Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment - Part 1: General

IEC 62477-1:2022 applies to power electronic converter systems (PECS), any specified accessories, and their components for electronic power conversion and electronic power switching, including the means for their control, protection, monitoring and measurement, such as with the main purpose of converting electric power, with rated system voltages not exceeding 1 000 V AC or 1 500 V DC.
This document also applies to PECS which intentionally emit or receive radio waves for the purpose of radio communication.
This document can also be used as a reference standard for product committees producing product standards for:
adjustable speed electric power drive systems (PDS);
standalone uninterruptible power systems (UPS);
low voltage stabilized DC power supplies;
bidirectional power converters.  For PECS and their specified accessories for which no product standard exists, this document provides minimum requirements for safety aspects.
This document has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 for power electronic converter systems for solar, wind, tidal, wave, fuel cell or similar energy sources.
According to IEC Guide 104, one of the responsibilities of technical committees is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications and/or group safety publications in the preparation of their product standards.
Guidance for use of this group safety publication for product committees is given in Annex S.
This document
establishes a common terminology for safety aspects relating to PECS,
establishes minimum requirements for the coordination of safety aspects of interrelated parts within a PECS,
establishes a common basis for minimum safety requirements for the PECS portion of products that contain PECS,
specifies requirements to reduce risks of fire, electric shock, thermal, energy and mechanical hazards, during use and operation and, where specifically stated, during service and maintenance, and
specifies minimum requirements to reduce risks with respect to PECS designed as pluggable and permanently connected equipment, whether it consists of a system of interconnected units or independent units, subject to installing, operating and maintaining the PECS in the manner prescribed by the manufacturer.  This document does not cover
telecommunications apparatus other than power supplies to such apparatus,
functional safety aspects as covered by, for example, IEC 61508 (all parts), and
electrical equipment and systems for railways applications and electric vehicles.  This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) PECS emitting or receiving radio waves added in the Scope; b) simplification of the concept of DVC As including the voltage-time-zones; c) improved consistency of the concept "protection" versus "insulation" according to IEC 61140; d) limits for touch current updated and limits for PE conductor currents added; e) thin sheet of tape materials reworked and tests added; f) inner layers of multi-layer printed wiring boards added; g) mechanical hazards updated; h) requirements for enclosures updated; i) requirements for wiring and connections updated; j) polymeric enclosure requirements updated; k) requirements for components added; l) several test added (e.g. UV, working voltage, SPD, preconditioning); m) information and marking requirements updated; n) requirements for the contrast of symbols added; o) several annexes updated.

Exigences de sécurité applicables aux systèmes et matériels électroniques de conversion de puissance - Partie 1: Généralités

L'IEC 62477-1:2022 s'applique aux systèmes électroniques de conversion de puissance (PECS), à tout accessoire spécifié, ainsi qu'à leurs composants pour la conversion de puissance électronique et la commande (ouverture et fermeture) électronique de puissance, y compris les moyens de commande, de protection, de surveillance et de mesure, qui ont pour principale fonction la conversion de puissance électrique, d'une tension système assignée qui ne dépasse pas 1 000 V en courant alternatif ou 1 500 V en courant continu.
Le présent document s'applique également aux PECS qui émettent ou reçoivent intentionnellement des ondes radioélectriques à des fins de radiocommunication.
Le présent document peut également être utilisé comme norme de référence par les comités de produits qui élaborent des normes de produits applicables aux:
systèmes d'entraînement électrique de puissance à vitesse variable (PDS, Power Drive Systems);
alimentations sans interruption (ASI) autonomes;
alimentations stabilisées basse tension en courant continu;
convertisseurs de puissance bidirectionnels.  Pour les PECS et leurs accessoires spécifiés pour lesquels il n'existe pas de norme de produits, le présent document spécifie des exigences minimales pour les aspects de sécurité.
Le présent document a le statut d'une publication groupée de sécurité conformément au Guide 104 de l'IEC applicable aux systèmes électroniques de conversion de puissance pour énergie solaire, éolienne, des marées, des vagues, des piles à combustible ou sources d'énergie analogues.
Conformément au Guide 104 de l'IEC, il incombe aux comités d'études d'utiliser, dans toute la mesure du possible, les publications fondamentales de sécurité et/ou les publications groupées de sécurité pour l'élaboration de leurs normes de produits.
Les recommandations relatives à l'utilisation de la présente publication groupée de sécurité pour les comités de produits sont données à l'Annexe S.
Le présent document
établit une terminologie commune applicable aux aspects de sécurité concernant les matériels et les PECS,
établit les exigences minimales pour la coordination des aspects de sécurité des parties interconnectées au sein d'un PECS,
établit une base commune applicable aux exigences minimales de sécurité de la partie du convertisseur électronique de puissance (PEC) des produits qui comprennent un PECS,
spécifie les exigences qui permettent de réduire les risques d'incendie, de choc électrique, les dangers thermiques, mécaniques et dus à l'énergie électrique, en cours d'utilisation et de fonctionnement et, lorsque cela est spécifiquement indiqué, au cours des opérations d'entretien et de maintenance, et
spécifie les exigences minimales qui permettent de réduire les risques concernant les PECS conçus comme des équipements enfichables et reliés en permanence, qu'ils soient constitués d'un système d'unités interconnectées ou d'unités indépendantes, qui font l'objet d'opérations d'installation, de fonctionnement et d'entretien du PECS, comme cela est spécifié par le fabricant.  Le présent document ne couvre pas
les appareils de télécommunications autres que les alimentations pour ce type d'appareil,
les aspects de sécurité fonctionnelle traités, par exemple, par l'IEC 61508 (toutes les parties), et

