Road vehicles — Determination of resistance to forced entry of security glass constructions used in vehicle glazing — Test of glazing systems

ISO 23013:2016 provides test procedures that are designed to assess levels of resistance to forced entry provided by security glazing used in vehicles. Security glazing to be tested shall provide a certain (higher) level of protection against vehicle intrusion than standard safety glazing. This International Standard does not apply to conventional safety glazing material that meets the requirements of international automotive glazing material standards similar, but not limited to ECE R43. This International Standard's goal is to quantify how much resistance can be provided by particular system parts (security glazing with associated part of the car body) against rapid unauthorized entry into vehicles. The test methods used have been designed more to simulate opportunist theft attacks using simple implements, which could be easily carried about a person rather than by "calculated theft" using specialist tools which a professional thief might use. That range of tools is limited to hand-held and non-powered instruments that could physically provide access to a vehicle.

Véhicules routiers — Détermination de la résistance à la force d'intrusion des constructions de vitres de sécurité utilisées dans les vitrages de véhicules — Essai des systèmes de vitrages

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Jan-2016
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
06-Sep-2021
Completion Date
06-Sep-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23013
First edition
2016-01-15
Road vehicles — Determination of
resistance to forced entry of security
glass constructions used in vehicle
glazing — Test of glazing systems
Véhicules routiers — Détermination de la résistance à la force
d’intrusion des constructions de vitres de sécurité utilisées dans les
vitrages de véhicules — Essai des systèmes de vitrages
Reference number
ISO 23013:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Description of the apparatus ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Tool for pointed attack ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.3 Tool for blunt attack ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.4 Tool for cutting attack ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1.5 Tool for displacement test ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Checking the equipment ..............................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.1 Determining the effective mass and checking the speed measuring apparatus ....10

5.2.2 Pointed attack ..................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.3 Blunt attack .......................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.4 Cutting attack ...................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.5 Displacement test .........................................................................................................................................................11

6 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 Support frame for the system part......................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Associated sections of the car body ...................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Security glazing ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Number of panes of glazing ......................................................................................................................................................13

7 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Test procedures ..................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Attack test sequence with blunt tool .................................................................................................................................14

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2.2 Test element pointed attack ................................................................................................................................14

8.2.3 Test element blunt attack ......................................................................................................................................14

8.2.4 Test element displacement ..................................................................................................................................14

8.2.5 Test position and requirements for different levels of attack resistance .....................14

8.3 Attack test sequence with cutting tool ............................................................................................................................15

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.3.2 Test element pointed attack ................................................................................................................................16

8.3.3 Test element cutting attack ..................................................................................................................................16

8.3.4 Test element displacement ..................................................................................................................................16

8.3.5 Test position and requirements for different levels of attack resistance .....................16

9 Classification .........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

11 Test certificate ......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Comments .......................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Source of steel pin for the pointed attack tool ..........................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 35, Lighting

and visibility.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
Introduction

The vast majority of potential attacks using hand-held implements can be narrowed down to two basic

types of attack: attack with a sharp instrument and attack with a blunt instrument. Such attacks are

reproduced by these procedures using standardized tests. The levels of energy/force used in the tests

are designed to reflect strength of attack that is within the limits of human capability.

As the construction of the window frame plays a particularly important role in providing resistance to

forced entry, any glazing requiring classification approval by this International Standard needs to be

tested within its own original car body section, e.g. its own door assembly.

By defining performance levels of attack resistance, it is possible to classify the intruder resistance

properties of a given glazing within a system part.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23013:2016(E)
Road vehicles — Determination of resistance to forced
entry of security glass constructions used in vehicle glazing
— Test of glazing systems
1 Scope

This International Standard provides test procedures that are designed to assess levels of resistance

to forced entry provided by security glazing used in vehicles. Security glazing to be tested shall

provide a certain (higher) level of protection against vehicle intrusion than standard safety glazing.

This International Standard does not apply to conventional safety glazing material that meets the

requirements of international automotive glazing material standards similar, but not limited to ECE R43.

