Primary batteries - Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries

IEC 60086-4:2019 is available as IEC 60086-4:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60086-4:2019 specifies tests and requirements for primary lithium batteries to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. NOTE Primary lithium batteries that are standardized in IEC 60086-2 are expected to meet all applicable requirements herein. It is understood that consideration of this part of IEC 60086 might also be given to measuring and/or ensuring the safety of non-standardized primary lithium batteries. In either case, no claim or warranty is made that compliance or non-compliance with this standard will fulfil or not fulfil any of the user’s particular purposes or needs. This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition published in 2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) Revised criteria for an explosion;
b) Addition of test parameters for the overdischarge test of battery types FR14505 and FR10G445;
c) Addition of a new subclause 5.1 Validity of Testing;
d) revised pictogram E in Table D.1;
e) Addition of Annex E with requirements for child resistant packaging of coin cells;
f) Addition of Annex F with recommendations on the use of the KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN safety sign.
Keywords: lithium batteries
The contents of the corrigendum of October 2019 and April 2020 and the Interpretation sheet of May 2020 have been included in this copy.

Piles électriques - Partie 4: Sécurité des piles au lithium

IEC 60086-4:2019 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60086-4:2019 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
IEC 60086-4:2019 spécifie les essais et les exigences pour les piles électriques au lithium afin d’assurer leur fonctionnement en toute sécurité dans les conditions d’utilisation prévue et en cas de mauvais usage raisonnablement prévisible. NOTE Les piles électriques au lithium qui sont normalisées dans l'IEC 60086-2 sont prévues pour satisfaire à toutes les exigences applicables ci-dessous. Il est entendu que la présente partie de l’IEC 60086 pourrait également être prise en compte pour mesurer les piles électriques au lithium non normalisées et/ou s'assurer qu'elles sont sures. Dans les deux cas, il n’existe aucune déclaration ou garantie que la conformité ou la non-conformité à la présente norme répondra ou ne répondra pas aux objectifs ou aux besoins particuliers de l'utilisateur. Cette cinquième édition annule et remplace la quatrième édition parue en 2014 dont elle constitue une révision technique. La présente édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) Mise à jour des critères pour une explosion;
b) Ajout de paramètres pour l'essai de décharge excessive des piles des types FR14505 et FR10G445;
c) Ajout d'un nouveau paragraphe 5.1 Validité des essais;
d) mise à jour du pictogramme E dans le Tableau D.1;
e) Ajout de l'Annexe E avec des exigences relatives aux emballages à l'épreuve des enfants d'éléments de type bouton;
f) Ajout de l'Annexe F avec des recommandations sur l'utilisation du signal de sécurité TENIR HORS DE PORTEE DES ENFANTS.
Mots-clés: piles électriques
Le contenu du corrigendum d'octobre 2019 et d'avril 2020 ainsi que la feuille d'interprétation de mai 2020 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Apr-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-Apr-2019
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IEC 60086-4
Edition 5.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Primary batteries –
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries
Piles électriques –
Partie 4: Sécurité des piles au lithium
IEC 60086-4:2019-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60086-4
Edition 5.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Primary batteries –
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries
Piles électriques –
Partie 4: Sécurité des piles au lithium
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-6808-7

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60086-4:2019  IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Requirements for safety ................................................................................................. 11

4.1 Design .................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Quality plan .......................................................................................................... 11

5 Type testing and sampling ............................................................................................. 11

5.1 Validity of Testing ................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Test samples ........................................................................................................ 12

6 Testing and requirements .............................................................................................. 12

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

6.1.1 Test application matrix ................................................................................... 12

6.1.2 Cautionary notice........................................................................................... 13

6.1.3 Ambient temperature ..................................................................................... 13

6.1.4 Parameter measurement tolerances .............................................................. 13

6.1.5 Predischarge ................................................................................................. 14

6.1.6 Additional cells .............................................................................................. 14

6.2 Evaluation of test criteria ...................................................................................... 14

6.2.1 Short-circuit ................................................................................................... 14

6.2.2 Excessive temperature rise ............................................................................ 14

6.2.3 Leakage ........................................................................................................ 14

6.2.4 Venting .......................................................................................................... 14

6.2.5 Fire ................................................................................................................ 15

6.2.6 Rupture ......................................................................................................... 15

6.2.7 Explosion ....................................................................................................... 15