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-May-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
20-May-2022
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IEC 62477-1
Edition 2.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
GROUP SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION GROUPÉE DE SÉCURITÉ
Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment –
Part 1: General
Exigences de sécurité applicables aux systèmes et matériels électroniques de
conversion de puissance –
Partie 1: Généralités
IEC 62477-1:2022-05(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62477-1
Edition 2.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
GROUP SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION GROUPÉE DE SÉCURITÉ
Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment –
Part 1: General
Exigences de sécurité applicables aux systèmes et matériels électroniques de
conversion de puissance –
Partie 1: Généralités
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-2199-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62477-1:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 11

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 14

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 16

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 17

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 20

4 Protection against hazards ............................................................................................ 33

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 33

4.2 Single fault conditions and abnormal operating conditions .................................... 33

4.3 Short-circuit and overload protection ..................................................................... 34

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

4.3.2 Input short-circuit withstand strength and output short-circuit current

ability ............................................................................................................. 36

4.3.3 Short-circuit coordination (backup protection) ................................................ 37

4.3.4 Protection by several devices ........................................................................ 37

4.4 Protection against electric shock ........................................................................... 37

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

4.4.2 Decisive voltage class ................................................................................... 40

4.4.3 Means for basic protection (protection against direct contact) ........................ 44

4.4.4 Means for fault protection (protection against indirect contact) ...................... 45

4.4.5 Means for enhanced protection ...................................................................... 55

4.4.6 Protective means for equipment classes ........................................................ 56

4.4.7 Insulation ....................................................................................................... 58

4.4.8 Compatibility with residual current-operated protective devices (RCD) ........... 75

4.4.9 Capacitor discharge ....................................................................................... 76

4.5 Protection against electrical energy hazards ......................................................... 76

4.5.1 General access areas .................................................................................... 76

4.5.2 Service access areas ..................................................................................... 77

4.6 Protection against fire and thermal hazards .......................................................... 77

4.6.1 Circuits representing a fire hazard ................................................................. 77

4.6.2 Components representing a fire hazard ......................................................... 77

4.6.3 Fire enclosures .............................................................................................. 79

4.6.4 Temperature limits ......................................................................................... 83

4.6.5 Limited power sources ................................................................................... 86

4.7 Protection against mechanical hazards ................................................................. 87

4.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 87

4.7.2 Specific requirements for liquid cooled PECS ................................................ 88

4.7.3 Mechanical hazards from rotating parts ......................................................... 89

4.7.4 Sharp edges .................................................................................................. 90

4.8 PECS with multiple sources of supply ................................................................... 90

4.9 Protection against environmental stresses ............................................................ 91

4.10 Protection against excessive acoustic noise hazards ............................................ 92

4.11 Wiring and connections ......................................................................................... 93

4.11.1 General ......................................................................................................... 93

4.11.2 Insulation of conductors ................................................................................. 93

4.11.3 Stranded wire ................................................................................................ 95

4.11.4 Routing and clamping .................................................................................... 95

4.11.5 Identification of conductors and terminals ...................................................... 95

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IEC 62477-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

4.11.6 Splices and connections ................................................................................ 96

4.11.7 Accessible connections ................................................................................. 96

4.11.8 Interconnections between parts of the PECS ................................................. 97

4.11.9 Supply connections........................................................................................ 97

4.11.10 Field wiring terminals and internal terminals .................................................. 99

4.11.11 Means for shield connection of shielded wire or shielded cable ................... 101

4.12 Enclosures .......................................................................................................... 101

