Road vehicles — Testing the abrasion resistance of automotive glazing with the windscreen wiper test

This document specifies a method for determining the resistance of a glazing surface to abrasion by a wiper rubber under the influence of a standardized test dust suspension.

Véhicules routiers — Contrôle de la résistance à l’abrasion du vitrage automobile par un test essuie-glace

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Published
Publication Date
15-May-2022
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4099 - Full report circulated: DIS approved for registration as FDIS
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Completion Date
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ISO 5685:2022 - Road vehicles — Testing the abrasion resistance of automotive glazing with the windscreen wiper test Released:5/16/2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5685
First edition
2022-05
Road vehicles — Testing the abrasion
resistance of automotive glazing with
the windscreen wiper test
Véhicules routiers — Contrôle de la résistance à l’abrasion du vitrage
automobile par un test essuie-glace
Reference number
ISO 5685:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 5685:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 5685:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Test Conditions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Abrasion testing device .................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.2 Components to guide the wiper rubber ........................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Specimen boxes with spacer plates ...................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Haze measurement device ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.4.2 Haze measurements with a haze meter ........................................................................................................ 7

7 Preparation of the abrasion testing device ............................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 Settings of the abrasion testing device ............................................................................................................................. 9

7.2 Setting up the abrasion testing device .............................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Inserting the wiper rubber into the wiper rubber holder ............................................................................ 10

7.4 Load weight of the wiper rubber ......................................................................................................................................... 11

7.5 Movement of the wiper rubber on the test piece ..................................................................................................12

7.6 Checking the wiper rubber guidance .............................................................................................................................. 13

8 Preparation of the test pieces .............................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Cleaning the test pieces ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.3 Conditioning of the test pieces .............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.4 Measurement of the initial haze of the test pieces .............................................................................................. 14

8.5 Insertion of the test pieces into the bottom opening of the specimen boxes .............................. 14

9 Completion of the abrasion testing device ............................................................................................................................16

9.1 Positioning of the specimen boxes in the abrasion testing device ........................................................ 16

9.2 Mounting of the wiper bridge with wiper rubber holders and wiper rubbers on

the abrasion testing device....................................................................................................................................................... 16

9.3 Filling the standardized test dust suspension into the specimen boxes ......................................... 16

10 Carrying out the abrasion process ................................................................................................................................................17

10.1 Carrying out the first 10 000 wiping cycles .............................................................................................................. 17

10.2 Switching the positions of the specimen boxes after 10 000 wiping cycles ................................. 17

10.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.2.2 Switching the positions in the case of parallel orientation of the specimen

boxes........................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.2.3 Switching the positions in the case of series orientation of the specimen

boxes........................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.3 Remounting the wiper bridge ................................................................................................................................................ 18

10.4 Carrying out the second 10 000 wiping cycles ....................................................................................................... 18

11 Cleaning and visual assessment of the test pieces ........................................................................................................18

12 Measurement of final haze .....................................................................................................................................................................19

13 Evaluation and presentation of the results ..........................................................................................................................19

14 Test report ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Sample templates ....................................................................................................................................................20

iii
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ISO 5685:2022(E)
Annex B (informative) Statistical results of the round robin test to determine

the reproducibility of the windscreen wiper test .........................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

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ISO 5685:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 35,

Lighting and visibility.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 5685:2022(E)
Introduction

The surfaces of vehicle glazing are usually subject to abrasive wear in service. This is caused by various

mechanisms such as the impact of small particles (e.g. sand), the use of car wash brushes, windscreen

wipers or ice scrapers, or the rolling up and down of panes of glazing with deposited dirt on them in the

case of roll-up windows.

Various test methods are required in order to be able to evaluate to a sufficient extent the abrasion

resistance of glazing surfaces with regard to these different mechanisms that occur in service. In

addition to the abrasive wheel test [taber test (see ISO 3537, ISO 15082 and UNECE R43)], the sand

drop test (see UNECE R43) and the more recent car wash test (see ISO 15082 and UNECE R43) that have

been established in abrasion testing of vehicle glazing for many years, a method is to be standardized

that simulates the abrasion that results from the use of windscreen wipers. This is significant for the

evaluation of windscreens in particular, but also for other panes of glazing.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5685:2022(E)
Road vehicles — Testing the abrasion resistance of
automotive glazing with the windscreen wiper test
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for determining the resistance of a glazing surface to abrasion by a

wiper rubber under the influence of a standardized test dust suspension.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3536, Road vehicles — Safety glazing materials — Vocabulary

ISO 12103-1:2016, Road vehicles — Test contaminants for filter evaluation — Part 1: Arizona test dust

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3536 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
individual test

single experiment in which a test piece is subjected to 20 000 wiping cycles (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Two test pieces can always be tested at the same time in a test procedure.

