Conceptual model of standardization for haptic multimedia systems

IEC TR 63344:2021(E) describes the conceptual model of vibro-tactile-based haptics in multimedia systems and equipment used in electrical appliances, computer interfaces, automobiles, amusements, and communication devices. This model describes possible standardization items.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Nov-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
10-Nov-2021
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IEC TR 63344
Edition 1.0 2021-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
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Conceptual model of standardization for haptic multimedia systems
IEC TR 63344:2021-11(en)
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IEC TR 63344
Edition 1.0 2021-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Conceptual model of standardization for haptic multimedia systems
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.160.60 ISBN 978-2-8322-1047-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Overview of haptics in multimedia systems .................................................................... 10

4.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 10

4.2 Device categories ................................................................................................. 10

4.3 Items of standardization ........................................................................................ 11

4.4 Purposes of haptic feedback ................................................................................. 12

4.5 Reality class ......................................................................................................... 12

4.6 Interaction modality ............................................................................................... 12

4.7 Data format and network topology ......................................................................... 13

4.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.7.2 Acceptable delay ........................................................................................... 13

4.7.3 Frame rate ..................................................................................................... 13

4.7.4 Quantization .................................................................................................. 13

4.7.5 Data compression .......................................................................................... 13

4.8 Device property..................................................................................................... 13

4.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.8.2 Spatial resolution ........................................................................................... 13

4.8.3 Use of universal parameters .......................................................................... 14

4.8.4 Diversity of sensitivity .................................................................................... 14

4.8.5 Safety ............................................................................................................ 14

4.8.6 Calibration method ........................................................................................ 14

5 Examples ...................................................................................................................... 14

5.1 Games and entertainment ..................................................................................... 14

5.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

5.1.2 Computer games ........................................................................................... 14

5.1.3 Immersive cinema .......................................................................................... 15

5.1.4 Sports broadcasting ....................................................................................... 15

5.1.5 E-sports ......................................................................................................... 16

5.2 Car driver support ................................................................................................. 16

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

5.2.2 Centre console interface ................................................................................ 16

5.3 Haptic feel transfer ............................................................................................... 17

5.4 Haptic communication ........................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Use case of vibrotactile vest .............................................................. 19

A.1 Description of the use case ................................................................................... 19

A.1.1 Name of use case .......................................................................................... 19

A.1.2 Version management ..................................................................................... 19

A.1.3 Scope and objectives of use case .................................................................. 19

A.1.4 Narrative of use case ..................................................................................... 19

A.1.5 General remarks ............................................................................................ 19

A.2 Diagram of use case ............................................................................................. 20

A.3 Technical details ................................................................................................... 20

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IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

A.3.1 Actors ............................................................................................................ 20

A.3.2 Triggering event, preconditions, assumptions ................................................ 21

A.3.3 References .................................................................................................... 21

A.3.4 Further information on the use case for classification and mapping ............... 22

A.4 Step by step analysis of use case ......................................................................... 22

A.4.1 Overview Scenarios ....................................................................................... 22

A.4.2 Steps – scenarios .......................................................................................... 23

A.5 Information exchanged .......................................................................................... 25

A.6 Requirements (optional) ........................................................................................ 25

A.7 Common terms and definitions .............................................................................. 25

A.8 Custom information (optional) ............................................................................... 25

A.9 Terms and definitions (additional) ......................................................................... 26

A.10 Technologies (additional) ...................................................................................... 26

Annex B (informative) Use case of vibrotactile IPTV ............................................................ 27

B.1 Description of the use case ................................................................................... 27

B.1.1 Name of use case .......................................................................................... 27

B.1.2 Version management ..................................................................................... 27

B.1.3 Scope and objectives of use case .................................................................. 27

B.1.4 Narrative of use case ..................................................................................... 27

B.2 Diagram of use case ............................................................................................. 27

B.3 Technical details ................................................................................................... 28

B.3.1 Actors ............................................................................................................ 28

B.3.2 Triggering Event, Preconditions, Assumptions ............................................... 28

B.3.3 References .................................................................................................... 29

B.3.4 Further Information to the use case for classification / mapping ..................... 29

B.4 Step-by-step analysis of use case ......................................................................... 30

B.4.1 Overview scenarios ....................................................................................... 30

B.4.2 Steps – Scenarios ......................................................................................... 31

B.5 Information exchanged .......................................................................................... 32

B.6 Requirements (optional) ........................................................................................ 32

