Petroleum products -- Fuels (class F) -- Specifications of marine fuels

ISO 8217:2017 specifies the requirements for fuels for use in marine diesel engines and boilers, prior to conventional onboard treatment (settling, centrifuging, filtration) before use. The specifications for fuels in this document can also be applied to fuels used in stationary diesel engines of the same or similar type as those used for marine purposes. ISO 8217:2017 specifies seven categories of distillate fuels, one of which is for diesel engines used for emergency purposes. It also specifies six categories of residual fuels. For the purposes of this document, the term "fuels" is currently used to include the following: - hydrocarbons from petroleum crude oil, oil sands and shale; - hydrocarbons from synthetic or renewable sources, similar in composition to petroleum distillate fuels; - blends of the above with a fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME) component where permitted. NOTE 1 Appropriate guidance about fuel treatment systems for diesel engines is published by the International Council on Combustion Engines (CIMAC)[5]. NOTE 2 Requirements for gas turbine fuels used in marine applications are specified in ISO 4261[6]. NOTE 3 For the purposes of this document, the terms "mass %" and "volume %" are used to represent the mass and volume fractions respectively.

Produits pétroliers -- Combustibles (classe F) -- Spécifications des combustibles pour la marine

ISO 8217:2017 spécifie les exigences relatives aux combustibles pour l'utilisation dans les moteurs diesel et les chaudičres des navires, avant tout traitement conventionnel ŕ bord (décantation, centrifugation, filtration) préalable ŕ leur utilisation. Les spécifications pour combustibles du présent document peuvent aussi s'appliquer aux carburants utilisés par les moteurs diesel stationnaires, de type identique ou semblable ŕ ceux utilisés pour des applications marines. ISO 8217:2017 spécifie sept catégories de distillats pour la marine, dont l'une est utilisée dans les moteurs diesel des dispositifs de secours. Elle donne aussi les spécifications de six catégories de combustibles résiduels. Pour les besoins du présent document, le terme «combustibles» est utilisé couramment pour désigner: ? les hydrocarbures provenant du pétrole brut, des sables bitumineux et du schiste, ? les hydrocarbures provenant de sources synthétiques ou renouvelables, semblables en composition aux distillats de pétrole, ? le mélange des produits cités ci-dessus avec une base d'esters méthyliques d'acides gras (EMAG), lorsqu'ils sont autorisés. NOTE 1 Un guide sur les systčmes de traitement des combustibles pour les moteurs diesel est publié par le Conseil International des Machines ŕ Combustion (CIMAC)[5]. NOTE 2 Les exigences des combustibles pour les turbines ŕ gaz en service dans la marine sont spécifiées dans l'ISO 4261[6]. NOTE 3 Pour les besoins du présent document, les expressions «% en masse» et «% en volume» représentent respectivement la fraction massique et la fraction volumique.

Naftni proizvodi - Goriva (razred F) - Specifikacije za ladijska goriva

Ta dokument določa zahteve za goriva za ladijske dizelske motorje in kotle pred ustrezno obdelavo (namestitev, centrifugiranje, filtracija) pred uporabo. Specifikacije za goriva v tem dokumentu je mogoče uporabiti tudi za goriva za nepremične dizelske motorje enake ali podobne znamke in tipa, kot so ladijski motorji.
Ta dokument določa sedem kategorij destiliranega goriva, pri čemer ena kategorija zajema dizelske motorje za
nujne primere. Določa tudi šest kategorij goriv iz destilacijskega ostanka.
V tem dokumentu uporabljeni izraz »goriva« vključuje naslednja sredstva:
– ogljikovodiki iz surove nafte, naftni pesek in skrilavec;
– ogljikovodiki iz sintetičnih ali obnovljivih virov, ki so po sestavi podobni naftnim destilatom;
– mešanica zgoraj navedenih sredstev s komponento iz metil estrov maščobnih kislin (FAME), kjer je to dovoljeno.
OPOMBA 1: Ustrezne smernice o sistemih za obdelavo goriv za dizelske motorje je objavil Mednarodni odbor za motorje z notranjim izgorevanjem (CIMAC)[5].
OPOMBA 2: Zahteve za ladijska goriva za plinske turbine so določene v standardu ISO 4261[6].
OPOMBA 3: V tem dokumentu sta uporabljena izraza »masni %« in »prostorninski %«, ki predstavljata masni delež oziroma prostornino.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Mar-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
30-Dec-2016
Completion Date
17-Mar-2017

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8217
Sixth edition
2017-03
Petroleum products — Fuels (class F)
— Specifications of marine fuels
Produits pétroliers — Combustibles (classe F) — Spécifications des
combustibles pour la marine
Reference number
ISO 8217:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Application and sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Density ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 CCAI .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Sulfur ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4 Flash point .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.5 Hydrogen sulfide ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6 Acid number .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.7 Oxidation stability ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.8 Total sediment by hot filtration ................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.9 Total sediment — Aged.................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.10 Fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME) ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.11 Pour point/cloud point/cold filter plugging point .................................................................................................. 5

6.12 Appearance/water ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.13 Lubricity........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.14 Vanadium ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.15 Sodium ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.16 Aluminium plus silicon .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.17 Used lubricating oil (ULO) ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Specific energy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8 Precision and interpretation of test results ............................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Bio-derived products including fatty acid methyl esters................................................12

Annex B (informative) Deleterious materials ..........................................................................................................................................14

Annex C (informative) Ignition characteristics of residual marine fuels ....................................................................15

Annex D (informative) Hydrogen sulfide ......................................................................................................................................................17

Annex E (informative) Acidity ...................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex F (informative) Ash ............................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex G (informative) Used lubricating oil ................................................................................................................................................20

Annex H (informative) Specific energy ............................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 28, Petroleum products and related

products of synthetic or biological origin, Subcommittee SC 4, Classifications and specifications.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition (ISO 8217:2012), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)
Introduction
General

This document was prepared in cooperation with ship owners, ship operators, shipping associations,

national standards bodies, classification societies, fuel testing services, engine designers, marine fuel

suppliers, fuel additive suppliers and the petroleum industry to meet the requirements for marine fuels

supplied on a world-wide basis for consumption on board ships.