3.2
complete test
consists of three individual tests (3.1), i.e. a test on three test pieces

Note 1 to entry: One of the three individual tests may be repeated if areas with differing abrasion occur

[see also chatter marks (3.7)]. Every valid individual test shall fulfil the requirements in order to fulfil the

requirements for a set of test pieces.
3.3
wiping cycle
single forward and backward movement of the abrasion testing device carriage
3.4
stroke length
travel distance of the carriage or bridge
Note 1 to entry: The stroke length corresponds to half a wiping cycle (3.3).
3.5
wiper track length
travel distance of the wiper rubber lip
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ISO 5685:2022(E)
3.6
wiper rubber holder
mounting device for the wiper rubber
3.7
chatter mark

area with differing abrasion that generally has wave patterns and is caused by non-uniform, jerking

motion of the wiper rubber lip
4 Principle

A wiper rubber is moved forward and backward across a glazing surface using an abrasion testing

device (see 6.1). A standardized aqueous test dust suspension is used as the abrasive medium.

The surface wear is evaluated by measuring the increase in haze.
5 Test Conditions

Unless otherwise specified, the tests are to be carried out under the following conditions:

— ambient temperature: (20 ± 5) °C;
— atmospheric pressure: 86 kPa to 106 kPa;
— relative humidity: (60 ± 20) %.
6 Apparatus
6.1 Abrasion testing device

The apparatus is presented in Figure 1 a) to Figure 1 c) and includes the following individual components

as a minimum:

— an abrasion testing device with a moving carriage: the moving carriage shall be set for a forward

and backward motion of (37 ± 2) cycles per minute and a stroke length (half a wiping cycle) of

(130 ± 5) mm;

— a wiper bridge that is mounted on the moving carriage. Self-supporting arms that the wiper rubber

holders can be mounted on are attached to the wiper bridge;

The height of the wiper bridge is to be selected in such a way that the self-supporting arms are at an

angle of (45 ± 5)° in the final test apparatus (see 9.1).

— two wiper rubber holders that are suitable for inserting two commercially available wiper rubbers

and that can be set in such a way that the test pieces can be subjected to a load of (15 ± 0,5) g per cm

of wiper rubber length (see 7.4);

— two specimen boxes (see 6.3) that the test pieces are placed in and that are filled with the

standardized aqueous test dust suspension (see 9.3);

— various spacer plates in the dimensions of the test pieces, but with different thicknesses, that are

used for compensation of different test piece thicknesses;

It is necessary that the bottom of the specimen box and the test piece surface to be tested are at the

same height.
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ISO 5685:2022(E)

It is to be ensured that the underside of the test piece placed on the spacer plates is not scratched, e.g.

by adding a soft film with a maximum thickness of 100 µm to the surface of the spacer plates.

NOTE 1 The spacer plates can be made from the specimen box material, for example.

— five inlay plates to clamp the specimen boxes;

NOTE 2 One of the inlay plates [No. 13 in Figure 1 b) and Figure 1 c)] can be used as a clamp on one of the sides

of the specimen box that is perpendicular to the direction of movement in order to increase the clamping effect

on the specimen box.
— a stainless steel basin;
— a wiping cycle counter.

a) Example of an abrasion testing device with a moving carriage, together with components

to guide the wiper rubber

b) Cross-sectional view of the abrasion testing device, with added components to hold the test

pieces and the standardized test dust suspension

1) The spacer plates can be covered in a manner largely free of creases using so-called masking films, for example,

which are normally used to protect hard plastic-glazing materials during storage and transport.

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ISO 5685:2022(E)
c) Top view of the abrasion testing device
Key
1 abrasion testing device 9 spacer plates
2 moving carriage 10 adhesive tape
3 wiper bridge 11 standardized aqueous test dust suspension
4 self-supporting arms 12 inlay plates
5 wiper rubber holder 13 clamp plate
6 wiper rubbers 14 stainless steel basin
7 specimen boxes 15 wiping cycle counter
8 test piece
Figure 1 — Abrasion testing device
6.2 Components to guide the wiper rubber
2) 3)

Wiper rubber holders and wiper rubbers can be added to a commercially available abrasion testing

device (e.g. a washing and scrubbing resistance tester) to create an abrasion testing device for the

wiper test.

