High-voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission using voltage sourced converters (VSC)

IEC TR 62543:2022 is available as IEC TR 62543:2022 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC TR 62543:2022 gives general guidance on the subject of voltage sourced converters (VSC) used for transmission of power by high voltage direct current (HVDC). It describes converters that are not only voltage sourced (containing a capacitive energy storage medium and where the polarity of DC voltage remains fixed) but also self-commutated, using semiconductor devices which can both be turned on and turned off by control action. The scope includes 2‑level and 3-level converters with pulse-width modulation (PWM), along with multi-level converters, modular multi-level converters and cascaded two-level converters, but excludes 2‑level and 3-level converters operated without PWM, in square-wave output mode. HVDC power transmission using voltage sourced converters is known as "VSC transmission". The various types of circuit that can be used for VSC transmission are described in this document, along with their principal operational characteristics and typical applications. The overall aim is to provide a guide for purchasers to assist with the task of specifying a VSC transmission scheme. Line-commutated and current-sourced converters are specifically excluded from this document. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- in Clause 3, some redundant definitions which were identical to those listed in IEC 62747 have been deleted;
- in 4.3.4, description and diagrams have been added for the cases of a bipole with dedicated metallic return and a rigid bipole;
- in 4.4, mention is made of the bi-mode insulated gate transistor (BiGT) and injection enhanced gate transistor (IEGT) as possible alternatives to the IGBT;
- in 5.6, the reference to common-mode blocking reactors has been deleted since these are very rarely used nowadays.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Mar-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-Mar-2022
Ref Project

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IEC TR 62543
Edition 2.0 2022-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
High-voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission using voltage sourced
converters (VSC)
IEC TR 62543:2022-03(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 62543
Edition 2.0 2022-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
High-voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission using voltage sourced
converters (VSC)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.200; 29.240.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-1090-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 62543:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

3.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Letter symbols ...................................................................................................... 10

3.3 VSC transmission ................................................................................................. 10

3.4 Power losses ........................................................................................................ 11

4 VSC transmission overview ........................................................................................... 11

4.1 Basic operating principles of VSC transmission ..................................................... 11

4.1.1 Voltage sourced converter as a black box ...................................................... 11

4.1.2 Principles of active and reactive power control .............................................. 12

4.1.3 Operating principles of a VSC transmission scheme ...................................... 14

4.1.4 Applications of VSC transmission .................................................................. 15

4.2 Design life............................................................................................................. 15

4.3 VSC transmission configurations ........................................................................... 15

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

4.3.2 DC circuit configurations ................................................................................ 16

4.3.3 Monopole configuration ................................................................................. 16

4.3.4 Bipolar configuration ...................................................................................... 17

4.3.5 Parallel connection of two converters ............................................................ 18

4.3.6 Series connection of two converters .............................................................. 19

4.3.7 Parallel and series connection of more than two converters ........................... 19

4.4 Semiconductors for VSC transmission .................................................................. 19

5 VSC transmission converter topologies .......................................................................... 21

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

5.2 Converter topologies with VSC valves of switch type ............................................ 21

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

5.2.2 Operating principle ........................................................................................ 22

5.2.3 Topologies ..................................................................................................... 22

5.3 Converter topologies with VSC valves of the controllable voltage source type ....... 25

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

5.3.2 MMC topology with VSC levels in half-bridge topology ................................... 26

5.3.3 MMC topology with VSC levels in full-bridge topology .................................... 28

5.3.4 CTL topology with VSC cells in half-bridge topology ...................................... 28

5.3.5 CTL topology with VSC cells in full-bridge topology ....................................... 28

5.4 VSC valve design considerations .......................................................................... 29

5.4.1 Reliability and failure mode ............................................................................ 29

5.4.2 Current rating ................................................................................................ 29

5.4.3 Transient current and voltage requirements ................................................... 29

5.4.4 Diode requirements ....................................................................................... 30

5.4.5 Additional design details ................................................................................ 30

5.5 Other converter topologies .................................................................................... 31

5.6 Other equipment for VSC transmission schemes ................................................... 31

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

5.6.2 Power components of a VSC transmission scheme ........................................ 31

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IEC TR 62543:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

5.6.3 VSC substation circuit breaker ....................................................................... 32

5.6.4 AC system side harmonic filters ..................................................................... 32

5.6.5 Radio frequency interference filters ............................................................... 32

5.6.6 Interface transformers and phase reactors ..................................................... 32

5.6.7 Valve reactor ................................................................................................. 33

5.6.8 DC capacitors ................................................................................................ 33

5.6.9 DC reactor ..................................................................................................... 35