B.7 Common terms and definitions .............................................................................. 32

B.8 Custom information (optional) ............................................................................... 32

B.9 Terms and definitions (additional) ......................................................................... 36

B.10 Technologies (additional) ...................................................................................... 37

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 38

Figure 1 – Device categories ................................................................................................ 10

Figure 2 – Applications ......................................................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – Game & Entertainment ......................................................................................... 14

Figure 4 – Computer games .................................................................................................. 15

Figure 5 – Wear-type display for Immersive cinema .............................................................. 15

Figure 6 – Sports broadcasting ............................................................................................. 16

Figure 7 – Car driver support ................................................................................................ 16

Figure 8 – Centre console interface ...................................................................................... 17

Figure 9 – Tactile feel transfer .............................................................................................. 17

Figure 10 – Tactile communication ........................................................................................ 18

Figure A.1 – Use case diagram of vibrotactile vest ................................................................ 20

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– 4 – IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021

Figure B.1 – Use case diagram of vibrotactile IPTV .............................................................. 28

Figure B.2 – Relationship between channel number and actuator position ............................ 35

Table 1 – Items of haptics standardization ............................................................................ 11

Table B.1 – Assigned channel number for each use case ..................................................... 36

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IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF STANDARDIZATION
FOR HAPTIC MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS
FOREWORD

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IEC TR 63344 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100: Audio, video and multimedia

systems and equipment. It is a Technical Report.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
100/3573/DTR 100/3630/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.
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– 6 – IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

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contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
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IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The multimedia devices covered by TC 100 used to be primarily stationary audio and video

devices, but now comprise mobile and wearable devices, for which it is necessary to consider

different specifications from conventional stationary devices. At first, this Technical Report

clarifies the conceptual model of haptics issues under the scope of TC 100, and then the details

are described to understand the standardization items of haptics-related issues under the scope

of TC 100.
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– 8 – IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021
MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS – HAPTICS –
CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF STANDARDIZATION
1 Scope

This document describes the conceptual model of vibro-tactile-based haptics in multimedia

systems and equipment used in electrical appliances, computer interfaces, automobiles,

amusements, and communication devices. This model describes possible standardization items.

NOTE Ergonomic aspects of haptics systems are standardised in the ISO 9241 series. The scope of that standard

is focused on the physical specifications of the devices, signal properties and formats to ensure the common use

with compatibility among various types of devices in haptics systems.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
haptic sensation

sensation, including tactile sensation and kinesthetic sensation perceived by bathyesthesia

3.2
tactile sensation
sensation detected by skin receptors
3.3
haptic display
device to produce touch sensation
3.4
tactile display
device that stimulates the skin receptors
3.5
haptic reproduction

creating realistic haptic sensation in VR and tele-manipulation, targeting a real sensation

3.6
haptic notification
notifying a user of necessary information by haptic stimulation
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IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.7
haptic guidance

guiding a user or the parts of the body to a desirable state regarding the position, direction,

velocity or posture, sometimes synchronized with a specific task

Note 1 to entry: In the broader meaning, it includes guiding the user's other physical/mental conditions to desired

states.
3.8
reality class
class of reality supposed in the displayed reality
3.9
haptic broadcasting

sending of haptic signals to multiple users to share the haptic experiences of a specific person

3.10
vibrotactile
mechanical vibration to produce haptic experiences
3.11
phantom sensation

illusional perception that a user feels a point stimulation at an intermediate point between a

couple of stimulators placed with a certain distance
3.12
apparent motion

illusional perception that a user feels a continuous motion between a couple of stimulators

placed with a certain distance when the stimulators are driven sequentially
3.13
surface haptics

technique to create haptic sensation on a flat panel by vibrations and friction control using

electrostatic forces or ultrasonic vibrations
3.14
tactile electrostimulation
stimulating a skin via electrical current in the skin
3.15
mid-air haptic stimulation

stimulating a skin in a non-contact manner using airborne ultrasound or air stream

3.16
surface displacement
skin-surface displacement produced by a tactile display

Note 1 to entry: The direction of the displacement is described with the terms, vertical and lateral.

3.17
surface stress
skin-surface stress, applied force per unit area, produced by a tactile display
3.18
thermal tactile display
tactile display to control a skin surface temperature
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– 10 – IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021
3.19
haptic feel transfer
transferring the haptic feel of a real object
3.20
haptic communication
multimedia communication including touch sensation
4 Overview of haptics in multimedia systems
4.1 Purpose

The purpose of the standardization is to define the performance, ensure the compatibility among

the different types of hardware and facilitate the development and technical spread.

