Model and framework for standardization in multimedia equipment and systems

IEC TR 61998:2015(E) provides models and frameworks for the standardization of multimedia technology, being undertaken or to be undertaken by IEC as the result of the IEC PACT report. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1999 and constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- the annexes describing various technologies have been deleted because their roles have ceased over the past two decades;
- TC 100 frameworks are described in more general form and from the viewpoint of the model of data usage and communication including the possible future technologies of TC 100.

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Publication Date
18-Nov-2015
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
19-Nov-2015
Completion Date
19-Nov-2015
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IEC TR 61998
Edition 2.0 2015-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
Model and framework for standardization in multimedia equipment and systems
IEC TR 61998:2015-11(en)
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IEC TR 61998
Edition 2.0 2015-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
Model and framework for standardization in multimedia equipment and systems
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.160.60 ISBN 978-2-8322-2991-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 7

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 7

4 Generic model ............................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Physical and logical connectivity ............................................................................ 8

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 8

4.2.2 Information transfer media .............................................................................. 9

4.2.3 Transferred data structure ............................................................................ 10

4.3 Easy operation .................................................................................................... 12

4.4 Security .............................................................................................................. 13

5 Specific models ........................................................................................................... 13

5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 13

5.2 Multimedia data ................................................................................................... 13

5.3 Data creation ...................................................................................................... 14

5.4 Equipment structure ............................................................................................ 14

5.5 User interface ..................................................................................................... 15

5.6 Distribution and management .............................................................................. 15

5.7 Open system interconnection with media ............................................................. 15

5.7.1 Specific layers ............................................................................................. 15

5.7.2 Application layer .......................................................................................... 17

5.7.3 Presentation layer ........................................................................................ 17

5.7.4 File layer ..................................................................................................... 18

5.7.5 Logical storage layer .................................................................................... 18

5.7.6 Physical storage layer .................................................................................. 18

5.7.7 Physical layer .............................................................................................. 18

5.8 Application specific modeling ............................................................................... 19

5.9 TC 100 frameworks ............................................................................................. 19

5.9.1 TC 100 model .............................................................................................. 19

5.9.2 TC 100 model and user communication ........................................................ 21

5.9.3 Networked TC 100 model ............................................................................. 22

5.9.4 Environmental aspect of the TC 100 model ................................................... 23

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Generic model ...................................................................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Model of physical and logical connectivity ............................................................. 9

Figure 3 – Intersystem model ................................................................................................ 9

Figure 4 – Inter-device (intra-system) model ........................................................................ 10

Figure 5 – Data structure in intersystem/intercommunication media ..................................... 11

Figure 6 – Data structure in intersystem/interchangeable storage media .............................. 11

Figure 7 – Generic model for user-system interfaces ........................................................... 12

Figure 8 – Generic model for security .................................................................................. 13

Figure 9 – Dexter model ...................................................................................................... 14

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IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

Figure 10 – Systems and equipment model ......................................................................... 15

Figure 11 – Seven layer reference model and peer formats .................................................. 16

Figure 12 – Information interchange involving open systems for medium conversion ........... 17

Figure 13 – TC 100 model ................................................................................................... 20

Figure 14 – TC 100 model and user communication ............................................................. 22

Figure 15 – Networked TC 100 models ................................................................................ 23

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– 4 – IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MODEL AND FRAMEWORK FOR STANDARDIZATION
IN MULTIMEDIA EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 61998, which is a technical report, has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100:

Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1999 and constitutes a

technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) the annexes describing various technologies have been deleted because their roles have

ceased over the past two decades;
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –

b) TC 100 frameworks are described in more general form and from the viewpoint of the

model of data usage and communication including the possible future technologies of

TC 100.
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
100/2528/DTR 100/2576/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
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– 6 – IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015
INTRODUCTION

Multimedia technology covers a wide range of technical areas and involves a number of

technical elements. Most of the technical elements for multimedia are now being developed

and updated. IEC standardization activities on the multimedia technology, therefore, should

be carried out with enough discussions and clarifications on

• position and relationship of the technology to be standardized among the collection of

related technologies,
• scope and framework/guideline of the standardization,
• appropriate standardization organisation having the responsibility,
• schedule of the standardization,

• relationship between new work items and the existing standards on multimedia or single

medium technology.

These discussions should be based on appropriate multimedia technology models to create a

framework for multimedia standardization.

The first edition of this Technical Report was a snapshot of these discussions in IEC/TC 100

with consideration of the draft IEC PACT (President's Advisory Committee on Future

Technology) report which was a study and foreseer on future technology. After that, TC 100

had been engaged in standardization of audio, video and multimedia equipment and systems

for over ten years.

