Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 2-10: Environment - Description of HEMP environment - Conducted disturbance

IEC 61000-2-10:2021 defines the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) conducted environment that is one of the consequences of a high-altitude nuclear explosion.Those dealing with this subject consider two cases:
high-altitude nuclear explosions;
low-altitude nuclear explosions.  For civil systems the most important case is the high-altitude nuclear explosion. In this case, the other effects of the nuclear explosion such as blast, ground shock, thermal and nuclear ionizing radiation are not present at the ground level. However, the electromagnetic pulse associated with the explosion can cause disruption of, and damage to, communication, electronic and electric power systems thereby upsetting the stability of modern society. The object of this document is to establish a common reference for the conducted HEMP environment in order to select realistic stresses to apply to victim equipment to evaluate their performance. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
a new Annex E has been added to describe the time waveform characteristics of the response of simple linear antennas to aid in the development of test methods;
technical support for this waveform is provided in Annex E.
a procedure to use the waveforms presented in Annex E along with the peak values previously provided in Annex C is provided.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Nov-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Nov-2021
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IEC 61000-2-10
Edition 2.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 2-10: Environment – Description of HEMP environment – Conducted
disturbance
IEC 61000-2-10:2021-11(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61000-2-10
Edition 2.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 2-10: Environment – Description of HEMP environment – Conducted
disturbance
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.100.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-1050-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 General ......................................................................................................................... 12

5 Description of HEMP environment, conducted parameters ............................................. 13

5.1 Introductory remarks ............................................................................................. 13

5.2 Early-time HEMP external conducted environment ................................................ 13

5.3 Intermediate-time HEMP external conducted environment..................................... 15

5.4 Late-time HEMP external conducted environment ................................................. 15

5.5 Antenna currents .................................................................................................. 17

5.6 HEMP internal conducted environments ................................................................ 21

Annex A (informative) Discussion of early-time HEMP coupling for long lines ...................... 23

A.1 Elevated line coupling ........................................................................................... 23

A.2 Buried line coupling .............................................................................................. 24

Annex B (informative) Discussion of intermediate-time HEMP coupling for long lines ........... 26

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

B.2 Elevated line coupling ........................................................................................... 26

B.3 Buried line coupling .............................................................................................. 26

Annex C (informative) Responses of simple linear antennas to the IEC early-time

HEMP environment ............................................................................................................... 28

C.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 28

C.2 IEC early-time HEMP environment ........................................................................ 28

C.3 Evaluation of the antenna responses .................................................................... 31

C.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

C.3.2 Monopole antenna ......................................................................................... 31

C.3.3 Dipole antenna .............................................................................................. 32

C.4 Calculated results ................................................................................................. 33

C.5 Summary of results ............................................................................................... 34

Annex D (informative) Measured cable currents inside telephone buildings .......................... 43

Annex E (informative) Time waveform description for the responses of simple linear

antennas to the early-time HEMP environment ...................................................................... 44

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 44

E.2 Description of the recommended waveform ........................................................... 44

E.3 Procedure for determining the test waveform ........................................................ 46

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 47

Figure 1 – Geometry for the definition of polarization and of the angles of elevation ψ

and azimuth φ ......................................................................................................................... 9

Figure 2 – Geometry for the definition of the plane wave ....................................................... 10

Figure 3 – Geomagnetic dip angle ........................................................................................ 11

Figure 4 – Three-phase line and equivalent circuit for computing late-time HEMP

conducted current ................................................................................................................. 16

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IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
Figure 5 – Centre-loaded dipole antenna of length l and radius a, excited by an

incident early-time HEMP field .............................................................................................. 18

Figure A.1 – Variation of peak coupled cable current versus local geomagnetic dip

angle .................................................................................................................................... 23

Figure C.1 – Illustration of the incident HEMP field ............................................................... 29

Figure C.2 – HEMP tangent radius R defining the illuminated region, shown as a

function of burst height (HOB) ............................................................................................... 29

Figure C.3 – Geometry of the monopole antenna .................................................................. 32

Figure C.4 – Geometry of the dipole antenna ........................................................................ 33

Figure C.5 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 1 m

vertical monopole antenna load currents and voltages .......................................................... 34

Figure C.6 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 3 m

vertical monopole antenna load currents and voltages .......................................................... 35

Figure C.7 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 10 m

vertical monopole antenna load currents and voltages .......................................................... 36

Figure C.8 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 100 m

vertical monopole antenna load currents and voltages .......................................................... 37

Figure C.9 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 1 m

horizontal dipole antenna load currents and voltages ............................................................ 38

Figure C.10 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 3 m

horizontal dipole antenna load currents and voltages ............................................................ 39

Figure C.11 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 10 m

horizontal dipole antenna load currents and voltages ............................................................ 40

Figure C.12 – Cumulative probability distributions for the peak responses for the 100 m

horizontal dipole antenna load current and voltages .............................................................. 41

