Logging industry — Technology — Vocabulary

This document defines terms relating to technological operations in the logging industry. NOTE See ISO 6814 for terms and definitions related to mobile and self-propelled machinery used in forestry.

Exploitation forestière — Techniques — Vocabulaire

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jul-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
23-Oct-2021
Completion Date
18-Jul-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8965
Third edition
2022-07
Logging industry — Technology —
Vocabulary
Exploitation forestière — Techniques — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 8965:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms relating to cut block design and layout............................................................................................................ 2

3.3 Terms relating to logging methods, activities and machinery .................................................................... 3

3.4 Terms relating to round timber ............................................................................................................................................... 8

3.4.13 Measurement of round timber volume ........................................................................................................... 9

3.5 Terms relating to hauling roads ........................................................................................................................................... 10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of user and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO´s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www.iso.org/

iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC°218, Timber.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8965:2013), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— updated, corrected and clarified definitions;

— re-ordering of term categories and terms within categories to match the subject matter.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user´s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
Introduction

The main purpose of this document is to establish international terms and their definitions used in

contemporary technological processes of the logging industry, to provide terminological unity and

comparability of scientific and technical information.

This is addressed not only to the standardizers and terminologists in forestry, but to anyone involved in

terminology work, as well as to the users of different terminologies.

The terms established in this document are listed in a systematic order, reflecting a system concept in

the field of logging industry standardization.
For each concept, one standardized term has been established.

Admissible terms/synonyms are given as informative data and are not standardized.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8965:2022(E)
Logging industry — Technology — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms relating to technological operations in the logging industry.

NOTE See ISO 6814 for terms and definitions related to mobile and self-propelled machinery used in forestry.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
logging
harvesting

set of consecutive operations to convert standing trees to desired products for further processing at

manufacturing facilities

Note 1 to entry: Includes cutting unit works (3.3.1), post-cutting activities (3.3.44), transportation and partial

processing of round timber (3.4.5)
3.1.2
logging industry
sector of the forest industry engaged in logging (3.1.1)
3.1.3
forest tract
timber supply block
area of forest land designated for logging (3.1.1)
3.1.4
forest inventory
stock of standing timber available for logging (3.1.1)
3.1.5
allowable cut

volume of annual timber supply available for logging (3.1.1) from a specified forest area

Note 1 to entry: In some countries, applies only to main cut (3.2.4).
3.1.6
cutting plan

document specifying the method of logging (3.1.1), characteristics and layout of the forest tract (3.1.3),

as well as its performance requirements
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
3.1.7
cutting allotment

part of the public forest area, assigned to a logging enterprise for a specified term

3.2 Terms relating to cut block design and layout
3.2.1
cut block
cutting unit
part of the forest tract (3.1.3), that is specified in size and location
3.2.2
cut block construction elements

areas of forest tract (3.1.3) used for hauling roads (3.5.1), landings (3.2.6), logging equipment

maintenance and fuel and lubricant storage
3.2.3
arrangement of headmaster site

provisioning of a job site with fire extinguishing equipment, their position on the cut block

(3.2.1), installation of a communication facilities and arranging of the fire prevention mineralized zone

3.2.4
main cut
final felling (3.3.12) of mature trees
3.2.5
buffer strip
green strip
leave strip
strip of forest land where cutting (3.3.11) is restricted or prohibited

Note 1 to entry: Refers to strips located between forest tracts (3.1.3) or adjacent to another resource (lake, river,

park, road, etc.). When located near water features, also named streamside or riparian management zones.

3.2.6
landing

site near the hauling road (3.5.1) for temporary timber storage before additional processing or loading

(3.3.42) for transportation
3.2.6.1
transfer yard

permanent or temporary site for storage and reloading of timber from one vehicle to another

3.2.7
skid trail
haul path
logging trail
skid road
snig track
hauling route
path

temporary trail used in a cut block (3.2.1) to transfer felled trees (3.4.3), tree-lengths (3.4.3.1) and round

timber (3.4.5) by skidding (3.3.21) from the stump to the landing (3.2.6)
Note 1 to entry: Auxiliary skid trails can merge into a main skid trail.
Note 2 to entry: Including skid trails restricted to a cutting strip (3.2.8).
Note 3 to entry: Trails may terminate at the side of a hauling road (3.5.1).
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
3.2.8
cutting strip

part of cut block (3.2.1) from which felled trees (3.4.3),  tree-lengths (3.4.3.1) or round timber (3.4.5) are

transported via a single skid trail (3.2.7)
3.2.9
processing yard

area designated for primary processing (3.3.2) of wood raw material, storage of round timber (3.4.5) or

tree-lengths (3.4.3.1) and processing of wood residues
3.2.9.1
waterside processing yard
processing yard (3.2.9) located near a waterway
3.2.9.2
upper processing yard

processing yard (3.2.9) located at the cut block (3.2.1) near a skid trail (3.2.7)