This International Standard’s goal is to quantify how much resistance can be provided by particular

system parts (security glazing with associated part of the car body) against rapid unauthorized entry

into vehicles. The test methods used have been designed more to simulate opportunist theft attacks

using simple implements, which could be easily carried about a person rather than by “calculated theft”

using specialist tools which a professional thief might use. That range of tools is limited to hand-held

and non-powered instruments that could physically provide access to a vehicle.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 513, Classification and application of hard cutting materials for metal removal with defined cutting

edges — Designation of the main groups and groups of application

ISO 527-2, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 2: Test conditions for moulding and

extrusion plastics

ISO 4130, Road vehicles — Three-dimensional reference system and fiducial marks — Definitions

EN 10027-2, Designation systems for steels — Part 2: Numerical system
DIN 5131, Hatchets
DIN 7287, Steel axes and hatchets — Technical specifications
DIN 53479, Testing of Plastics and Elastomers; Determination of Density
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
attack test

predetermined series of blows to a specific area of a system part (3.13) applied with well-defined

energy levels and a standardized tool (3.12)
3.2
blunt attack

attempt to break into a vehicle where the energy of attack is exerted onto the system part (3.13) by a

blunt or rounded impacting tool
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
3.3
cutting attack

attempt to break into a vehicle where the energy of attack is exerted onto the system part (3.13) by a

tool with a sharp cutting edge
3.4
displacement test

test to evaluate the level of retention of glazing within its frame or the associated car body using a

spherical-faced tool constantly moved against the inside centre of the glazing until a well-defined level

of force is reached
3.5
effective mass

mass of a freely moving implement that, driven by the same kinetic energy, would hit the system part

(3.13) with the same speed as the effective tool (3.6) implemented in the test apparatus

Note 1 to entry: Implements with the same effective mass and with same kinetic energy will develop same speed;

kinetic energy and speed are the fixed parameters to study interaction between standardized tool (3.12) and

system part. For technical reasons, additional construction elements are required moving with the standardized

tool affecting the relationship between kinetic energy and speed. A procedure is given to measure the effective

mass for a given design and facilitate countermeasures.

Note 2 to entry: The effective mass is calculated out of measurement results from a drop test using the effective

tool’s gravitational force, the stroke height, and the speed at the impact point (3.8) as shown in 5.2.

3.6
effective tool

mechanical unit consisting of the standardized tool and all moving parts attached to it

Note 1 to entry: During the entire test procedure, only the standardized tool (3.12) itself shall come into contact

with the system part (3.13).
3.7
forced entry testing

standardized test procedure in two parts (attack test (3.1) sequence with blunt tool and attack test

sequence with cutting tool) to assess the resistance of glazing within a given part of a car body

against forced entry
3.8
impact point

location on the standardized tool (3.12) at which first contact to the system part (3.13) is made during

the attack test (3.1)
3.9
level of attack resistance

measure in five discrete steps of the ability of a system part (3.13) to resist a forced entry of a certain

strength specified by the number of tool impacts, their energies, and forces for displacement

Note 1 to entry: For higher levels of attack resistance, a larger number of impacts as well as higher energies and

forces are required.

Note 2 to entry: If a system part passes the forced entry testing (3.7) as described, then the system part meets

the requirements of the specific level of attack resistance for which it was tested. If the results for the attack test

(3.1) sequences with cutting and blunt tool are different, the overall test evaluation will correspond to the lower

level of the two results.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
3.10
pointed attack

attempt to break into a vehicle where the energy of attack is exerted onto the system part (3.13) by

a pointed tool

Note 1 to entry: Pointed attack can cause the glazing to crack or to develop full, localized penetration of the glass

pane.
3.11
resistance to forced entry

ability of a glazing to resist the attempt to penetrate glazing using simple tools

Note 1 to entry: The strength of resistance will be quantified by use of distinct levels called levels of attack

resistance.

Note 2 to entry: This property is only appropriate for the system part (3.13) under test using standardized

conditions and does not take into account all aspects necessary to evaluate resistance to forced entry of a

complete vehicle. For example, location of glazing in the vehicle or strategy of the attack could affect this property

and are out of the scope of this International Standard.
3.12
standardized tool

testing device that simulates forced entry by cutting, pointed, and blunt attack (3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Each device aims to represent a respective category of tools that could potentially be used for

forced entry into a vehicle.
3.13
system part

original security glazing and the associated part of the car body (e.g. the window pane and door of a

given vehicle)
3.14
test element

part of the attack test (3.1) sequence referring to an attack test using one of the standardized tools (3.12)

3.15
tool axis

construction line that passes through the tool’s impact point (3.8) and is in line with the direction of

movement immediately before it hits the system part (direction of action)
3.16
tool’s direction of action

direction in which the tool is moving immediately before it hits the system part (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: If the tool is following a circular path, the direction of action is the tangent to the circular path at

the impact point (3.8), immediately before tool applies force to the system part.