The increasing demands of environmental legislation are leading to a transition in the nature of marine

fuels supplied from traditional oil products derived from the processing of petroleum crude to the

potential inclusion of oil products derived from renewable and/or alternative sources. This document

takes into consideration the diverse nature of these fuels and incorporates a number of categories of

distillate or residual fuels, even though not all categories may be available in every supply location.

Classification
[1]

The categories of fuel in this document have been classified in accordance with ISO 8216‑1 .

At the time of preparation of this document, a number of unconventional fuels have been offered to

the market which do not conform exactly to this particular distillate/residual categorization. In these

instances, it is recommended that the fuel characteristics or limits should be agreed between the

purchaser and supplier and defined by both a category of fuel as given by this document together with

any different or additional fuel characteristics or limits necessary to adequately define that fuel.

International statutory requirements

This document specifies allowable minimum flash point limits following the provisions given in

[2] [3]

the SOLAS Convention . MARPOL Annex VI , which controls air pollution from ships, includes a

requirement that either the fuel shall not exceed a specified maximum sulfur content or an approved

equivalent alternative means be used. During the lifetime of this document, regional and/or national

bodies may introduce their own local emission requirements, which can impact the allowable sulfur

[4]

content, for example, the EU Sulphur Directive . It is the purchaser’s and the user’s responsibility

to establish which statutory requirements are to be met and specify on that basis the corresponding

maximum fuel sulfur content to the supplier.
Changes with respect to ISO 8217:2012

This sixth edition reflects important and significant changes. These include substantial amendments to

the scope (Clause 1) and to the general requirements (Clause 5).
Changes to the distillate fuels include the following:

— additional grades, DFA, DFZ and DFB have been added with a maximum fatty acid methyl ester(s)

(FAME) content of 7,0 volume %;

— the sulfur content of DMA and DMZ has been reduced to a maximum of 1,00 mass %;

— the sulfur content of DMB has been reduced to a maximum of 1,50 mass %;

— requirements for the following characteristics have been added to winter grades of DMA and DMZ:

cloud point and cold filter plugging point.

The following annexes, previously included, have been deleted, but the key information is included in

the body of this document or is available in referenced industry publications:
— Sulfur content;
— Flash point;
— Catalyst fines;
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)
— Precision and interpretation of test results.
All other annexes have been reviewed and updated.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8217:2017(E)
Petroleum products — Fuels (class F) — Specifications of
marine fuels

WARNING — The handling and use of products specified in this document can be hazardous

if suitable precautions are not observed. This document does not purport to address all of the

safety and health considerations that can be associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the

users of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the

applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for fuels for use in marine diesel engines and boilers, prior

to conventional onboard treatment (settling, centrifuging, filtration) before use. The specifications for

fuels in this document can also be applied to fuels used in stationary diesel engines of the same or

similar type as those used for marine purposes.

This document specifies seven categories of distillate fuels, one of which is for diesel engines used for

emergency purposes. It also specifies six categories of residual fuels.

For the purposes of this document, the term “fuels” is currently used to include the following:

— hydrocarbons from petroleum crude oil, oil sands and shale;

— hydrocarbons from synthetic or renewable sources, similar in composition to petroleum

distillate fuels;

— blends of the above with a fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME) component where permitted.

NOTE 1 Appropriate guidance about fuel treatment systems for diesel engines is published by the International

[5]
Council on Combustion Engines (CIMAC) .
[6]

NOTE 2 Requirements for gas turbine fuels used in marine applications are specified in ISO 4261 .

NOTE 3 For the purposes of this document, the terms “mass %” and “volume %” are used to represent the

mass and volume fractions respectively.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2719, Determination of flash point — Pensky-Martens closed cup method
ISO 3015, Petroleum products — Determination of cloud point
ISO 3016, Petroleum products — Determination of pour point

ISO 3104, Petroleum products — Transparent and opaque liquids — Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity

ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products — Laboratory determination of density —

Hydrometer method

ISO 3733, Petroleum products and bituminous materials — Determination of water — Distillation method

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)

ISO 4259, Petroleum products — Determination and application of precision data in relation to

methods of test

ISO 4264, Petroleum products — Calculation of cetane index of middle-distillate fuels by the four-variable

equation
ISO 6245, Petroleum products — Determination of ash

ISO 8754, Petroleum products — Determination of sulfur content — Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

spectrometry

ISO 10307-1, Petroleum products — Total sediment in residual fuel oils — Part 1: Determination by hot

filtration

ISO 10307-2, Petroleum products — Total sediment in residual fuel oils — Part 2: Determination using

standard procedures for ageing
ISO 10370, Petroleum products — Determination of carbon residue — Micro method

ISO 10478, Petroleum products — Determination of aluminium and silicon in fuel oils — Inductively coupled

plasma emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods

ISO 12156-1, Diesel fuel — Assessment of lubricity using the high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) —

Part 1: Test method

ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products — Determination of density — Oscillating U-tube

method

ISO 12205, Petroleum products — Determination of the oxidation stability of middle-distillate fuels

ISO 12937, Petroleum products — Determination of water — Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method

ISO 13739, Petroleum products — Procedures for transfer of bunkers to vessels

ISO 14596, Petroleum products — Determination of sulfur content — Wavelength-dispersive X-ray

fluorescence spectrometry

ISO 14597, Petroleum products — Determination of vanadium and nickel content — Wavelength-dispersive

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

ASTM D664, Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

ASTM D4294, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive

X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

ASTM D6751, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels

ASTM D7963, Standard Test Method for determination of the contamination level of Fatty Acid Methyl

Esters in middle distillate and residual fuels using flow analysis by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy-

rapid screening method

EN 14214, Liquid petroleum products — Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in diesel engines and

heating applications — Requirements and test methods

IP 309, Diesel and domestic heating fuels — Determination of cold filter plugging point

IP 470, Determination of aluminium, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, calcium, zinc and sodium in residual fuel

oil by ashing, fusion and atomic absorption spectrometry

IP 500, Determination of the phosphorus content of residual fuels by ultra-violet spectrometry

IP 501, Determination of aluminium, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, sodium, calcium, zinc and phosphorus in

residual fuel oil by ashing, fusion and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)

IP 570, Determination of hydrogen sulfide in fuel oils — Rapid liquid phase extraction method

IP 579, Liquid petroleum products — Determination of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content in middle

distillates — Infrared spectrometry method

IP 612,Diesel and domestic heating fuels — Determination of cold filter plugging point Linear cooling bath

method — Linear cooling bath method
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp/
4 Application and sampling

This document specifies the required properties for fuels at the time and place of custody transfer.