4.12.1 General ....................................................................................................... 101

4.12.2 Handles and manual controls ....................................................................... 102

4.12.3 Cast metal ................................................................................................... 102

4.12.4 Sheet metal ................................................................................................. 103

4.12.5 Stability requirement for enclosure............................................................... 105

4.12.6 Strain relief .................................................................................................. 106

4.12.7 Polymeric enclosure stress relief ................................................................. 106

4.12.8 Polymeric enclosure UV resistance .............................................................. 106

4.13 Components ....................................................................................................... 106

4.13.1 General ....................................................................................................... 106

4.13.2 PTC thermistors ........................................................................................... 107

4.13.3 Mains supply cords ...................................................................................... 107

4.13.4 Capacitors and RC units bridging insulation ................................................. 107

4.13.5 Wound components ..................................................................................... 107

4.13.6 Plug and socket-outlets ............................................................................... 108

4.14 Protection against electromagnetic fields ............................................................ 108

5 Test requirements ........................................................................................................ 108

5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 108

5.1.1 Test objectives and classification ................................................................. 108

5.1.2 Selection of test samples ............................................................................. 108

5.1.3 Sequence of tests ........................................................................................ 108

5.1.4 Earthing conditions ...................................................................................... 109

5.1.5 General conditions for tests ......................................................................... 109

5.1.6 Compliance ................................................................................................. 110

5.1.7 Test overview .............................................................................................. 110

5.2 Test specifications .............................................................................................. 112

5.2.1 Visual inspection (type test and routine test) ................................................ 112

5.2.2 Mechanical tests .......................................................................................... 112

5.2.3 Electrical tests ............................................................................................. 121

5.2.4 Abnormal operation and simulated faults tests ............................................. 141

5.2.5 Material tests ............................................................................................... 148

5.2.6 Environmental tests (type tests) ................................................................... 153

5.2.7 Hydrostatic pressure test (type test, routine test) ......................................... 157

5.2.8 Electromagnetic fields (EMF) ....................................................................... 158

6 Information and marking requirements ......................................................................... 158

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 158

6.2 Information for selection ..................................................................................... 160

6.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 160

6.2.2 Instructions and markings pertaining to accessories .................................... 162

6.3 Information for installation and commissioning .................................................... 162

6.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 162

6.3.2 Mechanical considerations ........................................................................... 162

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– 4 – IEC 62477-1:2022 © IEC 2022

6.3.3 Environment ................................................................................................ 162

6.3.4 Handling and mounting ................................................................................ 162

6.3.5 Enclosure temperature................................................................................. 163

6.3.6 Open type PECS ......................................................................................... 163

6.3.7 Connections ................................................................................................ 163

6.3.8 Commissioning ............................................................................................ 165

6.3.9 Protection requirements ............................................................................... 165

6.4 Information for intended use ............................................................................... 167

6.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 167

6.4.2 Adjustment .................................................................................................. 167

6.4.3 Labels, signs, symbols and signals .............................................................. 168

6.4.4 Hot surfaces ................................................................................................ 170

6.4.5 Control and device marking ......................................................................... 170

6.5 Supplementary information ................................................................................. 170

6.5.1 Maintenance ................................................................................................ 170

6.5.2 Capacitor discharge ..................................................................................... 171

6.5.3 Auto restart/bypass connection .................................................................... 171

6.5.4 Other hazards .............................................................................................. 171

6.5.5 PECS with multiple sources of supply .......................................................... 171

6.5.6 Replaceable fuses in neutral of single-phase PECS ..................................... 171

Annex A (normative) Additional information for protection against electric shock ............... 173

A.1 General ............................................................................................................... 173

A.2 Protection by means of DVC As .......................................................................... 173

A.3 Protection by means of protective impedance ..................................................... 173

A.4 Protection by using limited voltages .................................................................... 174

A.5 Evaluation of the working voltage of circuits ........................................................ 175

A.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 175

A.5.2 Classification of the working voltage ............................................................ 175

A.5.3 AC working voltage ...................................................................................... 176

A.5.4 DC working voltage...................................................................................... 176

A.5.5 Pulsating working voltage ............................................................................ 177

A.6 The concept of protective means according to 4.4 ............................................... 178

A.6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 178

A.6.2 Examples of the use of elements of protective means .................................. 178

Annex B (informative) Considerations for the reduction of the pollution degree .................. 180

B.1 General ............................................................................................................... 180

