Fire hazard testing - Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products - General guidelines

IEC 60695-1-10:2016 provides general guidance with respect to fire hazard testing on how to reduce to a tolerable level the risk of fire and the potential effects of fires involving electrotechnical products. It also serves as a signpost standard to the other guidance publications in the IEC 60695 series. It does not give guidance on the use of fire-resistant compartment boundaries or on the use of detection and suppression systems for the mitigation of fire risk. It describes the relationship between fire risk and the potential effects of fire, and provides guidance to IEC product committees on the applicability of qualitative and quantitative fire tests to the fire hazard assessment of electrotechnical products. Details of the calculation of fire risk are not included in the scope of this document. It emphasises the importance of the scenario approach to fire hazard and risk assessment and discusses criteria intended to ensure the development of technically sound hazard-based fire test methods. It discusses the different types of fire tests, in particular the nature of qualitative and quantitative fire tests. It also describes the circumstances under which it is appropriate for IEC product committees to maintain or develop qualitative fire tests. This standard is intended as guidance to IEC committees, and is to be used with respect to their individual applications. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- reference to IEC 60695-1-12;
- modified Introduction and Scope;
- updated normative references;
- updated terms and definitions;
- modified Table 1;
- addition of Table 2;
- new text in Subclauses 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4;
- mandatory text in Clause 8;
- Annex B changed to Annex A, and modified;
- new Annex B concerning common ignition sources.
This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60695-1-11:2014 and IEC 60695-1-12:2015.
Key words: Fire Hazard, Fire Risk, Fire Safety Engineering

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 1-10: Lignes directrices pour l'évaluation des risques du feu des produits électrotechniques - Lignes directrices générales

L'IEC 60695-1-10:2016 fournit des lignes directrices générales concernant les essais relatifs aux dangers d'incendie, sur la manière de réduire à un niveau acceptable le risque d'incendie et les effets potentiels des incendies impliquant des produits électrotechniques. Elle sert aussi de norme de référence pour les autres publications donnant des lignes directrices dans la série IEC 60695. La présente partie ne fournit pas de lignes directrices relatives à l'utilisation de parois de compartiment résistant au feu ou de systèmes de détection et de suppression pour la réduction du risque d'incendie. Elle décrit la relation entre le risque d'incendie et les effets potentiels des incendies. Elle fournit des lignes directrices aux comités de produits de l'IEC sur la pertinence des essais au feu qualitatifs et quantitatifs pour l'évaluation des dangers d'incendie des produits électrotechniques. Les détails du calcul du risque d'incendie ne sont pas couverts par le domaine d'application du présent document. Elle souligne l'importance de l'approche par scénario pour l'évaluation des dangers d'incendie et des risques d'incendie. Elle traite également des critères visant à assurer le développement de méthodes d'essai au feu basées sur les dangers qui soient techniquement solides. Elle traite des différents types d'essais au feu et, en particulier, de la nature des essais qualitatifs et quantitatifs. Elle décrit aussi les circonstances pour lesquelles il est approprié pour les comités de produits de l'IEC de maintenir ou de mettre au point des essais au feu qualitatifs. La présente norme est destinée à fournir des lignes directrices pour les comités de l'IEC et il convient de les utiliser en fonction de leurs applications particulières. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2009. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- référence à l'IEC 60695-1-12;
- modification de l'introduction et du domaine d'application;
- mise à jour des références normatives;
- mise à jour des termes et définitions;
- modification du Tableau 1;
- ajout du Tableau 2: nouveau texte dans les Articles 5.2, 5.3 et 5.4.;
- texte obligatoire à l'Article 8;
- annexe B renommée Annexe A, et modifiée et ajout d'une Annexe B relative aux sources d'allumage communes.
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la IEC 60695-1-11:2014, et IEC 60695-1-12:2015.
Mots clés: danger d'incendie, risque d'incendie, l'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Nov-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Nov-2016
Ref Project

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IEC 60695-1-10
Edition 2.0 2016-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products –
General guidelines
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –

Partie 1-10: Lignes directrices pour l'évaluation des risques du feu des produits

électrotechniques – Lignes directrices générales
IEC 60695-1-10:2016-11(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-10
Edition 2.0 2016-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products –
General guidelines
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –

Partie 1-10: Lignes directrices pour l'évaluation des risques du feu des produits

électrotechniques – Lignes directrices générales
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-3755-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Fire hazards associated with electrotechnical products .................................................... 9

5 Fundamentals of fire hazard testing ............................................................................... 10

5.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Fire hazard and fire risk ........................................................................................ 10

5.2.1 Fire hazard .................................................................................................... 10

5.2.2 Fire risk ......................................................................................................... 12

5.3 Fire scenarios ....................................................................................................... 13