Samples for quality verification may be taken in any location agreed between the parties.

The sampling of fuels for analysis shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures given in

ISO 13739 or an equivalent national standard. Where specific sampling requirements are documented

in the referenced test methods, these shall be adhered to.
5 General requirements

5.1 The fuel as supplied shall be homogeneous and conform to the characteristics and limits given in

Table 1 or Table 2, as appropriate, when tested in accordance with the methods specified.

The fuel composition shall consist predominantly of hydrocarbons primarily derived from petroleum

sources while it may also contain hydrocarbons from the following:

— synthetic or renewable sources such as Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Gas to Liquid (GTL) or

Biomass to Liquid (BTL);
— co‑processing of renewable feedstock at refineries with petroleum feedstock.

The DF grades, as defined in ISO 8216, include up to 7,0 volume % FAME (see Table 1), where FAME at

the time of blending shall be in accordance with the requirements of EN 14214 or ASTM D6751.

DMX shall be free of FAME.

The DMA, DMZ, DMB and RM grades shall not include FAME other than a “de minimis” level. In the

context of this document, “de minimis” means an amount that does not render the fuel unacceptable for

use in marine applications that are not designed or suited to handling fuels containing FAME.

NOTE See Annex A for more details on the level and impacts of FAME.

5.2 The fuel shall be free from any material at a concentration that causes the fuel to be unacceptable

for use in accordance with Clause 1 (i.e. material not at a concentration that is harmful to personnel,

jeopardizes the safety of the ship, or adversely affects the performance of the machinery).

NOTE See Annex B.

5.3 Subject to the requirements of 5.1 and 5.2, additives that improve some aspects of the fuel’s

characteristics or performance are permitted.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)
6 Test methods
6.1 Density

In case of disagreement concerning density, all parties shall agree, prior to additional testing, upon the

test method to be used.
6.2 CCAI
Calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI) shall be as specified in Table 2.
[7]

The CCAI value is calculated in accordance with Lewis, et al. , using Formula (1):

T + 273
 
CCAIl=−ρ 81 −⋅141 glg0v + ,85l−⋅483 g (1)
 
323
where
ρ is the density at 15 °C, expressed in kilograms per cubic metre;
lg is the logarithm to base 10;

v is the kinematic viscosity at temperature T, expressed in millimetres squared per second;

T is the temperature, expressed in degrees Celsius, at which the kinematic viscosity is

determined.

Density, ρ , and viscosity, v, shall be determined according to the test methods specified in Table 2.

NOTE 1 CCAI was originally developed as an indicator of ignition performance, but is included in Table 2 in

order to avoid fuels with uncharacteristic density‑viscosity relationships (see Annex C).

NOTE 2 For engines and/or applications where the ignition quality is known to be particularly critical, Annex C

provides a basis for suppliers and purchasers of residual fuels to agree on tighter ignition quality characteristics.

NOTE 3 For RME 180 and RMK 380, when blending at or close to the maximum density, the CCAI limit restricts

the combination of density and viscosity.
6.3 Sulfur

Sulfur test precision for fuels containing FAME has not been established for the test methods ISO 8754

and ISO 14596 at the time of preparing this International Standard. The sulfur test precision for

distillate fuels containing FAME has been established for test method ASTM D4294.

The reference test method shall be ISO 8754 for DM and RM grades and ASTM D4294 for DF grades.

In case of disagreement concerning sulfur content, all parties shall agree, prior to additional testing,

upon the same sulfur certified reference material.
6.4 Flash point

The flash point for all fuels, except for DMX, is set at 60 °C minimum according to the International

[2]
Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) .

Residual fuels have the potential to produce a flammable atmosphere in a tank headspace, even when

stored at a temperature below the measured flash point. Appropriate precautions are necessary,

therefore, to ensure the safety of the ship and personnel. Further information and advice on

precautionary measures are given in References [8] to[11].
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)

The flash point is not a physical constant, but is dependent on the test method, the apparatus and the

procedure used.

The flash point for fuels in Table 1 shall be determined in accordance with ISO 2719, Procedure A. The

flash point of fuels in Table 2 shall be determined in accordance with ISO 2719, Procedure B.

6.5 Hydrogen sulfide
The reference test method shall be IP 570, Procedure A.

WARNING — Hydrogen sulfide (H S) is a highly toxic gas. Exposure to high vapour concentrations

is hazardous and, in extreme cases, can be fatal. It is critical that ship owners, operators and

other responsible parties continue to maintain appropriate safety practices designed to protect

the crew and others who could be exposed to H S; see Annex D.
6.6 Acid number

The fuel shall be free of inorganic acids. The fuel shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D664.

NOTE See Annex E.
6.7 Oxidation stability
The oxidation stability shall be as specified in Table 1.

NOTE 1 The oxidation stability limit takes into account that some refinery processes used to manufacture

distillate fuels lead to products that have limited oxidation stability and that bio‑derived products, e.g. FAME,

can impact the oxidation stability of the fuel.
NOTE 2 See Annex A.
6.8 Total sediment by hot filtration

If the appearance of DMB or DFB is assessed as not clear and bright (see 6.12), the total sediment shall

be determined by the test method ISO 10307‑1, typically called existent total sediment.

6.9 Total sediment — Aged

Either of the standard procedures for ageing in ISO 10307-2 can be used: accelerated total sediment

(TSA) or potential total sediment test (TSP).

The reference test method shall be the potential total sediment test in accordance with ISO 10307-2.

6.10 Fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME)

Test method IP 579 is not applicable to RM grades at the time of preparation of this document. Test

method ASTM D7963 is applicable to all DM, DF and RM grades.
The reference test method shall be IP 579 for DM and DF grades.
NOTE See Annex A.
6.11 Pour point/cloud point/cold filter plugging point

The purchaser should confirm that the cold flow characteristics (pour point, cloud point, cold filter

plugging point) are suitable for the ship’s design and intended voyage.