5.6.10 DC filter ......................................................................................................... 36

5.6.11 Dynamic braking system ................................................................................ 36

6 Overview of VSC controls .............................................................................................. 36

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

6.2 Operational modes and operational options .......................................................... 37

6.3 Power transfer ...................................................................................................... 38

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

6.3.2 Telecommunication between converter stations ............................................. 38

6.4 Reactive power and AC voltage control ................................................................. 38

6.4.1 AC voltage control ......................................................................................... 38

6.4.2 Reactive power control .................................................................................. 39

6.5 Black start capability ............................................................................................. 39

6.6 Supply from a wind farm ....................................................................................... 39

7 Steady-state operation .................................................................................................. 40

7.1 Steady-state capability .......................................................................................... 40

7.2 Converter power losses ........................................................................................ 41

8 Dynamic performance .................................................................................................... 42

8.1 AC system disturbances........................................................................................ 42

8.2 DC system disturbances ....................................................................................... 42

8.2.1 DC cable fault ................................................................................................ 42

8.2.2 DC overhead line fault ................................................................................... 43

8.3 Internal faults ........................................................................................................ 43

9 HVDC performance requirements .................................................................................. 44

9.1 Harmonic performance .......................................................................................... 44

9.2 Wave distortion ..................................................................................................... 45

9.3 Fundamental and harmonics ................................................................................. 45

9.3.1 Three-phase 2-level VSC ............................................................................... 45

9.3.2 Multi-pulse and multi-level converters ............................................................ 45

9.4 Harmonic voltages on power systems due to VSC operation ................................. 46

9.5 Design considerations for harmonic filters (AC side) ............................................. 46

9.6 DC side filtering .................................................................................................... 46

10 Environmental impact .................................................................................................... 47

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 47

10.2 Audible noise ........................................................................................................ 47

10.3 Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) ........................................................................ 47

10.4 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ..................................................................... 47

11 Testing and commissioning............................................................................................ 48

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 48

11.2 Factory tests ......................................................................................................... 49

11.2.1 Component tests ........................................................................................... 49

11.2.2 Control system tests ...................................................................................... 49

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– 4 – IEC TR 62543:2022 © IEC 2022

11.3 Commissioning tests/system tests......................................................................... 49

11.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 49

11.3.2 Precommissioning tests ................................................................................. 50

11.3.3 Subsystem tests ............................................................................................ 50

11.3.4 System tests .................................................................................................. 50

Annex A (informative) Functional specification requirements for VSC transmission

systems ................................................................................................................................ 55

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 55

A.2 Purchaser and manufacturer information requirements ......................................... 55

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 55

A.2.2 General requirements .................................................................................... 56

A.2.3 Detailed descriptions ..................................................................................... 57

Annex B (informative) Modulation strategies for 2-level converters ...................................... 61

B.1 Carrier wave PWM ................................................................................................ 61

B.2 Selective harmonic elimination modulation ............................................................ 62

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 64

Figure 1 – Major components that can be found in a VSC substation ...................................... 9

Figure 2 – Diagram of a generic voltage source converter ..................................................... 12

Figure 3 – Principle of active power control ........................................................................... 13

Figure 4 – Principle of reactive power control ....................................................................... 14

Figure 5 – A point-to-point VSC transmission scheme ........................................................... 14

Figure 6 – VSC transmission with a symmetrical monopole ................................................... 16

Figure 7 – VSC transmission with an asymmetrical monopole with metallic return ................. 17

Figure 8 – VSC transmission with an asymmetrical monopole with earth return ..................... 17

Figure 9 – VSC transmission in bipolar configuration with earth return .................................. 17

Figure 10 – VSC transmission in bipolar configuration with dedicated metallic return ............ 18

Figure 11 – VSC transmission in rigid bipolar configuration ................................................... 18

Figure 12 – Parallel connection of two converter units .......................................................... 19

Figure 13 – Symbol of a turn-off semiconductor device and associated free-wheeling

diode .................................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 14 – Symbol of an IGBT and associated free-wheeling diode ..................................... 20

Figure 15 – Diagram of a three-phase 2-level converter and associated AC waveform

for one phase ........................................................................................................................ 23