4 Principle

A wide range of attacks using various hand-held tools will be simulated by only two different test

procedures applied to the same kind of system part. The results of both tests will be taken to generate a

classification of resistance to forced entry by the use of levels of attack resistance.

Both test procedures, called “attack test sequence with blunt tool” and “attack sequence with cutting

tool” cover three test elements, each applied to the same kind of system part, representing all relevant

elements of a forced entry with handheld tools.

In a first step of an attack test sequence, the glazing is impacted by a pointed tool. This reflects the

attempt to destroy the integrity of the brittle glazing component(s) for a forced entry as a first step,

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)

getting access to the vehicle straight away or weaken the system part for further attacks with cutting

or blunt tools to finally create a sufficient opening for access.

For the second step of an attack, test sequence attempts are made to create an opening in the glazing, or

between the glazing and the surrounding frame large enough to get access to the vehicle. This is done

by striking the glazing system part repeatedly using specific tools which represent groups of blunt

tools on one hand or cutting tools on the other hand.

If this does not provide the intended opening, the third step of the attack test sequence provides an

attempt to remove the remainder of the damaged glazing from the surrounding frame and to thereby

create an opening large enough to gain entry.

For a forced entry testing, both attack test sequences are required, consisting of three test elements

each (pointed attack, cutting attack, displacement for the first attack test sequence, and pointed attack,

blunt attack, displacement as the other attack test sequence).
5 Apparatus
5.1 Description of the apparatus
5.1.1 General

The forced entry testing for a system part consists of two attack test sequences (with blunt and

with cutting tool), each with three test elements (pointed attack, cutting or blunt attack, and a

displacement test). The three elements of each attack test sequence shall be performed one directly

after the other on the same system part, without any need for the part to be taken out of the support

frame (see 6.1) during test.

Attack tests are carried out using a mechanical apparatus. This apparatus has one degree of freedom

for movement and directs standardized tools, along a circular path with a minimum radius of 1 m and

at a well-defined energy, in such a way that the tool axis of the standardized tool is perpendicular to

the surface of the glazing at the impact point (see Figure 1). At the moment of impact, the tool axis and

impact point’s speed vector must be parallel. Construction elements that are fixed to the standardized

tool (effective tool) shall be designed in a way that the tool’s impact point makes the first contact to the

system part. The effective tool shall be designed in a way that distance between its centre of gravity

and the rotation axis is at least 0,7 times the distance between the rotation axis and the impact point.

4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 axis of rotation
2 travelling path of impact point
3 tool axis
4 system part
Figure 1 — Schematic representation of the effective tool

The position of the effective tool as shown in Figure 1 shall be the position at rest. The centre of

gravity shall be vertically and directly below the axis of rotation. Special measures to facilitate that

are not shown here.

Often, the level of energy for effective tool just driven by gravity is not enough to perform the test

according to this International Standard. An additional mechanism is therefore required to accelerate

the tool. Description of an apparatus to increase the tool’s energy is not given in this International

Standard and can be designed according to technical requirements as long as it meets this International

Standard’s requirements. In this respect, care shall be taken to ensure that the required level of energy

is achieved as the tool hits the glazing, and that thereafter, no additional energy is applied. The drive

unit delivering the energy must be mechanically disconnected from the effective tool before the tool

makes contact with the system part. When idle and disconnected from drive unit, the effective tool

shall come to rest and remain static at the intended point of contact with the system part. This shall

be the case if the rotation axis is vertical above the effective tool’s centre of gravity. There shall be a

possibility to adjust the point of contact as well as the orientation of the system part relative to the axis

and impact point of the idle standardized tool.

The required level of energy shall be evaluated by measuring the travelling speed of the standardized

tool’s impact point immediately before hitting the system part under test. Speed measurements must

be accurate to ±2 %. The standardized tool’s impact point must hit the intended position on the glazing

with an accuracy of ±5 mm.

The way in which security glazing is installed for test purpose shall match realistic conditions as closely

as possible. Glazing and the associated car body part (see 6.2), jointly referred to here as the “system

part,” are held by a support construction (described in 6.1) in a fixture.