Issues with low temperature operability (i.e. deposition of solidified wax in fuel tanks, fuel lines,

centrifuges and filters) can occur with distillate fuels. The pour point requirement as defined in Table 1

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(E)

cannot guarantee operability for all ships in all climates. Therefore, for winter grades of DMA, DFA,

DMZ and DFZ, the cloud point and cold filter plugging point shall be reported.

NOTE More information can be found in the CIMAC guideline for managing cold flow properties of marine

[12]
fuels .
6.12 Appearance/water

For distillate fuels, the appearance of a sample shall be assessed by visual inspection in good light, free

from glare and shadow, at a sample temperature between 20 °C and 25 °C.

DMX, DMA, DFA, DMZ and DFZ shall appear clear and bright. It has been reported that in some countries,

these grades of fuel are dyed (e.g. black) and not transparent. This affects the compliance with the

requirement for clear and bright appearance and, in such circumstances, the water content shall not

exceed 200 mg/kg (0,020 mass %), as determined by the Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method in

accordance with ISO 12937.

If the appearance of DMB and DFB affords visual inspection and appears clear and bright, then testing

for total sediment by hot filtration and for water is not required. If the appearance is not clear and

bright, the water content shall be determined by ISO 3733.
6.13 Lubricity
The lubricity shall be as specified in Table 1.

NOTE The lubricity limit is based on the existing requirements for high‑speed automotive and heavy‑duty

industrial diesel engines.
6.14 Vanadium
The reference test method shall be IP 501.
NOTE See Annex F.
6.15 Sodium
The reference test method shall be IP 501.
NOTE See Annex F.
6.16 Aluminium plus silicon

The aluminium plus silicon limits in Table 2 restrict the catalyst fines to levels at wh

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 8217:2018
01-junij-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 8217:2013
Naftni proizvodi - Goriva (razred F) - Specifikacije za ladijska goriva
Petroleum products - Fuels (class F) - Specifications of marine fuels

Produits pétroliers - Combustibles (classe F) - Spécifications des combustibles pour la

marine
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 8217:2017
ICS:
75.160.20 7HNRþDJRULYD Liquid fuels
SIST ISO 8217:2018 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 8217:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 8217:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8217
Sixth edition
2017-03
Petroleum products — Fuels (class F)
— Specifications of marine fuels
Produits pétroliers — Combustibles (classe F) — Spécifications des
combustibles pour la marine
Reference number
ISO 8217:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Application and sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Density ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 CCAI .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Sulfur ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4 Flash point .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.5 Hydrogen sulfide ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6 Acid number .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.7 Oxidation stability ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.8 Total sediment by hot filtration ................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.9 Total sediment — Aged.................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.10 Fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME) ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.11 Pour point/cloud point/cold filter plugging point .................................................................................................. 5

6.12 Appearance/water ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.13 Lubricity........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.14 Vanadium ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.15 Sodium ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.16 Aluminium plus silicon .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.17 Used lubricating oil (ULO) ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Specific energy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8 Precision and interpretation of test results ............................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Bio-derived products including fatty acid methyl esters................................................12

Annex B (informative) Deleterious materials ..........................................................................................................................................14

Annex C (informative) Ignition characteristics of residual marine fuels ....................................................................15

Annex D (informative) Hydrogen sulfide ......................................................................................................................................................17

Annex E (informative) Acidity ...................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex F (informative) Ash ............................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex G (informative) Used lubricating oil ................................................................................................................................................20

Annex H (informative) Specific energy ............................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 28, Petroleum products and related

products of synthetic or biological origin, Subcommittee SC 4, Classifications and specifications.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition (ISO 8217:2012), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)
Introduction
General

This document was prepared in cooperation with ship owners, ship operators, shipping associations,

national standards bodies, classification societies, fuel testing services, engine designers, marine fuel

suppliers, fuel additive suppliers and the petroleum industry to meet the requirements for marine fuels

supplied on a world-wide basis for consumption on board ships.

The increasing demands of environmental legislation are leading to a transition in the nature of marine

fuels supplied from traditional oil products derived from the processing of petroleum crude to the

potential inclusion of oil products derived from renewable and/or alternative sources. This document

takes into consideration the diverse nature of these fuels and incorporates a number of categories of

distillate or residual fuels, even though not all categories may be available in every supply location.

Classification
[1]

The categories of fuel in this document have been classified in accordance with ISO 8216‑1 .

At the time of preparation of this document, a number of unconventional fuels have been offered to

the market which do not conform exactly to this particular distillate/residual categorization. In these

instances, it is recommended that the fuel characteristics or limits should be agreed between the

purchaser and supplier and defined by both a category of fuel as given by this document together with

any different or additional fuel characteristics or limits necessary to adequately define that fuel.

International statutory requirements

This document specifies allowable minimum flash point limits following the provisions given in

[2] [3]

the SOLAS Convention . MARPOL Annex VI , which controls air pollution from ships, includes a

requirement that either the fuel shall not exceed a specified maximum sulfur content or an approved

equivalent alternative means be used. During the lifetime of this document, regional and/or national

bodies may introduce their own local emission requirements, which can impact the allowable sulfur

[4]

content, for example, the EU Sulphur Directive . It is the purchaser’s and the user’s responsibility

to establish which statutory requirements are to be met and specify on that basis the corresponding

maximum fuel sulfur content to the supplier.
Changes with respect to ISO 8217:2012

This sixth edition reflects important and significant changes. These include substantial amendments to

the scope (Clause 1) and to the general requirements (Clause 5).
Changes to the distillate fuels include the following:

— additional grades, DFA, DFZ and DFB have been added with a maximum fatty acid methyl ester(s)

(FAME) content of 7,0 volume %;

— the sulfur content of DMA and DMZ has been reduced to a maximum of 1,00 mass %;

— the sulfur content of DMB has been reduced to a maximum of 1,50 mass %;

— requirements for the following characteristics have been added to winter grades of DMA and DMZ:

cloud point and cold filter plugging point.