In 2010, TC 100/AGS (Advisory Group on Strategy) started to study future technology again

because some of ten years of progress of technology had reached beyond the IEC PACT

foreseer. The study was FT-TG (Future Technology Task Force) that studied the technology

forecast in the near future and resulted to raise Study Sessions in AGS to initiate the new

technology areas in TC 100. At the same time, the need to revise IEC TR 61998 was

recognized.

This new edition of this Technical Report is based on the IEC PACT report and redefines the

TC 100 system model to initiate the future TC 100 standardization work. This Technical

Report is expected to contribute as a guideline for IEC standardization experts and National

Committees interested in multimedia equipment and systems.
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IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015 – 7 –
MODEL AND FRAMEWORK FOR STANDARDIZATION
IN MULTIMEDIA EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides models and frameworks for the standardization of multimedia

technology, being undertaken or to be undertaken by IEC as the result of the IEC PACT report.

2 Normative references
Void.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
originator

entity, system or device that provides information or service, or container which includes

information or service
3.2
recipient

entity, system, operator or device that receives information or service, or container which

includes information or service
3.3
multimedia technology
systematic co-ordination of different single medium technologies
4 Generic model
4.1 General
The generic model clarifies AV and IT multimedia technology and its boundaries.
Standardization is in general required to obtain the following:
• physical and logical connectivity;
• usability and accessibility;
• identification;
• quality;
• safety and security;
• easy implementation;
• ecological considerations;
• energy efficiency;
• environmental safeguards.
The major purposes of multimedia standardization are:
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– 8 – IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015
• physical and logical connectivity

Multimedia data interchange and distribution are based on communication media and

interchangeable storage media. Protocols, formats, interfaces, and other data structures

of the media are required to be standardized. The features of multimedia data, in

particular, make those standards more complicated than in the case of a single medium.

• usability and accessibility
Multimedia systems contain a number of basic single medium parts, each of which

requires appropriate interaction with any users or other systems. In order to realise

feasible and human-recognisable operation for the multimedia systems, simplified and

standardized user-system interfaces are essential.
• safety and security

Multimedia equipment and systems form or will form a basic and important infrastructure

of national and international activity. Some multimedia data are required to be highly

secured. Some systems are required to be strongly protected and besides their operation

should be comfortable and safe for operators whose sense organs need to access

concurrently to their corresponding media; visible, audible, and other sensible media. Safe

and secured environments should be implemented by being based on some guideline and

standards.

All the subjects to be standardized for this purpose can be modelled by the relationship

between an originator and a recipient as shown in Figure 1.
Originator Recipient
Relationship
IEC
Figure 1 – Generic model

Each multimedia technology for the relationship should be discussed along with appropriate

axes defined to describe corresponding features of the relationship.
4.2 Physical and logical connectivity
4.2.1 General

When considering physical and logical connectivity, as presented in Figure 2, an originator is

positioned to be an entity, system or device which provides information. A recipient should be

an entity, system or device which receives the information. They are reconnected with each

other by a relationship: information transfer. The information transfer can be carried out by

different types of information transfer media. Another aspect of the information transfer is a

structure of data to be transferred by the medium.
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IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015 – 9 –
Information Information
originator recipient
Information
transfer
Information transfer media
(see 4.2.2)
Information data structure
(see 4.2.3)
IEC
Figure 2 – Model of physical and logical connectivity
4.2.2 Information transfer media
4.2.2.1 Intersystem model
The physical media for information transfer between systems are classified into:
• Broadcasting media

Broadcasting media support simultaneous information transfer to a number of recipients.

Examples of the wireless broadcasting media are BS, CS and terrestrial.
• Intercommunication media

Intercommunication media support information transfer between two or more systems at a

time. Examples of intercommunication media are Internet, WAN, LAN and any area
network.
• Interchangeable storage media

Interchangeable storage media (ISM), e.g., optical disks facilitate data transfer by allowing

the physical movement of the ISM from system to system. Large amounts of data transfer

can inexpensively and quickly be realised by using interchangeable storage media.

Flash memory, hard disk drive are classified as ISM.
They associate open systems as described in Figure 3.
Open system Open system
Inter-system
information
transfer media
IEC
Figure 3 – Intersystem model
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– 10 – IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015
4.2.2.2 Inter-device (intra-system) model

Mechanisms for information interchange between devices or subsystems within a larger

system are referred to as interfaces. Examples of the interfaces are:
• computer and peripheral interface such as USB and Wi-Fi direct;
• monitor display interface such as DVI, DisplayPort, HDMI;

• consumer equipment interface employed, for instance, IR, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth , and NFC.

Devices or subsystems interact as shown in Figure 4.
Device
Device
Intra-system
information
transfer media
IEC
Figure 4 – Inter-device (intra-system) model
4.2.2.3 Boundary model
Some information transfer media can be used both between systems and between
devices/subsystems. Examples are:
• IR communication;
• LAN/WAN;
• Internet.
4.2.3 Transferred data structure
4.2.3.1 Data structure in intersystem/intercommunication media

Transferred data structures employed in intersystem/intercommunication environment may be

represented by the OSI layered model which was standardized by ISO/IEC 7498-1. The data

structure consists of seven layered protocols, semantic and syntactic behaviors of which are

defined and treated in corresponding peer-to-peer entities within communicating open

systems.