2) Suitable abrasion testing devices and wiper holders can be purchased from BYK Gardner, Geretsried, Germany.

This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by

ISO of this product.

3) Suitable wiper rubbers can be purchased from Bosch, Bühl, Germany (CR wiper rubber, “H Stoff P32”, Item

No. 3.391.018.399). This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute

an endorsement by ISO of this product.
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ISO 5685:2022(E)

The bridge of the abrasion testing device is modified in such a way that two wiper rubber holders

(see A.1) can be mounted underneath on the self-supporting arms. The design of the wiper rubbers has

an influence on the wear behaviour of the test pieces and thus on the test results. Only commercially

available wiper rubbers shall be used. The type of wiper rubber is to be stated in the test report.

6.3 Specimen boxes with spacer plates

Specimen boxes with the following dimensions are used; see Figure 2 a) and Figure 2 b):

Inner dimensions:
Length: (200 ± 2) mm
Width: (120 ± 2) mm
Height of sides: (55 ± 5) mm
Thickness of bottom plate: (10 ± 0,1) mm
Opening for insertion of the test piece:
Length: (152 + 1) mm
Width: (102 + 1) mm

Positioned at the centre of the specimen box, i.e. distance to specimen box walls 24 mm on each side in

the longitudinal direction, 9 mm on each side along the width.
Dimensions in millimetres
a) Lateral view
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ISO 5685:2022(E)
b) Top view
Figure 2 — Specimen box

Spacer plates, 151,5 mm × 101,5 mm in size, that are placed underneath the test piece and are also

stuck in place, compensate for the difference between the test piece thickness and the thickness of the

bottom plate of the specimen box, so that the height difference is a maximum of ± 0,5 mm.

6.4 Haze measurement device
6.4.1 General

A schematic diagram of a haze measurement device, also known as a haze meter , is shown in Figure 3;

this device consists of the following.

— A light source and a photodetector, and the combination shall be filtered to provide an output

corresponding to the luminosity response of the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer with CIE

standard illuminant C or, alternatively, illuminant A. The output shall be proportional to within 1 %

to the incident flux over the range of flux used. The photometric stability for source and detector

shall be constant throughout the test of each test piece.

— An integrating sphere to collect transmitted flux; the sphere may be of any diameter as long as the

total port areas do not exceed 4,0 % of the internal reflecting area of the sphere. The entrance and

exit ports shall be centred on the same great circle of the sphere, and there shall be at least 2,97 rad

(170°) of arc between centres. The exit port shall subtend an angle of 0,14 rad (8°) at the centre of

the entrance port. With the light trap in position, without the test piece, the axis of the irradiating

beam shall pass through the centres of the entrance and exit ports. For a haze meter, position the

photocell or photocells on the sphere 1,57 rad ± 0,17 rad (90° ± 10°) from the entrance port and

baffle it from direct exposure to the entrance port. In the pivotable modification where the interior

wall adjacent to the exit port is used as the reflectance reference, the angle of rotation of the sphere

shall be 0,140 rad ± 0,008 rad (8,0° ± 0,5°).

4) A suitable haze meter can be purchased from BYK Gardner, Geretsried, Germany. This information is given for

the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this product.

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ISO 5685:2022(E)

Illuminate the test piece by a substantially unidirectional beam; the maximum angle that any ray of this

beam may make with the beam axis shall not exceed 0,05 rad (3°). This beam shall not be vignette at

either port of the sphere.

When the test piece is placed against the entrance port of the integrating sphere, the angle between the

perpendicular to the test piece and a line connecting the centres of entrance and exit ports shall not

exceed 0,14 rad (8°).

When the reduced light is unobstructed by a test piece, its cross section at the exit port shall be

approximately circular, sharply defined, uniformly bright, and concentric within the exit port, leaving

an annulus of 0,023 rad ± 0,002 rad (1,3° ± 0,1°) subtended at the entrance port.

The surfaces of the interior of the integrating sphere, baffles, and reflectance standard, if used, shall be

of equal reflectance, matte, and highly reflecting throughout the visible spectrum.