The following annexes, previously included, have been deleted, but the key information is included in

the body of this document or is available in referenced industry publications:
— Sulfur content;
— Flash point;
— Catalyst fines;
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SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)
— Precision and interpretation of test results.
All other annexes have been reviewed and updated.
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SIST ISO 8217:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8217:2017(E)
Petroleum products — Fuels (class F) — Specifications of
marine fuels

WARNING — The handling and use of products specified in this document can be hazardous

if suitable precautions are not observed. This document does not purport to address all of the

safety and health considerations that can be associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the

users of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the

applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for fuels for use in marine diesel engines and boilers, prior

to conventional onboard treatment (settling, centrifuging, filtration) before use. The specifications for

fuels in this document can also be applied to fuels used in stationary diesel engines of the same or

similar type as those used for marine purposes.

This document specifies seven categories of distillate fuels, one of which is for diesel engines used for

emergency purposes. It also specifies six categories of residual fuels.

For the purposes of this document, the term “fuels” is currently used to include the following:

— hydrocarbons from petroleum crude oil, oil sands and shale;

— hydrocarbons from synthetic or renewable sources, similar in composition to petroleum

distillate fuels;

— blends of the above with a fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME) component where permitted.

NOTE 1 Appropriate guidance about fuel treatment systems for diesel engines is published by the International

[5]
Council on Combustion Engines (CIMAC) .
[6]

NOTE 2 Requirements for gas turbine fuels used in marine applications are specified in ISO 4261 .

NOTE 3 For the purposes of this document, the terms “mass %” and “volume %” are used to represent the

mass and volume fractions respectively.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2719, Determination of flash point — Pensky-Martens closed cup method
ISO 3015, Petroleum products — Determination of cloud point
ISO 3016, Petroleum products — Determination of pour point

ISO 3104, Petroleum products — Transparent and opaque liquids — Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity

ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products — Laboratory determination of density —

Hydrometer method

ISO 3733, Petroleum products and bituminous materials — Determination of water — Distillation method

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ISO 8217:2017(E)

ISO 4259, Petroleum products — Determination and application of precision data in relation to

methods of test

ISO 4264, Petroleum products — Calculation of cetane index of middle-distillate fuels by the four-variable

equation
ISO 6245, Petroleum products — Determination of ash

ISO 8754, Petroleum products — Determination of sulfur content — Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

spectrometry

ISO 10307-1, Petroleum products — Total sediment in residual fuel oils — Part 1: Determination by hot

filtration

ISO 10307-2, Petroleum products — Total sediment in residual fuel oils — Part 2: Determination using

standard procedures for ageing
ISO 10370, Petroleum products — Determination of carbon residue — Micro method

ISO 10478, Petroleum products — Determination of aluminium and silicon in fuel oils — Inductively coupled

plasma emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods

ISO 12156-1, Diesel fuel — Assessment of lubricity using the high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) —

Part 1: Test method

ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products — Determination of density — Oscillating U-tube

method

ISO 12205, Petroleum products — Determination of the oxidation stability of middle-distillate fuels

ISO 12937, Petroleum products — Determination of water — Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method

ISO 13739, Petroleum products — Procedures for transfer of bunkers to vessels

ISO 14596, Petroleum products — Determination of sulfur content — Wavelength-dispersive X-ray

fluorescence spectrometry

ISO 14597, Petroleum products — Determination of vanadium and nickel content — Wavelength-dispersive

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

ASTM D664, Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

ASTM D4294, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive

X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

ASTM D6751, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels

ASTM D7963, Standard Test Method for determination of the contamination level of Fatty Acid Methyl

Esters in middle distillate and residual fuels using flow analysis by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy-

rapid screening method

EN 14214, Liquid petroleum products — Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in diesel engines and

heating applications — Requirements and test methods

IP 309, Diesel and domestic heating fuels — Determination of cold filter plugging point

IP 470, Determination of aluminium, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, calcium, zinc and sodium in residual fuel

oil by ashing, fusion and atomic absorption spectrometry

IP 500, Determination of the phosphorus content of residual fuels by ultra-violet spectrometry

IP 501, Determination of aluminium, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, sodium, calcium, zinc and phosphorus in

residual fuel oil by ashing, fusion and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)

IP 570, Determination of hydrogen sulfide in fuel oils — Rapid liquid phase extraction method

IP 579, Liquid petroleum products — Determination of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content in middle

distillates — Infrared spectrometry method

IP 612,Diesel and domestic heating fuels — Determination of cold filter plugging point Linear cooling bath

method — Linear cooling bath method
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp/
4 Application and sampling

This document specifies the required properties for fuels at the time and place of custody transfer.

Samples for quality verification may be taken in any location agreed between the parties.

The sampling of fuels for analysis shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures given in

ISO 13739 or an equivalent national standard. Where specific sampling requirements are documented

in the referenced test methods, these shall be adhered to.
5 General requirements

5.1 The fuel as supplied shall be homogeneous and conform to the characteristics and limits given in

Table 1 or Table 2, as appropriate, when tested in accordance with the methods specified.

The fuel composition shall consist predominantly of hydrocarbons primarily derived from petroleum

sources while it may also contain hydrocarbons from the following:

— synthetic or renewable sources such as Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Gas to Liquid (GTL) or

Biomass to Liquid (BTL);
— co‑processing of renewable feedstock at refineries with petroleum feedstock.

The DF grades, as defined in ISO 8216, include up to 7,0 volume % FAME (see Table 1), where FAME at

the time of blending shall be in accordance with the requirements of EN 14214 or ASTM D6751.

DMX shall be free of FAME.

The DMA, DMZ, DMB and RM grades shall not include FAME other than a “de minimis” level. In the

context of this document, “de minimis” means an amount that does not render the fuel unacceptable for

use in marine applications that are not designed or suited to handling fuels containing FAME.

NOTE See Annex A for more details on the level and impacts of FAME.

5.2 The fuel shall be free from any material at a concentration that causes the fuel to be unacceptable

for use in accordance with Clause 1 (i.e. material not at a concentration that is harmful to personnel,

jeopardizes the safety of the ship, or adversely affects the performance of the machinery).

NOTE See Annex B.