5.4 Fire-safety engineering ......................................................................................... 15

5.5 Fire hazard assessment ........................................................................................ 15

6 Types of fire test ............................................................................................................ 15

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

6.2 Quantitative and qualitative groups of fire tests ..................................................... 15

6.2.1 Quantitative fire tests ..................................................................................... 15

6.2.2 Qualitative fire tests ....................................................................................... 16

6.3 Types of fire tests ................................................................................................. 16

6.3.1 Fire simulation test ........................................................................................ 16

6.3.2 Fire resistance tests ...................................................................................... 16

6.3.3 Tests with regard to reaction to fire ................................................................ 16

6.3.4 Preselection fire tests .................................................................................... 16

6.3.5 Basic property tests ....................................................................................... 17

7 Appropriate use of qualitative fire tests .......................................................................... 17

8 Preparation of requirements and test specifications ....................................................... 17

9 Common ignition sources .............................................................................................. 18

10 Reference documents of TC 89 ..................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) The power output of ignition sources ................................................. 19

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

A.2 Some common electrical and non-electrical ignition sources ................................. 19

A.3 Power source classification in IEC 62368-1 [9] ...................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Guidance publications and test methods ........................................... 21

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 23

Table 1 – Common causes of ignition encountered in electrotechnical products .................... 11

Table 2 – Characteristics of fire stages (from Table 1 in ISO 19706:2011 [22]) ..................... 14

Table A.1 – Examples of ignition sources .............................................................................. 20

Table B.1 – TC 89 guidance publications and test methods .................................................. 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of
electrotechnical products – General guidelines
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-1-10 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89:

Fire hazard testing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) reference to IEC 60695-1-12;
b) modified Introduction and Scope;
c) updated normative references;
d) updated terms and definitions;
e) modified Table 1;
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016
f) addition of Table 2;
g) new text in Subclauses 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4;
h) mandatory text in Clause 8;
i) Annex B changed to Annex A, and modified;
j) new Annex B concerning common ignition sources.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1341/FDIS 89/1347/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51.

This standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-1-11 and IEC 60695-1-12.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can

be found on the IEC website.
IEC 60695-1 consists of the following parts:

Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – General

guidelines

Part 1-11: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Fire hazard

assessment

Part 1-12: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Fire-safety

engineering

Part 1-20: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Ignitability –

General guidance

Part 1-21: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Ignitability –

Summary and relevance of test methods

Part 1-30: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Preselection

testing process – General guidelines

Part 1-40: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Insulating

liquids

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

In the design of any electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards

associated with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective of component, circuit

and equipment design, as well as the choice of materials, is to reduce the risk of fire to a

tolerable level even in the event of reasonably foreseeable (mis)use, malfunction or failure.

This standard, together with its companions, IEC 60695-1-11 and IEC 60695-1-12, provides

guidance on how this is to be accomplished.

The use of compartments with fire-resistant boundaries, and the use of detection and

suppression systems are important methods for the mitigation of fire risk, but are not dealt

with in this standard. Fires involving electrotechnical products can be initiated from external

non-electrical sources. Considerations of this nature are dealt with in an overall fire hazard

assessment.

The aim of the IEC 60695 series of standards is to save lives and property by reducing the

number of fires or reducing the consequences of the fire. This can be accomplished by:

• trying to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energised component part and, in the

event of ignition, to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the

electrotechnical product;

• trying to minimise flame spread beyond the product’s enclosure and to minimise the

harmful effects of fire effluents including heat, smoke, and toxic or corrosive combustion

products.

Assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products is accomplished by performing fire

hazard tests. These tests are divided into two fundamental groups: qualitative fire tests and

quantitative fire tests.

Fire testing of electrotechnical products should, whenever possible, be carried out using

quantitative fire tests having the following characteristics.

a) The test should take into account the circumstances of product use, i.e. contemplated

end-use conditions as well as foreseeable abnormal use. This is because fire conditions

that may be hazardous under one set of circumstances will not necessarily pose the same

threat under a different set.

b) It should be possible to correlate the test results with the harmful effects of fire effluents

referred to above, i.e. the thermal and airborne threats to people and/or property in the

relevant end-use situation. This avoids the creation of artificial, and sometimes distorted,

performance scales with no clear relationship to fire safety.

c) Recognizing that there are usually multiple contributions to the effects of real fires, the

test results should be expressed in well-defined terms and using rational scientific units,

so that the product's contribution to the overall fire effects can be quantitatively assessed

and compared with that of other products’ contributions.

Although quantitative tests are preferred, the characteristics of qualitative fire tests are that

they provide pass/fail and classification results. Under certain circumstances it will be

appropriate to maintain such qualitative test methods or to develop new ones. This part of

IEC 60695-1 establishes the circumstances under which such maintenance or development is

appropriate.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of
electrotechnical products – General guidelines
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695-1 provides general guidance with respect to fire hazard testing on how

to reduce to a tolerable level the risk of fire and the potential effects of fires involving

electrotechnical products. It also serves as a signpost standard to the other guidance

publications in the IEC 60695 series.