The fixture shall be rigid in itself and shall be solidly fixed to a firm surface.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)

The fixture for the system part includes an integrated spherical-faced tool that can be moved against

the inside of the glazing with well-defined travelling speed.
Key
1 rotation axis
2 effective tool
3 standardized tool
4 system part: Glazing with section of car body
5 support frame
6 displacement apparatus
Figure 2 — Schematic representation of how the test equipment is arranged
5.1.2 Tool for pointed attack

The effective tool is made up from the moving parts of the test apparatus and also from a tool adapter

and a fixing shaft for a hardened steel pin (see Annex B). The pin is pointed in a conical front end and is

at least 10 mm long (standardized tool, see Figure 3). The effective tool’s effective mass for the pointed

attack test is 3,5 kg ± 0,07 kg. The impact point is the pointed end of the hardened steel pin. The tool’s

axis is the pin’s symmetry axis. The tool adapter and the fixing shaft are specific to the individual

construction of each testing machine. They shall resist the forces generated during attack testing

without being damaged or deformed. They shall also ensure that during testing, no other parts of the

effective tool get in touch with the system part.

The steel pins are made of hardened steel type P20 according to ISO 513. They are 4 mm ± 0,05 mm in

diameter and at least 10 mm long. At least one end of such pins is ground into a cone shape at an angle

of 100° ± 5°.

The tool’s movement shall be restricted to ensure that the tip of the tool cannot penetrate deeper than

10 mm.
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 tool axis
2 impact point
Figure 3 — Schematic representation of the standardized tool for pointed attack
5.1.3 Tool for blunt attack

The standardized tool used for a blunt attack (see Figure 4) consists of a cylindrical steel body with a

diameter of 75 mm ± 1 mm. It is at least 100 mm long and has a hemispherical end with a diameter of

75 mm ± 1 mm. It shall be made from steel 1.0060 according to EN 10027-2. Construction elements used

to guide the standardized tool shall be designed in such a way that they do not alter test results and

are able to resist forces generated during test without continuous deformation. In addition, during test,

they shall not get in touch with the system part, its support, or the fixture.

The impact point is the spot shown in Figure 4 in the middle of the hemispherical end of the tool. The

tool’s axis matches the symmetric axis of the standardized tool. Elements of the rig used for guiding the

tool (effective tool) shall be built in such a way that an effective mass of 3,5 kg ± 0,07 kg is produced.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 tool axis
2 impact point

Figure 4 — Schematic representation of the tool for simulating attack with a blunt instrument

5.1.4 Tool for cutting attack

The standardized tool for cutting attack (see Figure 5) consists of an axe head with a weight of 800 g

and conforms to German standard DIN 5131. The axe is used without shaft and is made of hardened

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 23013:2016(E)

steel conforming to DIN 7287, Güteklasse B (Beil 800 II DIN 5131-B). Construction elements used to

guide the standardized tool shall be designed in such a way that they do not alter test results and are

able to resist forces generated during test without continuous deformation. In addition, during test,

they shall not get in touch with the system part, its support, or the fixture.

The impact point and the tool’s axis are shown in Figure 5 (the impact point is the position designated

a in DIN 5131, and the tool axis runs t
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23013
ISO/TC 22/SC 35
Road vehicles — Determination
Secretariat: UNI
to forced entry of safety glass
Voting begins
on: 2015­09-15 constructions used in vehicle glazing
— Test of glazing systems
Voting terminates
on: 2015­11-15
Véhicules routiers — Détermination de la force d’intrusion des
constructions de vitres de sécurité utilisées dans les vitres de véhicules
— Essai des systèmes de vitres
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Description of the apparatus ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Tool for pointed attack ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.3 Tool for blunt attack ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.4 Tool for cutting attack ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1.5 Tool for displacement test ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Checking the equipment ..............................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.1 Determining the effective mass and checking the speed measuring apparatus ....10

5.2.2 Pointed attack ..................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.3 Blunt attack .......................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.4 Cutting attack ...................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.5 Displacement test .........................................................................................................................................................11

6 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 Support frame for the system part......................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Associated sections of the car body ...................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Security glazing ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Number of panes of glazing ......................................................................................................................................................13

7 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Test procedures ..................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Attack test sequence with blunt tool .................................................................................................................................14

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2.2 Test element pointed attack ................................................................................................................................14

8.2.3 Test element blunt attack ......................................................................................................................................14

8.2.4 Test element displacement ..................................................................................................................................14

8.2.5 Test position and requirements for different levels of attack resistance .....................14

8.3 Attack test sequence with cutting tool ............................................................................................................................15

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.3.2 Test element pointed attack ................................................................................................................................16