5.3 Subject to the requirements of 5.1 and 5.2, additives that improve some aspects of the fuel’s

characteristics or performance are permitted.
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6 Test methods
6.1 Density

In case of disagreement concerning density, all parties shall agree, prior to additional testing, upon the

test method to be used.
6.2 CCAI
Calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI) shall be as specified in Table 2.
[7]

The CCAI value is calculated in accordance with Lewis, et al. , using Formula (1):

T + 273
 
CCAIl=−ρ 81 −⋅141 glg0v + ,85l−⋅483 g (1)
 
323
where
ρ is the density at 15 °C, expressed in kilograms per cubic metre;
lg is the logarithm to base 10;

v is the kinematic viscosity at temperature T, expressed in millimetres squared per second;

T is the temperature, expressed in degrees Celsius, at which the kinematic viscosity is

determined.

Density, ρ , and viscosity, v, shall be determined according to the test methods specified in Table 2.

NOTE 1 CCAI was originally developed as an indicator of ignition performance, but is included in Table 2 in

order to avoid fuels with uncharacteristic density‑viscosity relationships (see Annex C).

NOTE 2 For engines and/or applications where the ignition quality is known to be particularly critical, Annex C

provides a basis for suppliers and purchasers of residual fuels to agree on tighter ignition quality characteristics.

NOTE 3 For RME 180 and RMK 380, when blending at or close to the maximum density, the CCAI limit restricts

the combination of density and viscosity.
6.3 Sulfur

Sulfur test precision for fuels containing FAME has not been established for the test methods ISO 8754

and ISO 14596 at the time of preparing this International Standard. The sulfur test precision for

distillate fuels containing FAME has been established for test method ASTM D4294.

The reference test method shall be ISO 8754 for DM and RM grades and ASTM D4294 for DF grades.

In case of disagreement concerning sulfur content, all parties shall agree, prior to additional testing,

upon the same sulfur certified reference material.
6.4 Flash point

The flash point for all fuels, except for DMX, is set at 60 °C minimum according to the International

[2]
Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) .

Residual fuels have the potential to produce a flammable atmosphere in a tank headspace, even when

stored at a temperature below the measured flash point. Appropriate precautions are necessary,

therefore, to ensure the safety of the ship and personnel. Further information and advice on

precautionary measures are given in References [8] to[11].
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)

The flash point is not a physical constant, but is dependent on the test method, the apparatus and the

procedure used.

The flash point for fuels in Table 1 shall be determined in accordance with ISO 2719, Procedure A. The

flash point of fuels in Table 2 shall be determined in accordance with ISO 2719, Procedure B.

6.5 Hydrogen sulfide
The reference test method shall be IP 570, Procedure A.

WARNING — Hydrogen sulfide (H S) is a highly toxic gas. Exposure to high vapour concentrations

is hazardous and, in extreme cases, can be fatal. It is critical that ship owners, operators and

other responsible parties continue to maintain appropriate safety practices designed to protect

the crew and others who could be exposed to H S; see Annex D.
6.6 Acid number

The fuel shall be free of inorganic acids. The fuel shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D664.

NOTE See Annex E.
6.7 Oxidation stability
The oxidation stability shall be as specified in Table 1.

NOTE 1 The oxidation stability limit takes into account that some refinery processes used to manufacture

distillate fuels lead to products that have limited oxidation stability and that bio‑derived products, e.g. FAME,

can impact the oxidation stability of the fuel.
NOTE 2 See Annex A.
6.8 Total sediment by hot filtration

If the appearance of DMB or DFB is assessed as not clear and bright (see 6.12), the total sediment shall

be determined by the test method ISO 10307‑1, typically called existent total sediment.

6.9 Total sediment — Aged

Either of the standard procedures for ageing in ISO 10307-2 can be used: accelerated total sediment

(TSA) or potential total sediment test (TSP).

The reference test method shall be the potential total sediment test in accordance with ISO 10307-2.

6.10 Fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME)

Test method IP 579 is not applicable to RM grades at the time of preparation of this document. Test

method ASTM D7963 is applicable to all DM, DF and RM grades.
The reference test method shall be IP 579 for DM and DF grades.
NOTE See Annex A.
6.11 Pour point/cloud point/cold filter plugging point

The purchaser should confirm that the cold flow characteristics (pour point, cloud point, cold filter

plugging point) are suitable for the ship’s design and intended voyage.

Issues with low temperature operability (i.e. deposition of solidified wax in fuel tanks, fuel lines,

centrifuges and filters) can occur with distillate fuels. The pour point requirement as defined in Table 1

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SIST ISO 8217:2018
ISO 8217:2017(E)

cannot guarantee operability for all ships in all climates. Therefore, for winter grades of DMA, DFA,

DMZ and DFZ, the cloud point and cold filter plugging point shall be reported.

NOTE More information can be found in the CIMAC guideline for managing cold flow properties of marine

[12]
fuels .
6.12 Appearance/water

For distillate fuels, the appearance of a sample shall be assessed by visual inspection in good light, free

from glare and shadow, at a sample temperature between 20 °C and 25 °C.

DMX, DMA, DFA, DMZ and DFZ shall appear clear and bright. It has been reported that in some countries,

these grades of fuel are dyed (e.g. black) and not transparent. This affects the compliance with the

requirement for
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 8217
Sixième édition
2017-03
Produits pétroliers — Combustibles
(classe F) — Spécifications des
combustibles pour la marine
Petroleum products — Fuels (class F) — Specifications of marine fuels
Numéro de référence
ISO 8217:2017(F)
ISO 2017
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ISO 8217:2017(F)
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© ISO 2017, Publié en Suisse

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ii © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 8217:2017(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Application et échantillonnage ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Exigences générales .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Méthodes d’essai .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Masse volumique................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 CCAI .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Soufre .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4 Point d’éclair ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.5 Hydrogène sulfuré ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.6 Indice d’acide ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.7 Stabilité à l’oxydation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.8 Sédiments totaux par filtration à chaud ............................................................................................................................ 6

6.9 Sédiments totaux après vieillissement............................................................................................................................... 6

6.10 Esters méthyliques d’acides gras (EMAG) ....................................................................................................................... 6

6.11 Point d’écoulement/point de trouble/température limite de filtrabilité............................................. 6

6.12 Aspect/eau.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.13 Lubrifiance .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.14 Vanadium ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.15 Sodium ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.16 Aluminium et silicium ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.17 Huiles lubrifiantes usagées (HLU) .......................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Énergie spécifique ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Fidélité et interprétation des résultats d’essais .................................................................................................................. 7

Annexe A (informative) Produits d’origine biologique, dont les esters méthyliques d’acides gras 13

Annexe B (informative) Contaminants ............................................................................................................................................................15

Annexe C (informative) Caractéristiques d’auto-inflammation des combustibles résiduels

pour la marine .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annexe D (informative) Hydrogène sulfuré ...............................................................................................................................................18

Annexe E (informative) Acidité ................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annexe F (informative) Cendres .............................................................................................................................................................................20

Annexe G (informative) Huiles lubrifiantes usagées.........................................................................................................................21

Annexe H (informative) Énergie spécifique ...............................................................................................................................................22

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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ISO 8217:2017(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’OMC concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien

suivant: Avant-propos — Informations supplémentaires.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 28, Produits pétroliers et produits

connexes d’origine synthétique ou biologique, sous-comité SC 4, Classifications et spécifications.