B.2 Factors influencing the pollution degree .............................................................. 180

B.3 Reduction of influencing factors .......................................................................... 180

Annex C (informative) Symbols referred to in this document .............................................. 181

C.1 Symbols used ..................................................................................................... 181

C.2 Determination of contrast .................................................................................... 182

Annex D (normative) Evaluation of clearance and creepage distances ............................... 184

D.1 Measurement ...................................................................................................... 184

D.2 Relationship of measurement to pollution degree ................................................ 184

D.3 Examples ............................................................................................................ 185

Annex E (normative) Altitude correction for clearances ...................................................... 191

E.1 Correction factor for clearances at altitudes above 2 000 m ................................ 191

E.2 Test voltages for verifying clearances at different altitudes ................................. 191

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IEC 62477-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

Annex F (normative) Clearance and creepage distance determination for frequencies

greater than 30 kHz ............................................................................................................ 193

F.1 General influence of the frequency on the withstand characteristics .................... 193

F.2 Clearance ........................................................................................................... 193

F.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 193

F.2.2 Clearance for inhomogenous fields .............................................................. 194

F.2.3 Clearance for approximately homogenous fields .......................................... 195

F.3 Creepage distance .............................................................................................. 196

F.4 Solid insulation ................................................................................................... 197

F.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 197

F.4.2 Approximately uniform field distribution without air gaps or voids ................. 197

F.4.3 Other cases ................................................................................................. 198

Annex G (informative) Cross-sections of round conductors ................................................ 199

Annex H (informative) Guidelines for RCD compatibility ..................................................... 200

H.1 Selection of RCD type ......................................................................................... 200

H.2 Fault current waveforms ...................................................................................... 201

Annex I (informative) Examples of overvoltage category reduction ..................................... 204

I.1 General ............................................................................................................... 204

I.2 Protection to the surroundings (see 4.4.7.2) ........................................................ 204

I.2.1 Circuits connected to mains supply (see 4.4.7.2.3) ...................................... 204

I.2.2 Circuits connected to the non-mains supply (see 4.4.7.2.4) ......................... 207

I.2.3 Protection between circuits (see 4.4.7.2.7) .................................................. 207

I.3 Functional insulation (see 4.4.7.3) ...................................................................... 208

I.4 Further examples ................................................................................................ 208

I.5 Circuits with multiple supplies (see 4.4.7.2.1) ..................................................... 209

Annex J (informative) Burn thresholds for touchable surfaces ............................................ 210

J.1 General ............................................................................................................... 210

J.2 Burn thresholds................................................................................................... 210

Annex K (informative) Table of electrochemical potentials ................................................. 214

Annex L (informative) Measuring instrument for touch current measurements .................... 215

L.1 Measuring instrument 1 ....................................................................................... 215

L.2 Measuring instrument 2 ....................................................................................... 215

L.3 Measuring instrument 3 ....................................................................................... 216

Annex M (normative) Test probes for determining access .................................................. 217

Annex N (informative) Guidance regarding short-circuit current.......................................... 220

N.1 General ............................................................................................................... 220

N.2 Coordination of short-circuit current .................................................................... 221

N.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 221

N.2.2 Conditional short-circuit current (I ) and minimum required prospective

short-circuit current (I ) ....................................................................... 221

cp, mr

N.2.3 Short-time withstand current (I ) ............................................................... 223

N.3 Guidance for specification of short-circuit current and short-circuit protective

device ................................................................................................................. 224

N.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 224

N.3.2 Example 1: Two or more PECS with different ratings ................................... 225

N.3.3 Specification of I ...................................................................................... 226

N.3.4 Specification of I ..................................................................................... 226

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– 6 – IEC 62477-1:2022 © IEC 2022

N.3.5 Example 2: One PECS with more than one rating ........................................ 227

N.3.6 Additional explanation on terms, definitions and specifications .................... 228

N.4 Short-circuit rating and single fault conditions testing .......................................... 229

N.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 229

N.4.2 Exemption from short-time withstand current testing .................................... 231

N.5 Guideline for short-circuit analysis ...................................................................... 231

Annex O (informative) Guidelines for determination of clearance and creepage

distances ............................................................................................................................ 232

O.1 Guideline for determination of clearances ........................................................... 232

O.2 Guideline for determination of creepage distances .............................................. 233

O.3 Minimum spacings within solid insulation or similar ............................................. 233

Annex P (informative) Protection of persons against electromagnetic fields for

frequencies from 0 Hz up to 300 GHz ...........................................................

...

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