6.3 Tests and requirements – Overview ...................................................................... 15

6.4 Tests for intended use .......................................................................................... 16

6.4.1 Test A: Altitude .............................................................................................. 16

6.4.2 Test B: Thermal cycling ................................................................................. 16

6.4.3 Test C: Vibration ............................................................................................ 17

6.4.4 Test D: Shock ................................................................................................ 18

6.5 Tests for reasonably foreseeable misuse .............................................................. 19

6.5.1 Test E: External short-circuit.......................................................................... 19

6.5.2 Test F: Impact ............................................................................................... 19

6.5.3 Test G: Crush ................................................................................................ 20

6.5.4 Test H: Forced discharge ............................................................................... 21

6.5.5 Test I: Abnormal charging .............................................................................. 21

6.5.6 Test J: Free fall ............................................................................................. 22

6.5.7 Test K: Thermal abuse................................................................................... 22

6.5.8 Test L: Incorrect installation ........................................................................... 22

6.5.9 Test M: Overdischarge................................................................................... 23

6.6 Information to be given in the relevant specification .............................................. 25

6.7 Evaluation and report ............................................................................................ 25

7 Information for safety ..................................................................................................... 25

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60086-4:2019  IEC 2019 – 3 –

7.1 Safety precautions during design of equipment ..................................................... 25

7.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

7.1.2 Charge protection .......................................................................................... 26

7.1.3 Parallel connection ........................................................................................ 26

7.2 Precautions during handling of batteries ............................................................... 26

7.3 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 29

7.4 Handling of battery cartons ................................................................................... 29

7.5 Transport .............................................................................................................. 29

7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

7.5.2 Air transport................................................................................................... 29

7.5.3 Sea transport ................................................................................................. 29

7.5.4 Land transport ............................................................................................... 29

7.6 Display and storage .............................................................................................. 29

7.7 Disposal ................................................................................................................ 30

8 Instructions for use ........................................................................................................ 30

9 Marking and packaging .................................................................................................. 31

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

9.2 Swallowable batteries ........................................................................................... 31

9.3 Safety pictograms ................................................................................................. 31

Annex A (informative) Guidelines for the achievement of safety of lithium batteries ............. 33

Annex B (informative) Guidelines for designers of equipment using lithium batteries ............ 34

Annex C (informative) Additional information on display and storage ................................... 36

Annex D (informative) Safety pictograms ............................................................................. 37

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 37

D.2 Pictograms ............................................................................................................ 37

D.3 Instruction for use ................................................................................................. 38

Annex E (normative) Child resistant packaging of coin cells ................................................. 39

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

E.2 Applicability .......................................................................................................... 39

E.3 Packaging tests .................................................................................................... 39

E.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 39

E.3.2 Test items ...................................................................................................... 40

E.3.3 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 41

E.3.4 Criteria .......................................................................................................... 41

Annex F (informative) Use of the KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN safety sign ........... 42

F.1 General ................................................................................................................. 42

F.2 Safety sign ............................................................................................................ 42

F.3 Best practices for marking the packaging .............................................................. 42

F.4 Best practices for marking the cell ........................................................................ 42

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 1 – Thermal cycling procedure ................................................................................... 17

Figure 2 – Example of a test set-up for the impact test.......................................................... 20

Figure 3 – Examples of a test set-up for the crush test.......................................................... 21

Figure 4 – Axes for free fall ................................................................................................... 22

Figure 5 – Circuit diagram for incorrect installation ............................................................... 23

Figure 6 – Circuit diagram for overdischarge ......................................................................... 24

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– 4 – IEC 60086-4:2019  IEC 2019

Figure 7 – Examples of wiring for charge protection .............................................................. 26

Figure 8 – Ingestion gauge ................................................................................................... 27

Figure 9 – Example for warning against swallowing, particularly coin cell batteries ............... 27

Figure E.1 – Bending test ..................................................................................................... 40

Figure E.2 – Torsion test....................................................................................................... 40

Figure E.3 – Tearing test ...................................................................................................... 40

Figure E.4 – Pushing test ...................................................................................................... 41

Figure E.5 – Maximum packaging opening ............................................................................ 41

Figure F.1 – Recommended safety signs for use on coin cells .............................................. 42

Table 1 – Number of test samples ......................................................................................... 12

Table 2 – Test application matrix .......................................................................................... 13