Cette sixième édition annule et remplace la cinquième (ISO 8217:2012), qui fait l’objet d’une révision

technique.
iv © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 8217:2017(F)
Introduction
Généralités

La présent document a été préparé en collaboration avec les armateurs, exploitants de compagnies

maritimes, associations maritimes, bureaux de normalisation nationaux, sociétés de classification

et d’analyse des combustibles (bureaux de contrôle), les concepteurs de moteurs, les fournisseurs

de combustible marine, les fournisseurs d’additifs de carburants et l’industrie pétrolière, en vue de

répondre aux exigences relatives aux combustibles pour la marine qui sont livrés aux navires dans le

monde entier, pour utilisation à bord.

Les demandes croissantes de la législation concernant l’environnement mènent à une transition

dans la nature des combustibles marine fournis à partir des produits pétroliers traditionnels tirés

du traitement du pétrole brut à l’incorporation potentielle de produits pétroliers tirés de sources

renouvelables et/ou alternatives. Le présent document prend en considération la nature diverse de ces

carburants et incorpore un certain nombre de catégories de distillats ou de carburants résiduels, bien

que toutes les catégories puissent ne pas être disponibles dans chaque point d’approvisionement.

Classification

Les catégories de combustibles citées dans le présent document ont été classées conformément à

[1]
l’ISO 8216-1 .

Au moment de la préparation du présent document, un certain nombre de carburants non conventionnels

ont été mis sur le marché; ces carburants ne sont pas exactement conformes à cette classification

particulière de distillat/résidu. Dans ces cas, il est recommandé que les caractéristiques ou les limites

des combustibles soient convenues entre l’acheteur et le fournisseur et que soit définie par tous les

deux une catégorie de carburant comme donné par le présent document avec en plus n’importe quelles

caractéristiques ou limites différentes ou supplémentaires de combustible nécessaires pour définir

adéquatement ce carburant.
Exigences des règlements internationaux

Le présent document spécifie les limites du point d’éclair minimal autorisées suivant les dispositions

[2] [3]

données par la convention SOLAS . L’Annexe VI révisée de la convention MARPOL , qui contrôle

la pollution de l’air par les navires, comporte l’exigence soit d’utiliser un combustible qui ne doit pas

dépasser une teneur en soufre maximale spécifiée, soit d’adopter un moyen alternatif équivalent

autorisé. Durant la période d’application du présent document, des organisations régionales et/ou

nationales peuvent introduire localement leurs propres exigences en matière d’émissions, ce qui peut

[4]

influencer la teneur en soufre autorisée, par exemple la Directive Européenne sur le Soufre . Il est de

la responsabilité de l’acheteur et de l’utilisateur d’établir quelles exigences réglementaires doivent être

respectées et de spécifier sur cette base au fournisseur la teneur maximale correspondante en soufre

du combustible.
Modifications par rapport à l’ISO 8217:2012

La sixième édition du présent document intègre des modifications importantes et notables par rapport

à la précédente, en particulier dans le domaine d’application (Article 1) et dans les exigences générales

(Article 5).
Les modifications concernant les distillats incluent les suivantes:

— des catégories supplémentaires DFA, DFZ et DFB ont été ajoutées dont la teneur maximale en esters

méthyliques d’acides gras (EMAG) est de 7,0 % en volume,

— la teneur en soufre maximale des distillats de catégories DMA et DMZ a été réduite à 1,00 % en masse,

— la teneur en soufre maximale des distillats de catégories DMB a été réduite à 1,50 % en masse,

— des exigences pour les caractéristiques suivantes ont été ajoutées aux grades hiver des catégories

DMA et DMZ: point de trouble et température limite de filtrabilité.
© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(F)

Les annexes suivantes, ajoutées à l’édition précédente, ont été retirées mais les informations clé ont été

incluses dans le corps du présent document ou sont disponibles dans des publications référencées de

l’industrie:
— Teneur en soufre;
— Point d’éclair;
— Fines de catalyseurs;
— Fidélité et interprétation des résultats d’essais.
Les autres annexes ont été revues et mises à jour.
vi © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 8217:2017(F)
Produits pétroliers — Combustibles (classe F) —
Spécifications des combustibles pour la marine

AVERTISSEMENT — La manipulation et l’utilisation des produits spécifiés dans le présent

document peuvent comporter des risques si aucune précaution appropriée n’est prise. Le présent

document n’est pas censé aborder tous les problèmes de sécurité concernés par son usage. Il

est de la responsabilité des utilisateurs du présent document d’établir des règles de sécurité

et d’hygiène appropriées et de déterminer l’applicabilité des restrictions réglementaires avant

l’utilisation.
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie les exigences relatives aux combustibles pour l’utilisation dans les

moteurs diesel et les chaudières des navires, avant tout traitement conventionnel à bord (décantation,

centrifugation, filtration) préalable à leur utilisation. Les spécifications pour combustibles du présent

document peuvent aussi s’appliquer aux carburants utilisés par les moteurs diesel stationnaires, de

type identique ou semblable à ceux utilisés pour des applications marines.

Le présent document spécifie sept catégories de distillats pour la marine, dont l’une est utilisée dans

les moteurs diesel des dispositifs de secours. Elle donne aussi les spécifications de six catégories de

combustibles résiduels.