It does not give guidance on the use of fire-resistant compartment boundaries or on the use of

detection and suppression systems for the mitigation of fire risk.

It describes the relationship between fire risk and the potential effects of fire, and provides

guidance to IEC product committees on the applicability of qualitative and quantitative fire

tests to the fire hazard assessment of electrotechnical products. Details of the calculation of

fire risk are not included in the scope of this document.

It emphasises the importance of the scenario approach to fire hazard and risk assessment

and discusses criteria intended to ensure the development of technically sound hazard-based

fire test methods.

It discusses the different types of fire tests, in particular the nature of qualitative and

quantitative fire tests. It also describes the circumstances under which it is appropriate for

IEC product committees to maintain or develop qualitative fire tests.

This standard is intended as guidance to IEC committees, and is to be used with respect to

their individual applications.

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of

standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and
ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test

methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically

referred to or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 60079-0, Explosive atmospheres − Part 0: Equipment − General requirements

IEC 60695-1-11, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-11: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – Fire hazard assessment
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016 – 7 –

IEC 60695-1-12, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-12: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – Fire-safety engineering

IEC 60695-1-30, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-30: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – Preselection testing process – General guidelines

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
ISO 13943:2008, Fire safety – Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60695-4:2012 and

ISO 13943:2008 (some of which are reproduced below), as well as the following, apply.

3.1
fire

〈general〉 process of combustion characterized by the emission of heat and fire effluent and

usually accompanied by smoke, flame, glowing or a combination thereof

Note 1 to entry: In the English language, the term “fire” is used to designate three concepts, two of which, fire

(3.2) and fire (3.3), relate to specific types of self-supporting combustion with different meanings and two of them

are designated using two different terms in both French and German.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.96]
3.2
fire

〈controlled〉 self-supporting combustion that has been deliberately arranged to provide useful

effects and is limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.97]
3.3
fire

〈uncontrolled〉 self-supporting combustion that has not been deliberately arranged to provide

useful effects and is not limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.98]
3.4
fire hazard

physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable consequence from fire (3.3)

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.112]
___________
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: IEC/FDIS 60695-1-30:2016.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016
3.5
fire risk

probability of a fire (3.3) combined with a quantified measure of its consequence

Note 1 to entry: It is often calculated as the product of probability and consequence.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.124]
3.6
fire-safety engineering

application of engineering methods based on scientific principles to the development or

assessment of designs in the built environment through the analysis of specific fire scenarios

(3.7) or through the quantification of risk for a group of fire scenarios
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.126]
3.7
fire scenario

qualitative description of the course of a fire (3.3) with respect to time, identifying key events

that characterise the studied fire and differentiate it from other possible fires

Note 1 to entry: It typically defines the ignition and fire growth processes, the fully developed fire stage, the fire

decay stage, and the environment and systems that impact on the course of the fire.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.129]
3.8
intermediate-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of medium dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen for which the maximum dimension is between 1 m and

3 m is usually called an intermediate-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.200]
3.9
large-scale fire test

fire test that cannot be carried out in a typical laboratory chamber, performed on a test

specimen of large dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen of which the maximum dimension is greater than 3 m is

usually called a large-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.205]
3.10
qualitative fire test
fire test which is either:
a) a pass/fail test; or

b) a test which categorizes the behaviour of the test specimen by determining its position in

a rank order of performance
[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.22]
3.11
quantitative fire test

fire test which takes into account the circumstances of product use in which the test

conditions are based on, or are relatable to, the circumstances of use of the test specimen,

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60695-1-10:2016  IEC 2016 – 9 –

and which measures a parameter or parameters, expressed in well-defined terms and using

rational scientific units, which can be used in the quantitative assessment of fire risk

[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.23]
3.12
reaction to fire

response of a test specimen when it is exposed to fire (3.2) under specified conditions in a

fire test

Note 1 to entry: Fire resistance is regarded as a special case and is not normally considered as a reaction to fire

property.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.272]
3.13
real-scale fire test

fire test that simulates a given application, taking into account the real scale, the real way the

item is installed and used, and the environment

Note 1 to entry: Such a fire test normally assumes that the products are used in accordance with the conditions

laid down by the specifier and/or in accordance with normal practice.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.273]
3.14
short-circuit
unintended connection of two nodes of an electrical circuit

Note 1 to entry: Current flow can occur, which could cause circuit damage, overheating, fire or explosion.

3.15
small-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of small dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen of which the maximum dimension is less than 1 m is

usually called a small-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.292]
4 Fire hazards associated with electrotechnical products

The transmission, distribution, storage and utilization of electrical energy can have the

potential to contri
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