8.3.3 Test element cutting attack ..................................................................................................................................16

8.3.4 Test element displacement ..................................................................................................................................16

8.3.5 Test position and requirements for different levels of attack resistance .....................16

9 Classification .........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

11 Test certificate ......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Comments .......................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Source of steel pin for the pointed attack tool ..........................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 35, Lighting

and visibility.
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
Introduction

The vast majority of potential attacks using hand-held implements can be narrowed down to two basic

types of attack: attack with a sharp instrument and attack with a blunt instrument. Such attacks are

reproduced by these procedures using standardized tests. The levels of energy/force used in the tests

are designed to reflect strength of attack that is within the limits of human capability.

As the construction of the window frame plays a particularly important role in providing resistance to

forced entry, any glazing requiring classification approval by this International Standard needs to be

tested within its own original car body section, e.g. its own door assembly.

By defining performance levels of attack resistance, it is possible to classify the intruder resistance

properties of a given glazing within a system part.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Determination to forced entry of safety
glass constructions used in vehicle glazing — Test of
glazing systems
1 Scope

This International Standard provides test procedures that are designed to assess levels of resistance

to forced entry provided by security glazing used in vehicles. Security glazing to be tested shall

provide a certain (higher) level of protection against vehicle intrusion than standard safety glazing.

This International Standard does not apply to conventional safety glazing material that meets the

requirements of international automotive glazing material standards similar, but not limited to ECE R43.

This International Standard’s goal is to quantify how much resistance can be provided by particular

system parts (security glazing with associated part of the car body) against rapid unauthorized entry

into vehicles. The test methods used have been designed more to simulate opportunist theft attacks

using simple implements, which could be easily carried about a person rather than by “calculated theft”

using specialist tools which a professional thief might use. That range of tools is limited to hand­held

and non-powered instruments that could physically provide access to a vehicle.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 513, Classification and application of hard cutting materials for metal removal with defined cutting

edges — Designation of the main groups and groups of application

ISO 527­2, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 2: Test conditions for moulding and

extrusion plastics

ISO 4130, Road vehicles — Three-dimensional reference system and fiducial marks — Definitions

EN 10027­2, Designation systems for steels — Part 2: Numerical system
DIN 5131, Hatchets
DIN 7287, Steel axes and hatchets — Technical specifications
DIN 53479, Testing of Plastics and Elastomers; Determination of Density
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
attack test

predetermined series of blows to a specific area of a system part (3.13) applied with well-defined

energy levels and a standardized tool (3.12)
3.2
blunt attack

attempt to break into a vehicle where the energy of attack is exerted onto the system part (3.13) by a

blunt or rounded impacting tool
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ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
3.3
cutting attack

attempt to break into a vehicle where the energy of attack is exerted onto the system part (3.13) by a

tool with a sharp cutting edge
3.4
displacement test

test to evaluate the level of retention of glazing within its frame or the associated car body using a

spherical-faced tool constantly moved against the inside centre of the glazing until a well-defined level

of force is reached
3.5
effective mass

mass of a freely moving implement that, driven by the same kinetic energy, would hit the system part

(3.13) with the same speed as the effective tool (3.6) implemented in the test apparatus

Note 1 to entry: Implements with the same effective mass and with same kinetic energy will develop same speed;

kinetic energy and speed are the fixed parameters to study interaction between standardized tool (3.12) and

system part. For technical reasons, additional construction elements are required moving with the standardized

tool affecting the relationship between kinetic energy and speed. A procedure is given to measure the effective

mass for a given design and facilitate countermeasures.

Note 2 to entry: The effective mass is calculated out of measurement results from a drop test using the effective

tool’s gravitational force, the stroke height, and the speed at the impact point (3.8) as shown in 5.2.

3.6
effective tool

mechanical unit consisting of the standardized tool and all moving parts attached to it

Note 1 to entry: During the entire test procedure, only the standardized tool (3.12) itself shall come into contact

with the system part (3.13).
3.7
forced entry testing

standardized test procedure in two parts (attack test (3.1) sequence with blunt tool and attack test

sequence with cutting tool) to assess the resistance of glazing within a given part of a car body

against forced entry
3.8
impact point

location on the standardized tool (3.12) at which first contact to the system part (3.13) is made during

the attack test (3.1)
3.9
level of attack resistance

measure in five discrete steps of the ability of a system part (3.13) to resist a forced entry of a certain

strength specified by the number of tool impacts, their energies, and forces for displacement

Note 1 to entry: For higher levels of attack resistance, a larger number of impacts as well as higher energies and

forces are required.