A light trap shall be provided that will absorb the beam completely when no test piece is present, or the

instrument design shall obviate the need for a light trap.

Forward scattering glass standards can be used to check that the optical system of the haze meter is

properly adjusted.
Key
1 source 6 test piece
2 condenser 7 filter
3 entrance window 8 photodetector
4 aperture 9 light trap (if used)
5 lens 10 reflectance standard
Figure 3 — Haze meter
6.4.2 Haze measurements with a haze meter

The measurements to determine the initial and final haze values shall be carried out at all nine

measuring points in accordance with Figure 4. The haze is to be calculated for every measuring point

using Formula (3).

NOTE It is helpful to use a template to determine the measuring positions as shown in Figure 4, in which

the rings represent the inlet opening of the haze meter in this example. The actual measuring range of the haze

meter can be smaller due to a lower light beam diameter (without an additional aperture).

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ISO 5685:2022(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 measuring points for haze measurement Test piece length.
2 axis of symmetry for wiper track length Test piece width.
3 axis of symmetry for wiper track width Wiper track length.
Wiper track width.
Figure 4 — Positions of the measuring points

Before the haze measurement, the haze meter shall be calibrated and the zero adjustment of the haze

meter shall be confirmed.

The entire testing device shall be checked against calibration standards with defined haze at regular

intervals.
For all haze measurements, take the four readings indicated in Table 1.
Table 1 — Transmittance readings for abrasion resistance test
With test With light With reflectance
Reading Quantity represented
piece trap standard
τ No No Yes Incident light
τ Yes No Yes Total light transmitted by test piece
τ No Yes No Light scattered by the instrument
Light scattered by instrument and
τ Yes Yes No
the test piece

Repeat readings for τ , τ , τ and τ with additional positions of the test piece specified in Figure 4 to

1 2 3 4
determine uniformity.
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ISO 5685:2022(E)
Calculate the total transmittance τ as follows:
τ = (1)
Calculate the diffuse transmittance τ as follows:
τ 
ττ−
 
 
τ = (2)
ττ−
Calculate the percentage haze as follows:
H=×100 (3)
where H is the haze.

If haze measurements are carried out with other testing devices or differing methods, the results are to

be corrected if necessary, in order to achieve conformity with the results from the use of the apparatus

described above.
7 Preparation of the abrasion testing device
7.1 Settings of the abrasion testing device
The following settings are to be made on the abrasion testing device:

1) wiping cycles: (37 ± 2) cycles per minute (one wiping cycle corresponds to a double stroke);

2) stroke length: (130 ± 5) mm (corresponds to half a wiping cycle).
Two test pieces can be subjected to abrasion at the same time.

To ensure the wiper test is carried out in a uniform manner, the positions of the specimen boxes are

to be switched (see Clause 10) and markings are to be made on the abrasion testing device, specimen

boxes and test pieces in accordance with 7.2.
7.2 Setting up the abrasion testing device

a) The specimen boxes are to be positioned in the abrasion testing device in a traceable manner

by using corresponding markings for the switching of the positions of the specimen boxes after

10 000 wiping cycles in particular (see 10.2) [e.g. A and B as markings for the two specimen boxes

and a and b for the positions of the specimen boxes in the abrasion testing device (see 10.2.2 and

10.2.3)].
b) The test pieces are to be marked on the reverse side of the wiping area.

c) It is recommended to use only test pieces that are coated on both sides to avoid scratches on the

reverse side of the test pieces. If this is not possible, the samples should be covered with a protective

soft film with a maximum thickness of 100 µm on the rear, apart from when the haze measurement

is being carried out.

d) Covering of the reverse side is also recommended for test pieces that are coated on both sides.

e) The wiper bridge is also to be marked (e.g. with a direction arrow) to ensure that it is always

inserted in the same position.
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ISO 5685:2022(E)

f) It is recommended to carry out the test procedure regularly on reference samples made of hard

plastic with known coating systems (hard coating) to ensure that a homogeneous abrasion pattern

is created and that the test results are reproducible. Commercially available sample plaques can

be used for this purpose.

g) When using the abrasion testing device for the first time or using a new wiper bridge, 20 000 cycles

shall be carried out to prepare the abrasion testing device for use. The reference samples shall then

be tested.

h) It is recommended to carry out regular maintenance of the abrasion testing device in accordance

with the specifications of the device manufacturer . A
...

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