The top layer entities for application protocols provide services to their application itself within

an open system. Application data which are outside the scope of the OSI model can be

considered from the following points of view:
• Content

A major feature of multimedia systems is that multiple types of content data are supported

by the systems.
• Structure

Multiple types of content data are integrated into a structure which is appropriate for the

application. An instance of multimedia data structure modelling is shown in 5.1.
_______________
Bluetooth is the trade name of Bluetooth SIG.

This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement

by IEC of the product named. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

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IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015 – 11 –
• Creation

The structured application data are sometimes created step by step. The data from each

step can be transferred between corresponding applications. Instances of modelling of

multimedia data creation are shown in 5.2.
Figure 5 shows the data structure in intersystem/intercommunication media.
Originator Recipient
Relationship
Relationship
Content
Creation
(incl. presentation)
Open system Open sysem
Peer-to-peer
protocols
OSI model
IEC
Figure 5 – Data structure in intersystem/intercommunication media
4.2.3.2 Data structure in intersystem/interchangeable storage media

Transferred data structure employed in an intersystem/interchangeable storage media (ISM)

environment can be represented similarly to the data in intersystem/intercommunication. ISM

are physically moved between systems to transfer the data on the storage media. To allow

open data transfer, the data formats and profiles on the media should be standardized as

relationships between systems. Logical structures such as volume and file are defined on

physical structures such as track and sector to configure a layered structure.

Application data on file structure should be treated in the same manner as those on

intersystem/telecommunication media, see Figure 6.
Open system Open system
Peer-to-peer formats
- Logical format
- Physical format
IEC
Figure 6 – Data structure in intersystem/interchangeable storage media
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– 12 – IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015

Some detailed discussions of data structure modeling for open system interconnection with

media are shown in 5.6.
4.2.3.3 Data structure in inter-device model

Data structure in inter-device model is also modeled in a layered manner. As far as a display

monitor interface is concerned, for example, the type and dimensions of the connector and

cable should be considered in its physical layer.
4.3 Easy operation

Multimedia user-system interfaces are described as a relationship between a multimedia

system and an operator. Under this relationship, a system can provide information and

services to an operator and vice versa.

The relationship can be implemented with several information types corresponding to sensing

organs, such as:
• visual;
• auditory;
• tactile;
• olfactory;
• acceleration-sensing.

The information and services between system and operator can be classified into several

layers:
• semantics/ontology;
• state/learning;
• primitive action/gesture.

Considering those aspects of multimedia user-system interfaces, they can be described by

the generic model in Figure 7.
System Operator
Information and
service transfer
Information types
e.g. visual
Information and service
structure
- semantics/ontology
- state/learning
- primitive action
IEC
Figure 7 – Generic model for user-system interfaces
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IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015 – 13 –
4.4 Security

All aspects of security can be treated as protection against some interrupts intervening

between originator and recipient, and some intrudes to information originator and information

recipient in the generic model.

Interrupt and intrude exist to both physical and logical/cyber aspects of a system and pieces

of equipment.
Due to the protection,
• confidentiality,
• integrity, and
• availability
are satisfied in the information transfer between them.

Security mechanisms, e.g., encryption, authentication, access control, should be considered

from the point of view of both the media and data structure of the information transfer.

Figure 8 suggests a generic model for security.

NOTE IEC 62045-1 describes the physical aspects of an interrupt and intrude to system and equipment, and

guidance for protection. The IEC 62443 series specifies a secure method against cyber attack through the network.

Intrude Interrupt Intrude
Information Information
originator recipient
Information transfer
Media
Data structure
IEC
Figure 8 – Generic model for security
5 Specific models
5.1 General

Parts of the generic model discussed in Clause 4 can be described from different points of

view to configure different specific models. In this clause, typical specific models are shown to

clarify the technology to be standardized.
5.2 Multimedia data

Modeling of the application data structure described in 4.2.3.1 and 4.2.3.2 is discussed in

detail.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC TR 61998:2015 © IEC 2015

Multimedia data, content and service structure and format consists of a number of information

containers which include several types of content. In addition, multimedia information may

include hyperlinks for flexible access to specified objects. These structures are described by

structure models.

An example of a structure model is the Dexter model, which consists of three layers, run-time

layer, storage layer and within-component layer. The model is shown in Figure 9. Each layer

is interfaced with presentation specifications and anchoring.

The within-component layer is the content and its structure. A component means an

abstraction of an entity, which is called a node in some hypertext networks. The component is

treated as a generic container of contents. Some content types could be character stream,

geometric graphics, raster graphics, animation, etc.
The
...

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