Note 2 to entry: If a system part passes the forced entry testing (3.7) as described, then the system part meets

the requirements of the specific level of attack resistance for which it was tested. If the results for the attack test

(3.1) sequences with cutting and blunt tool are different, the overall test evaluation will correspond to the lower

level of the two results.
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ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
3.10
pointed attack

attempt to break into a vehicle where the energy of attack is exerted onto the system part (3.13) by

a pointed tool

Note 1 to entry: Pointed attack can cause the glazing to crack or to develop full, localized penetration of the glass

pane.
3.11
resistance to forced entry

ability of a glazing to resist the attempt to penetrate glazing using simple tools

Note 1 to entry: The strength of resistance will be quantified by use of distinct levels called levels of attack

resistance.

Note 2 to entry: This property is only appropriate for the system part (3.13) under test using standardized

conditions and does not take into account all aspects necessary to evaluate resistance to forced entry of a

complete vehicle. For example, location of glazing in the vehicle or strategy of the attack could affect this property

and are out of the scope of this International Standard.
3.12
standardized tool

testing device that simulates forced entry by cutting, pointed, and blunt attack (3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Each device aims to represent a respective category of tools that could potentially be used for

forced entry into a vehicle.
3.13
system part

original security glazing and the associated part of the car body (e.g. the window pane and door of a

given vehicle)
3.14
test element

part of the attack test (3.1) sequence referring to an attack test using one of the standardized tools (3.12)

3.15
tool axis

construction line that passes through the tool’s impact point (3.8) and is in line with the direction of

movement immediately before it hits the system part (direction of action)
3.16
tool’s direction of action

direction in which the tool is moving immediately before it hits the system part (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: If the tool is following a circular path, the direction of action is the tangent to the circular path at

the impact point (3.8), immediately before tool applies force to the system part.

4 Principle

A wide range of attacks using various hand-held tools will be simulated by only two different test

procedures applied to the same kind of system part. The results of both tests will be taken to generate a

classification of resistance to forced entry by the use of levels of attack resistance.

Both test procedures, called “attack test sequence with blunt tool” and “attack sequence with cutting

tool” cover three test elements, each applied to the same kind of system part, representing all relevant

elements of a forced entry with handheld tools.

In a first step of an attack test sequence, the glazing is impacted by a pointed tool. This reflects the

attempt to destroy the integrity of the brittle glazing component(s) for a forced entry as a first step,

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ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)

getting access to the vehicle straight away or weaken the system part for further attacks with cutting

or blunt tools to finally create a sufficient opening for access.

For the second step of an attack, test sequence attempts are made to create an opening in the glazing, or

between the glazing and the surrounding frame large enough to get access to the vehicle. This is done

by striking the glazing system part repeatedly using specific tools which represent groups of blunt

tools on one hand or cutting tools on the other hand.

If this does not provide the intended opening, the third step of the attack test sequence provides an

attempt to remove the remainder of the damaged glazing from the surrounding frame and to thereby

create an opening large enough to gain entry.

For a forced entry testing, both attack test sequences are required, consisting of three test elements

each (pointed attack, cutting attack, displacement for the first attack test sequence, and pointed attack,

blunt attack, displacement as the other attack test sequence).
5 Apparatus
5.1 Description of the apparatus
5.1.1 General

The forced entry testing for a system part consists of two attack test sequences (with blunt and

with cutting tool), each with three test elements (pointed attack, cutting or blunt attack, and a

displacement test). The three elements of each attack test sequence shall be performed one directly

after the other on the same system part, without any need for the part to be taken out of the support

frame (see 6.1) during test.

Attack tests are carried out using a mechanical apparatus. This apparatus has one degree of freedom

for movement and directs standardized tools, along a circular path with a minimum radius of 1 m and

at a well-defined energy, in such a way that the tool axis of the standardized tool is perpendicular to

the surface of the glazing at the impact point (see Figure 1). At the moment of impact, the tool axis and

impact point’s speed vector must be parallel. Construction elements that are fixed to the standardized

tool (effective tool) shall be designed in a way that the tool’s impact point makes the first contact to the

system part. The effective tool shall be designed in a way that distance between its centre of gravity

and the rotation axis is at least 0,7 times the distance between the rotation axis and the impact point.