Figure 16 – Single-phase AC output for 2-level converter with PWM switching at 21

times fundamental frequency ................................................................................................ 23

Figure 17 – Diagram of a three-phase 3-level NPC converter and associated AC

waveform for one phase ........................................................................................................ 24

Figure 18 – Single-phase AC output for 3-level NPC converter with PWM switching at

21 times fundamental frequency ........................................................................................... 25

Figure 19 – Electrical equivalent for a converter with VSC valves acting like a

controllable voltage source ................................................................................................... 26

Figure 20 – VSC valve level arrangement and equivalent circuit in MMC topology in

half-bridge topology .............................................................................................................. 27

Figure 21 – Converter block arrangement with MMC topology in half-bridge topology .......... 27

Figure 22 – VSC valve level arrangement and equivalent circuit in MMC topology with

full-bridge topology ............................................................................................................... 28

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IEC TR 62543:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

Figure 23 – Typical SSOA for the IGBT ................................................................................. 29

Figure 24 – A 2-level VSC bridge with the IGBTs turned off .................................................. 30

Figure 25 – Representing a VSC unit as an AC voltage of magnitude U and phase

angle δ behind reactance ...................................................................................................... 36

Figure 26 – Concept of vector control ................................................................................... 37

Figure 27 – VSC power controller ......................................................................................... 38

Figure 28 – AC voltage controller .......................................................................................... 39

Figure 29 – A typical simplified PQ diagram .......................................................................... 41

Figure 30 – Protection concept of a VSC substation .............................................................. 43

Figure 31 – Waveforms for three-phase 2-level VSC ............................................................. 45

Figure 32 – Equivalent circuit at the PCC of the VSC ............................................................ 46

Figure B.1 – Voltage harmonics spectra of a 2-level VSC with carrier frequency at 21st

harmonic ............................................................................................................................... 62

Figure B.2 – Phase output voltage for selective harmonic elimination modulation

(SHEM) ................................................................................................................................. 63

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– 6 – IEC TR 62543:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC) POWER
TRANSMISSION USING VOLTAGE SOURCED CONVERTERS (VSC)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 62543 has been prepared by subcommittee 22F: Power electronics for electrical

transmission and distribution systems, of IEC technical committee 22: Power electronic

systems and equipment. It is a Technical Report.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2011,

Amendment 1:2013 and Amendment 2:2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) in Clause 3, some redundant definitions which were identical to those listed in IEC 62747

have been deleted;

b) in 4.3.4, description and diagrams have been added for the cases of a bipole with

dedicated metallic return and a rigid bipole;

c) in 4.4, mention is made of the bi-mode insulated gate transistor (BiGT) and injection

enhanced gate transistor (IEGT) as possible alternatives to the IGBT;
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 62543:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –

d) in 5.6, the reference to common-mode blocking reactors has been deleted since these are

very rarely used nowadays.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
22F/649/DTR 22F/669/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by

IEC are described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 62543:2022 © IEC 2022
HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC) POWER
TRANSMISSION USING VOLTAGE SOURCED CONVERTERS (VSC)
1 Scope

This document gives general guidance on the subject of voltage sourced converters (VSC)

used for transmission of power by high voltage direct current (HVDC). It describes converters

that are not only voltage sourced (containing a capacitive energy storage medium and where

the polarity of DC voltage remains fixed) but also self-commutated, using semiconductor

devices which can both be turned on and turned off by control action. The scope includes

2-level and 3-level converters with pulse-width modulation (PWM), along with multi-level

converters, modular multi-level converters and cascaded two-level converters, but excludes

2-level and 3-level converters operated without PWM, in square-wave output mode.

HVDC power transmission using voltage sourced converters is known as "VSC transmission".

The various types of circuit that can be used for VSC transmission are described in this

document, along with their principal operational characteristics and typical applications. The

overall aim is to provide a guide for purchasers to assist with the task of specifying a VSC

transmission scheme.

Line-commutated and current-sourced converters are specifically excluded from this

document.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 62501, Voltage sourced converter (VSC) valves for high-voltage direct current (HVDC)

power transmission – Electrical testing

IEC 62747, Terminology for voltage-sourced converters (VSC) for high-voltage direct current

(HVDC) systems
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 62747, IEC 62501

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 General

Basic terms and definitions for voltage sourced converters used for HVDC transmission are

given in IEC 62747. Terminology on electrical testing of VSC valves for HVDC transmission is

given in IEC 62501.
---
...

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