3.2.9.3
lower processing yard

processing yard (3.2.9) located at the junction of a hauling road (3.5.1) and public road

3.2.9.4
railroad processing yard
processing yard (3.2.9) located near a railroad
3.2.9.5
intermediate processing yard

processing yard (3.2.9) located at the hauling road (3.5.1) outside the cut block (3.2.1)

3.2.10
capacity of processing yard
amount of timber that can be stored in a processing yard (3.2.9)
3.3 Terms relating to logging methods, activities and machinery
3.3.1
cut block works
cutting unit works
preparatory, regular, and auxiliary operations at the forest tract (3.1.3)

Note 1 to entry: Preparatory operations include removal of danger trees (3.3.48), marking and construction of

tracks, landings (3.2.6), and workshop sites, which are necessary for carrying out of regular operations.

Note 2 to entry: Regular operations may include felling (3.3.12),  skidding (3.3.21), delimbing (3.3.32), bucking

(3.3.33) and loading (3.3.42), but also  grading (3.4.12), stacking (3.3.41), and sometimes chipping (3.3.45).

Note 3 to entry: Auxiliary operations include maintenance and repair of harvesting machines, supply of fuel and

lubricants, as well as utility services for forest workers.
3.3.2
primary processing

subset of operations, other than transportation, including  delimbing (3.3.32), bucking (3.3.33) and

grading (3.4.12) to prepare felled trees (3.4.3), tree-lengths (3.4.3.1) or round timber (3.4.5) for further

manufacture
3.3.3
operating reserve

storage of round timber (3.4.5), at a processing yard (3.2.9), sufficient to maintain an uninterrupted

workflow of a logging enterprise
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
3.3.4
full-tree logging
whole-tree logging
total-tree logging

method of logging (3.1.1) in which felled trees (3.4.3) are transported from the felling (3.3.12) site to

the landing (3.2.6) or roadside before any processing such as topping, delimbing (3.3.32) and usually

bucking (3.3.33) takes place
3.3.4.1
tree-length logging

method of logging (3.1.1) ) in which tree-lengths (3.4.3.1) are transported from the felling (3.3.12) site to

the landing (3.2.6) or roadside
3.3.5
cut-to-length logging

method of logging (3.1.1) in which felled trees (3.4.3) are processed at the felling (3.3.12) site by

delimbing (3.3.32), topping and bucking (3.3.33) and are placed in a pile (3.4.8) prior to subsequent

skidding (3.3.21) to the landing (3.2.6) or roadside
3.3.6
machine logging
method of logging (3.1.1) that employs power-driven mobile equipment

Note 1 to entry: Includes operations using feller-bunchers, skidders (3.3.22), forwarders (3.3.20) and cable

yarders.
3.3.7
aerial logging

method of machine logging (3.3.6) where felled trees (3.4.3), tree-lengths (3.4.3.1) or round timber (3.4.5)

are transported by aerial equipment from the felling (3.3.12) site to the landing (3.2.6) or roadside

3.3.8
horse logging

method of logging (3.1.1) where felled trees (3.4.3), tree-lengths (3.4.3.1) or round timbers (3.4.5) are

transported by large draft horses from the felling (3.3.12) site to the landing (3.2.6) or roadside

3.3.9
logging residue processing
set of operations to utilize logging residues (3.4.17)
3.3.10
whole tree drying
moderate drying of stems (3.4.1) of freshly cut or standing trees

Note 1 to entry: This operation is carried out in the warm season: freshly cut trees are temporarily left in the cut

block (3.2.1); or, for standing trees, it is carried out by girdling the stem above the root level.

3.3.11
cutting
process of logging (3.1.1)
3.3.12
felling
falling

separating the stem (3.4.1) of a tree at the root level and directing it to fall in a given orientation

3.3.13
feller
faller
cutter
worker, who executes felling (3.3.12) manually
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ISO 8965:2022(E)
3.3.14
undercut

wedge-shaped cut, visible at the butt end or a butt log, made at the base of the stem (3.4.1) to se

...

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