Table 3 – Mass loss limits ..................................................................................................... 14

Table 4 – Tests and requirements ......................................................................................... 16

Table 5 – Vibration profile (sinusoidal) .................................................................................. 18

Table 6 – Shock parameters ................................................................................................. 18

Table 7 – Resistive load for overdischarge ............................................................................ 24

Table 8 – Parameters to be specified .................................................................................... 25

Table 9 – Marking and packaging requirements .................................................................... 32

Table A.1 – Battery design guidelines ................................................................................... 33

Table B.1 – Equipment design guidelines .............................................................................. 34

Table D.1 – Safety pictograms .............................................................................................. 37

Table E.1 – Test procedure ................................................................................................... 41

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IEC 60086-4:2019  IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
_____________
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60086-4 has been prepared by technical committee 35: Primary

cells and batteries.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition published in 2014. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) Revised criteria for an explosion;

b) Addition of test parameters for the overdischarge test of battery types FR14505 and

FR10G445;
c) Addition of a new subclause 5.1 Validity of Testing;
d) revised pictogram E in Table D.1;

e) Addition of Annex E with requirements for child resistant packaging of coin cells;

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60086-4:2019  IEC 2019

f) Addition of Annex F with recommendations on the use of the KEEP OUT OF REACH OF

CHILDREN safety sign.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
35/1420/FDIS 35/1423/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

NOTE The following print types are used:
– instructions/warnings for consumers: in italic type.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60086 series, under the general title Primary batteries, can be

found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

t contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct
that i

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
The contents of the corrigendum of October 2019 have been included in this copy
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60086-4:2019  IEC 2019 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The concept of safety is closely related to safeguarding the integrity of people and property.

This document specifies tests and requirements for lithium batteries and has been prepared in

accordance with ISO/IEC guidelines, taking into account all relevant national and international

standards which apply.

Lithium batteries are different from conventional primary batteries using aqueous electrolyte

in that they contain flammable materials.

Consequently, it is important to carefully consider safety during design, production,

distribution, use, and disposal of lithium batteries. Based on such special characteristics,

lithium batteries for consumer applications were initially small in size and had low power

output. There were also lithium batteries with high power output which were used for special

industrial and military applications and were characterized as being “technician replaceable”.

The first edition of this document was drafted to accommodate this situation.

However, from around the end of the 1980s, lithium batteries with high power output started to

be widely used in the consumer replacement market, mainly as a power source in camera

applications. Since the demand for such lithium batteries with high power output significantly

increased, various manufacturers started to produce these types of lithium batteries. As a

consequence of this situation, the safety aspects for lithium batteries with high power output

were included in the second edition of this document.

Primary lithium batteries both for consumer and industrial applications are well-established

safe and reliable products in the market, which is at least partly due to the existence of safety

standards such as this document and, for transport, IEC 62281. The fourth edition of this

document therefore reflects only minor changes which became necessary in order to keep it

harmonized with IEC 62281 and to continuously improve the user information about safety

related matters.

Guidelines addressing safety issues during the design of lithium batteries are provided in

Annex A. Annex B provides guidelines addressing safety issues during the design of

equipment where lithium batteries are installed. Both Annex A and B reflect experience with

lithium batteries used in camera applications and are based on [23] .

Safety is freedom from unacceptable risk. There can be no absolute safety: some risk will

remain. Therefore a product, process or service can only be relatively safe. Safety is achieved

by reducing risk to a tolerable level determined by the search for an optimal balance between

the ideal of absolute safety and the demands to be met by a product, process or service, and

factors such as benefit to the user, suitability for purpose, cost effectiveness, and conventions

of the society concerned.

As safety will pose different problems, it is impossible to provide a set of precise provisions

and recommendations that will apply in every case. However, this document, when followed

on a judicious “use when applicable” basis, will provide reasonably consistent standards for

safety.
__________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
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– 8 – IEC 60086-4:2019  IEC 2019
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary lithium batteries to ensure

their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.

NOTE Primary lithium batteries that are standardized in IEC 60086-2 are expected to meet all applicable

requirements herein. It is understood that consideration of this part of IEC 60086 might also be given to measuring

and/or ensuring the safety of non-standardized primary lithium batteries. In either case, no claim or warranty is

made that compliance or non-compliance with this standard will fulfil or not fulfil any of the user’s particular

purposes or needs.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that so
...

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