4.2 Device categories

The device categories of haptics systems are summarized in Figure 1. A vibrotactile device is

an apparatus to send vibration to a part of a human skin via specified device such as a game

controller, wristband, joystick, or other grip-type/wearable devices, which creates haptic

experiences synchronized with visual and audio information. Surface haptic devices produce

various haptic sensations on a flat panel via vibration and friction control using electrostatic

forces and ultrasonic vibrations. A stylus device reproduces the texture via the vibration of a

pen-like device. A wear-type device creates vibrations at multiple points on a body. Tactile

electrostimulation, electric current in the skin, can also create haptic with no moving parts, and

airborne ultrasound or air stream can produce haptic sensations without contact, which is called

mid-air haptic stimulation. The typical applications are illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 1 – Device categories
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IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
A) Haptic feel transfer B) Communication
C) Car driver support D) Alarm, safety
Figure 2 – Applications
Table 1 – Items of haptics standardization
 Reproduction
Purpose  Notification
 Guidance
 Class 1: Physically faithful
 Class 2: Indistinguishable
Reality class
 Class 3: Different but useful
---- Subclasses
 Cutaneous
Interaction
 Proprioception/Kinesthetic
modality
 Audio/Visual
 Device category  Framerate
 Number of stimulation point  Data length
Data format
 Body part  Data
and network
 One way, Bidirectional  Bandwidth, delay
Device  Category definition  Diversity of sensitivity and safety
property  Use of universal parameter  Calibration method
4.3 Items of standardization

This document deals with mechanical and thermal stimulations to users' bodies, which contains

multiple layers of potential standardization summarized in Table 1. This document clarifies the

items that should be standardized for:
a) purposes of haptic feedback;
b) class of performance represented by reality;
c) interaction modality;
d) data format and network topology;
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– 12 – IEC TR 63344:2021 © IEC 2021
e) device property.
4.4 Purposes of haptic feedback

In general, the purposes of haptic feedback are classified into Reproduction, Notification, and

Guidance as follows.

Haptic reproduction is creating realistic haptic sensation in VR and tele-manipulation, targeting

a real sensation. Producing the touch feel of a commercial product for Internet shopping is an

example of Reproduction. In a tele-manipulation system, reproduced stimulation enables the

user to handle the remote object as if touching it directly. In a communication system, users

can feel the remote partner with the reproduced haptic sensation. Many applications such as

computer games, sports broadcasting, and cinemas potentially need haptic reproduction.

Haptic notification is sending necessary information to users by haptic channel. A vibration from

a mobile phone is a familiar example of notification. In an automobile, the driver can receive

haptic signals from the seat and foot pedal to be alerted to the abnormal situation of the car,

change of the road condition, and danger approaching the car. In addition to these passive

cases, it is also useful in active motions. For example, a click felt by a finger notifies the

completion of input action. Periodic resistance in a dial notifies the quantity that the user is

controlling. These sensations facilitate the operations.

Haptic guidance is leading a user or the parts of the body to a desirable state regarding the

position, direction, velocity or posture sometimes synchronized with a specific task. Haptic

stimulation can inform a pedestrian of the direction to the destination. Stimulation on a steering

wheel can indicate the direction suggested by the navigation system. Vibrations given on the

limbs teach which limb to move at what timing. In addition to the motion guidance, haptic

stimulation can induce relaxation and control the mental condition.
4.5 Reality class

Consensus on the reality is a crucial premise for practical use of haptics technologies. Users

and developers need to share the reality class supposed in each application as:
• Class 1: physically faithful stimulation to real experience;
• Class 2: physically different but indistinguishable from real experience;
• Class 3: distinguishable but useful.

For example, a dot of an HD display produces Class 2 reality since it creates a faithful colour

but a different spectrum from the real one. Lossy audio compression also ensures the

reproduced sound satisfies the Class 2 reality.

In haptics, the major applications would belong to Class 3 while Class 2 reality is achieved in

only limited applications. A standard is necessary to define the reality class before sharing the

haptic information. Such a standard also facilitates the technological advancement. Subclasses

would follow after Class 3.
4.6 Interaction modality

In general, haptic sensation is formed by multiple sensory perceptions. Haptic feeling is strongly

affected by visual and auditory information and the context. Even within haptic modality, force

perception is created by combining almost independent per
...

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