Figure C.13 – Plot of multiplicative correction factors for correcting the values of V ,

I , I and V for antennas having other L/a ratios ............................................................... 42

sc L L
Figure E.1 – Comparison of a computation and an analytic formula for a 1 m wire

illuminated by the E HEMP with the field parallel to the wire (and no ground present) [11] . 45

Figure E.2 – General waveform of the damped oscillatory waveform from

IEC 61000-4-18 [14].............................................................................................................. 45

Table 1 – Early-time HEMP conducted common-mode short-circuit currents including

the time history and peak value I as a function of severity level, length L (in metres)

and ground conductivity σ ................................................................................................... 14

Table 2 – Intermediate-time HEMP conducted common-mode short-circuit currents

including the time history and peak value I as a function of length L (in metres) and

ground conductivity σ .......................................................................................................... 15

Table 3 – Maximum peak electric dipole antenna load current versus frequency for

antenna principal frequencies ............................................................................................... 19

Table 4 – HEMP response levels for V for the vertical monopole antenna .......................... 19

Table 5 – HEMP response levels for I for the vertical monopole antenna ........................... 20

Table 6 – HEMP response levels for I for the loaded vertical monopole antenna ............... 20

Table 7 – HEMP response levels for V for the horizontal dipole antenna ........................... 20

Table 8 – HEMP response levels for I for the horizontal dipole antenna ............................ 21

Table 9 – HEMP response levels for I for the loaded horizontal dipole antenna ................. 21

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– 4 – IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021

Table A.1 – Rectified impulse (RI) and computed effective pulse widths for vertical

polarization of the early-time HEMP for an elevated conductor (h = 10 m) ............................. 24

Table A.2 – Coupled early-time HEMP currents for a buried conductor (z = –1 m) ................. 25

Table A.3 – Waveform parameters for early-time HEMP buried conductor coupling

(z = −1 m) ............................................................................................................................. 25

Table A.4 –Average waveform parameters for early-time HEMP buried conductor

currents ................................................................................................................................ 25

Table B.1 – Coupled HEMP intermediate-time short-circuit currents for an elevated

conductor (h = 10 m) ............................................................................................................. 26

Table B.2 – Coupled HEMP intermediate-time short-circuit currents for a buried

conductor (h = –1 m) ............................................................................................................. 26

Table D.1 – Estimated internal peak-to-peak cable currents (I ) from direct HEMP

illumination (from [8]) ............................................................................................................ 43

Table D.2 – Damped sinusoid waveform characteristics for internal cable currents

(measured) (from [8]) ............................................................................................................ 43

Table E.1 – Waveform parameters to be used in Formula (E.1) ............................................. 46

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IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 2-10: Environment – Description of HEMP environment –
Conducted disturbance
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 61000-2-10 has been prepared by subcommittee 77C: High power transient phenomena,

of IEC technical committee 77: Electromagnetic compatibility. It is an International Standard.

It forms Part 2-10 of IEC 61000. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with

IEC Guide 107.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) a new Annex E has been added to describe the time waveform characteristics of the

response of simple linear antennas to aid in the development of test methods;
b) technical support for this waveform is provided in Annex E.
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– 6 – IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021

c) a procedure to use the waveforms presented in Annex E along with the peak values

previously provided in Annex C is provided.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
77C/318/FDIS 77C/321/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61000 series, published under the general title Electromagnetic

compatibility, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION
IEC 61000 is published in separate parts according to the following structure:
Part 1: General
General considerations (introduction, fundamental principles)
Definitions, terminology
Part 2: Environment
Description of the environment
Classification of the environment
Compatibility levels
Part 3: Limits
Emission limits

Immunity limits (insofar as these limits do not fall under the responsibility of the product

committees)
Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Measurement techniques
Testing techniques
Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines
Installation guidelines
Mitigation methods and devices
Part 6: Generic standards
Part 9: Miscellaneous

Each part is further subdivided into several parts, published either as international standards

or as technical specifications or technical reports, some of which have already been published

as sections. Others will be published with the part number followed by a dash and a second

number identifying the subdivision (example: IEC 61000-6-1).

The IEC has initiated the preparation of standardized methods to protect civilian society from

the effects of high-power electromagnetic environments including the high-altitude

electromagnetic pulse. Such environments could disrupt systems for communications, electric

power, information technology, etc.

This part of IEC 61000 is an international standard that establishes the HEMP conducted

disturbances that are the result of coupling by the radiated HEMP disturbances.
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– 8 – IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 2-10: Environment – Description of HEMP environment –
Conducted disturbance
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61000 defines the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) conducted

environment that is one of the consequences of a high-altitude nuclear explosion.

Those dealing with this subject consider two cases:
– high-altitude nuclear explosions;
– low-altitude nuclear explosions.