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ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 axis of rotation
2 travelling path of impact point
3 tool axis
4 system part
Figure 1 — Schematic representation of the effective tool

The position of the effective tool as shown in Figure 1 shall be the position at rest. The centre of

gravity shall be vertically and directly below the axis of rotation. Special measures to facilitate that

are not shown here.

Often, the level of energy for effective tool just driven by gravity is not enough to perform the test

according to this International Standard. An additional mechanism is therefore required to accelerate

the tool. Description of an apparatus to increase the tool’s energy is not given in this International

Standard and can be designed according to technical requirements as long as it meets this International

Standard’s requirements. In this respect, care shall be taken to ensure that the required level of energy

is achieved as the tool hits the glazing, and that thereafter, no additional energy is applied. The drive

unit delivering the energy must be mechanically disconnected from the effective tool before the tool

makes contact with the system part. When idle and disconnected from drive unit, the effective tool

shall come to rest and remain static at the intended point of contact with the system part. This shall

be the case if the rotation axis is vertical above the effective tool’s centre of gravity. There shall be a

possibility to adjust the point of contact as well as the orientation of the system part relative to the axis

and impact point of the idle standardized tool.

The required level of energy shall be evaluated by measuring the travelling speed of the standardized

tool’s impact point immediately before hitting the system part under test. Speed measurements must

be accurate to ±2 %. The standardized tool’s impact point must hit the intended position on the glazing

with an accuracy of ±5 mm.

The way in which security glazing is installed for test purpose shall match realistic conditions as closely

as possible. Glazing and the associated car body part (see 6.2), jointly referred to here as the “system

part,” are held by a support construction (described in 6.1) in a fixture.

The fixture shall be rigid in itself and shall be solidly fixed to a firm surface.

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ISO/FDIS 23013:2015(E)

The fixture for the system part includes an integrated spherical-faced tool that can be moved against

the inside of the glazing with well-defined travelling speed.
Key
1 rotation axis
2 effective tool
3 standardized tool
4 system part: Glazing with section of car body
5 support frame
6 displacement apparatus
Figure 2 — Schematic representation of how the test equipment is arranged
5.1.2 Tool for pointed attack

The effective tool is made up from the moving parts of the test apparatus and also from a tool adapter

and a fixing shaft for a hardened steel pin (see Annex B). The pin is pointed in a conical front end and is

at least 10 mm long (standardized tool, see Figure 3). The effective tool’s effective mass for the pointed

attack test is 3,5 kg ± 0,07 kg. The impact point is the pointed end of the hardened steel pin. The tool’s

axis is the pin’s symmetry axis. The tool adapter and the fixing shaft are specific to the individual

construction of each testing machine. They shall resist the forces generated during attack testing

without being damaged or deformed. They shall also ensure that during testing, no other parts of the

effective tool get in touch with the system part.

The steel pins are made of hardened steel type P20 according to ISO 513. They are 4 mm ± 0,05 mm in

diameter and at least 10 mm long. At least one end of such pins is ground into a cone shape at an angle

of 100° ± 5°.

The tool’s movement shall be restricted to ensure that the tip of the tool cannot penetrate deeper than

10 mm.
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Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 tool axis
2 impact point
Figure 3 — Schematic representation of the standardized tool for pointed attack
5.1.3 Tool for blunt attack

The standardized tool used for a blunt attack (see Figure 4) consists of a cylindrical steel body with a

diameter of 75 mm ± 1 mm. It is at least 100 mm long and has a hemispherical end with a diameter of

75 mm ± 1 mm. It shall be made from steel 1.0060 according to EN 10027­2. Construction elements used

to guide the standardized tool shall be designed in such a way that they do not alter test results and

are able to resist forces generated during test without continuous deformation. In addition, during test,

they shall not get in touch with the system part, its support, or the fixture.

The impact point is the spot shown in Figure 4 in the middle of the hemispherical end of the tool. The

tool’s axis matches the symmetric axis of the standardized tool. Elements of the rig used for guiding the

tool (effective tool) shall be built in such a way that an effective mass of 3,5 kg ± 0,07 kg is produced.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 tool axis
2 impact point

Figure 4 — Schematic representation of the tool for simulating attack with a blunt instrument

5.1.4 Tool for cutting attack

The standardized tool for cutting attack (see Figure 5) consists of an axe head with a weight of 800 g

and conforms to German standard DIN 5131. The axe is used without shaft and is made of hardened

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