation to safety of personnel.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC/TR 61340-1:2012, Electrostatics – Part 1: Electrostatic phenomena – Principle and

measurements

IEC 61340-2-1:2002, Electrostatics – Part 2-1: Measurement methods – Ability of materials

and products to dissipate static electric charge

IEC/TR 61340-2-2, Electrostatics – Part 2-2: Measurement methods – Measurement of

chargeability

IEC 61340-2-3:2000, Electrostatics – Part 2-3: Methods of test for determining the resistance

and resistivity of solid planar materials used to avoid electrostatic charge accumulation

IEC 61340-4-9, Electrostatics – Part 4-9: Standard test methods for specific applications –

Garments

ISO 3175-2, Textiles – Professional care, drycleaning and wetcleaning of fabrics and

garments – Part 2: Procedure for testing performance when cleaning and finishing using

tetrachloroethene

ISO 3175-3, Textiles – Professional care, drycleaning and wetcleaning of fabrics and

garments – Part 3: Procedure for testing performance when cleaning and finishing using

hydrocarbon solvents
—————————
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013
ISO 6330, Textiles – Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing

ISO 15797, Textiles – Industrial washing and finishing procedures for testing of workwear

AATCC Test Method 115, Electrostatic Clinging of Fabrics: Fabric-to-Metal Test

BS 7506-1:1995, Methods for measurement in electrostatics – Part 1: Guide to basic

electrostatics

EN 1149-3:2004, Protective clothing – Electrostatic properties – Part 3: Test methods for

measurement of charge decay

EN 1149-5, Protective clothing – Electrostatic properties – Part 5: Material performance and

design requirements
NT ELEC 036:2006, Fabrics and inhomogeneous materials: Measurement of a direct
discharge from an ESD protective material, such as an ESD garment/fabric

NT ELEC 037:2006, Protective garments: Measurement of the charge decay time of ESD-

protective garments
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions, as well as those given

in IEC/TR 61340-1:2012 apply. Additional definitions given in the references listed in Clause 2

also apply where relevant to this standard.
3.1
capacitance loading

measure of the degree to which surface potential is suppressed compared to an insulator and

is calculated as the surface potential achieved per unit quantity of charge for a thin film of a

good insulator divided into the surface potential achieved per unit of charge with a similar

surface charge distribution on the test material
3.2
field suppression
attenuation of static electric field emanating from charged undergarments
3.3
induction charging

generation of potential difference on a test material by the influence of an electric field from a

nearby charged electrode
4 Atmosphere for conditioning and testing

As the electrostatic properties of materials are influenced by temperature and relative

humidity, it is important that measurements are made under controlled conditions where

possible.

If conditions are not otherwise specified, in product standards for example, the conditions

specified in the test methods referenced in this part of IEC 61340 may be used, or may be

adjusted to be suitable for specific applications. The most appropriate conditions and the time

of conditioning before measurements are made shall be selected with regard to the type of

—————————
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013 – 9 –

material, the intended application and the expected conditions of use. It is recommended that

at least two sets of measurements be made, one at the lowest expected relative humidity and

one at the highest expected relative humidity.

If environmental control is not possible, a record of the temperature and relative humidity at

the time of measurement shall be made. If the conditions during the 24 h preceding the

measurements are known, the range of these conditions shall also be recorded.

The atmosphere for conditioning and testing shall be included in the test report for all

measurements made in accordance with this part of IEC 61340.
5 Preparation of samples and test materials
5.1 Samples

New garments may have been treated with topical finishes to help reduce charging or

increase charge dissipation. Even if such finishes are not deliberately applied, there may be

residual processing finishes present that have similar effects. Residual processing finishes

and some deliberately applied finishes may not be permanent and their effects will diminish

with use and with cleaning. It may be necessary when evaluating garments and garment

materials for longterm use to ensure that temporary finishes are removed by cleaning prior to

testing.

Samples may be tested before and after cleaning in order to evaluate the effects of the

cleaning procedures.

Unless otherwise specified in product standards or by agreement between interested parties,

cleaning to remove temporary finishes, if required, shall be carried out in accordance with

international standards such as ISO 6330 (domestic washing), ISO 15797 (industrial washing)

or ISO 3175-2 or ISO 3175-3 (dry cleaning). Cleaning procedures (including number of cycles,

wash temperature, detergent, etc.) shall be selected with regard to the type of material,

manufacturer’s recommended cleaning procedures, the intended application, and the

expected conditions of use.

Full details of any cleaning procedures used prior to testing shall be included in test reports.

5.2 Test equipment and materials

Test equipment and materials that come into contact with samples, particularly during

tribocharging tests, shall be maintained in a clean condition and shall be free of contaminants

that might influence test results.
6 Test methods
6.1 General

Test methods for making suitable measurements on garments and garment materials are

summarized in Table 1.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – TS 61340-4-2 © IEC:2013
Table 1 – Suitability of test methods for garments and garment materials
Measurement Standard/ Clause in Suitable for
Technical IEC/TS 61340-4-2
Garments Materials Compliance
specification (this technical
verification
specification)
IEC 61340-2-3
Resistance 6.2 Yes Yes Yes
IEC 61340-4-9
IEC 61340-2-1 6.3.2 Yes Yes Yes
EN 1149-3 6.3.3 Yes Yes Yes
Charge decay
time
NT ELEC 037 6.3.4 Yes Yes Yes
NT ELEC 037 6.3.5 Yes Yes Yes
Size of
electrostatic NT ELEC 036 6.4 No Yes No
discharges
Field suppression EN 1149-3 6.5 Yes Yes Yes
6.6.3
IEC/TS 61340-4-2
(this technical Annex A Yes Yes Yes
specification)
Clause C.2
IEC/TS 61340-4-2
6.6.4
(this technical Yes Yes Yes
Triboelectric
Clause C.3
specification)
charging
IEC/TS 61340-4-2
6.6.5
(this technical Yes Yes Yes
Annex B
specification)
IEC/TS 61340-4-2
(this technical Annex E Yes No Yes
specification)
Clinging AATCC 115 6.7 No Yes No
IEC/TS 61340-4-2
6.8
Capacitance
(this Technical Yes Yes Yes
loading
Annex D
Specification)

NOTE Compliance verification includes daily and pre-use checks. Test methods may require modifying to suit

the application.
6.2 Resistance and resistivity
6.2.1 Selection of the appropriate resistance measurement test method
Resistance measur
...

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