For civil systems the most important case is the high-altitude nuclear explosion. In this case,

the other effects of the nuclear explosion such as blast, ground shock, thermal and nuclear

ionizing radiation are not present at the ground level.

However, the electromagnetic pulse associated with the explosion can cause disruption of, and

damage to, communication, electronic and electric power systems thereby upsetting the stability

of modern society.

The object of this document is to establish a common reference for the conducted HEMP

environment in order to select realistic stresses to apply to victim equipment to evaluate their

performance.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 61000-2-9, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 2: Environment – Section 9:

Description of HEMP environment – Radiated disturbance

IEC 61000-4-24, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-24: Testing and measurement

techniques – Test methods for protective devices for HEMP conducted disturbance
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
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IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.1
angle of elevation ψ

angle ψ measured in the vertical plane between a flat horizontal surface such as the ground

and the propagation vector
SEE: Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Geometry for the definition of polarization and
of the angles of elevation ψ and azimuth φ
3.2
azimuth angle φ

angle between the projection of the propagation vector on the ground plane and the principal

axis of the victim object
Note 1 to entry: It is the z axis for the transmission line of Figure 1.
3.3
composite waveform
waveform which maximizes the important features of a waveform
3.4
coupling

interaction of the HEMP field with a system to produce currents and voltages on system surfaces

and cables

Note 1 to entry: Voltages result from the induced charges and are only defined at low frequencies with wavelengths

larger than the surface or gap dimensions
3.5
direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave

direction of the propagation vector 𝑘𝑘, perpendicular to the plane containing the vectors of the

electric and magnetic fields
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
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– 10 – IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021
Figure 2 – Geometry for the definition of the plane wave
3.6
early-time HEMP electric field
3.7
intermediate-time HEMP electric field
3.8
late-time HEMP electric field
3.9
electromagnetic pulse
EMP

any electromagnetic field waveform abruptly rising and falling in the time domain created by a

nuclear detonation at any altitude
3.10
geomagnetic dip angle
dip

dip angle of the geomagnetic flux density vector , measured from the local horizontal in the

magnetic north-south plane

Note 1 to entry: θ = 90° at the magnetic north pole, –90° at the magnetic south pole (see Figure 3).

dip
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
Figure 3 – Geomagnetic dip angle
3.11
high-altitude electromagnetic pulse
HEMP
high-altitude electromagnetic pulse created by a high-altitude nuclear explosion
3.12
high-altitude nuclear explosion
height of burst above 30 km altitude
3.13
horizontal polarization

position of the electromagnetic wave in which the magnetic field vector is in the incidence plane

and the electric field vector is perpendicular to the incidence plane and thus parallel to the

ground plane

Note 1 to entry: This type of polarization is also called perpendicular or transverse electric (TE) (see Figure 1).

3.14
incidence plane
plane formed by the propagation vector and the normal to the ground plane
3.15
low-altitude nuclear explosion
height of burst below 1 km altitude
3.16
NEMP
nuclear EMP
all types of EMP produced by a nuclear explosion
3.17
point-of-entry
PoE

physical location (point) on an electromagnetic barrier, where EM energy can enter or exit a

topological volume, unless an adequate PoE protective device is provided

Note 1 to entry: A PoE is not limited to a geometrical point. PoEs are classified as aperture PoEs or conductive

PoEs according to the type of penetration. They are also classified as architectural, mechanical, structural or

electrical PoEs, according to the functions they serve.
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– 12 – IEC 61000-2-10:2021 © IEC 2021
3.18
pulse width

time interval between the points on the leading and trailing edges of a pulse at which the

instantaneous value is 50 % of the peak pulse amplitude, unless otherwise stated
3.19
rectified impulse

integral of the absolute value of a time waveform’s amplitude over a specified time interval

3.20
rise time

time interval between the instants in which the instantaneous amplitude of a pulse first reaches

specified lower and upper limits, namely 10 % and 90 % of the peak pulse amplitude, unless

otherwise stated
3.21
short-circuit current
value of current that flows when the output terminals of a circuit are shorted

Note 1 to entry: This current is normally of interest when checking the performance of surge protection devices.

3.22
source impedance

impedance presented by a source of energy to the input terminals of a device or network

3.23
vertical polarization

position of the electromagnetic wave in which the electric field vector is in the incidence plane,

and the magnetic field vector is perpendicular to the incidence plane and thus parallel to the

ground plane
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: This type of polarization is also called parallel or transverse magnetic (TM).

4 General

A high-altitude (above 30 km) nuclear burst produces three types of electromagnetic pulses

which are observed on the earth's surface:
1) early-time HEMP (fast);
2) intermediate-time HEMP (medium);
3) late-time HEMP (slow).

Historically most of the interest has been focused on the early-time HEMP which was previously

referred to simply as HEMP. Here the term high-altitude EMP or HEMP will be used to include

all three types. The term nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) cove
...

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