Pour les besoins du présent document, le terme «combustibles» est utilisé couramment pour désigner:

— les hydrocarbures provenant du pétrole brut, des sables bitumineux et du schiste,

— les hydrocarbures provenant de sources synthétiques ou renouvelables, semblables en composition

aux distillats de pétrole,

— le mélange des produits cités ci-dessus avec une base d’esters méthyliques d’acides gras (EMAG),

lorsqu’ils sont autorisés.

NOTE 1 Un guide sur les systèmes de traitement des combustibles pour les moteurs diesel est publié par le

[5]
Conseil International des Machines à Combustion (CIMAC) .

NOTE 2 Les exigences des combustibles pour les turbines à gaz en service dans la marine sont spécifiées dans

[6]
l’ISO 4261 .

NOTE 3 Pour les besoins du présent document, les expressions «% en masse» et «% en volume» représentent

respectivement la fraction massique et la fraction volumique.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont référencés dans le texte de manière qu’une partie ou la totalité de leur

contenu constitue des exigences pour le présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition

citée s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique

(y compris les éventuels amendements).
ISO 2719, Détermination du point d’éclair — Méthode Pensky-Martens en vase clos
ISO 3015, Produits pétroliers — Détermination du point de trouble
ISO 3016, Produits pétroliers — Détermination du point d’écoulement

ISO 3104, Produits pétroliers — Liquides opaques et transparents — Détermination de la viscosité

cinématique et calcul de la viscosité dynamique
© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 8217:2017(F)

ISO 3675, Pétrole brut et produits pétroliers liquides — Détermination en laboratoire de la masse

volumique — Méthode à l’aréomètre

ISO 3733, Produits pétroliers et bitumineux — Dosage de l’eau — Méthode par distillation

ISO 4259, Produits pétroliers — Détermination et application des valeurs de fidélité relatives aux

méthodes d’essai

ISO 4264, Produits pétroliers — Calcul de l’indice de cétane des distillats moyens par équation à quatre

variables
ISO 6245, Produits pétroliers — Détermination de la teneur en cendres

ISO 8754, Produits pétroliers — Détermination de la teneur en soufre — Spectrométrie de fluorescence de

rayons X dispersive en énergie

ISO 10307-1, Produits pétroliers — Insolubles existants dans les fuel-oils résiduels — Partie 1: Détermination

par filtration à chaud

ISO 10307-2, Produits pétroliers — Insolubles existants dans les fuel-oils résiduels — Partie 2: Détermination

à l’aide de méthodes de vieillissement de référence

ISO 10370, Produits pétroliers — Détermination du résidu de carbone — Méthode micro

ISO 10478, Produits pétroliers — Détermination de l’aluminium et du silicium dans les combustibles —

Méthodes par spectroscopie d’émission à plasma induit et spectroscopie d’absorption atomique

ISO 12156-1, Carburant diesel — Évaluation du pouvoir lubrifiant au banc alternatif à haute fréquence

(HFRR) — Partie 1: Méthode d’essai

ISO 12185, Pétroles bruts et produits pétroliers — Détermination de la masse volumique — Méthode du

tube en U oscillant

ISO 12205, Produits pétroliers — Détermination de la stabilité à l’oxydation des distillats moyens de pétrole

ISO 12937, Produits pétroliers — Dosage de l’eau — Méthode de titrage Karl Fischer par coulométrie

ISO 13739, Produits pétroliers — Procédures de transfert des soutes dans les navires

ISO 14596, Produits pétroliers — Détermination de la teneur en soufre — Spectrométrie de fluorescence X

dispersive en longueur d’onde

ISO 14597, Produits pétroliers — Dosage du vanadium et du nickel — Spectrométrie de fluorescence X

dispersive en longueur d’onde

ASTM D664, Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

ASTM D4294, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive

X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

ASTM D6751, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels

ASTM D7963, Standard Test Method for determination of the contamination level of Fatty Acid Methyl

Esters in middle distillate and residual fuels using flow analysis by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy-

rapid screening method

EN 14214, Produits pétroliers liquides — Esters méthyliques d’acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs diesel et

comme combustible de chauffage — Exigences et méthodes d’essai

IP 309, Diesel and domestic heating fuels — Determination of cold filter plugging point [Détermination de

la température limite de filtrabilité]
2 © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(F)

IP 470, Dosage de l’aluminium, du silicium, du vanadium, du nickel, du fer, du calcium, du zinc et du sodium

dans les combustibles résiduels par minéralisation, fusion et spectrométrie d’absorption atomique

IP 500, Determination of the phosphorus content of residual fuels by ultra-violet spectrometry

IP 501, Determination of aluminium, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, sodium, calcium, zinc and phosphorus in

residual fuel oil by ashing, fusion and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

IP 570, Determination of hydrogen sulfide in fuel oils — Rapid liquid phase extraction method

IP 579, Liquid petroleum products — Determination of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content in middle

distillates — Infrared spectrometry method

IP 612,Diesel and domestic heating fuels — Determination of cold filter plugging point Linear cooling bath

method — Linear cooling bath method
3 Termes et définitions
Aucun terme n’est défini dans le présent document.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .iso .org/ obp

4 Application et échantillonnage

Le présent document spécifie les propriétés requises des combustibles pour la marine au moment et à

l’endroit du transfert de garde. Les échantillons destinés au contrôle de la qualité peuvent être prélevés

en un lieu quelconque ayant fait l’objet d’un accord entre les parties.

L’échantillonnage des combustibles à analyser doit être réalisé conformément au mode opératoire

décrit dans l’ISO 13739, ou dans une norme nationale équivalente. S’il existe dans les méthodes d’essai

de référence des exigences particulières d’échantillonnage, il faut s’y conformer.

5 Exigences générales

5.1 Le combustible tel qu’il est fourni doit être homogène et conforme aux exigences du Tableau 1 ou

du Tableau 2, selon le cas, lorsqu’il est soumis aux essais qui y sont spécifiés.

La composition du combustible doit consister de manière prédominante en hydrocarbures dérivés

primairement de sources pétrolières quoiqu’elle puisse aussi inclure des hydrocarbures provenant:

— de sources synthétiques ou renouvelables, comme les huiles végétales hydrotaitées (HVO), ou issus

des process Gas to Liquid (GTL) ou Biomass to Liquid (BTL);

— d’un co-traitement en raffinerie de matières premières renouvelables avec des matières premières

pétrolières.

Les produits des catégories DF, telles que définies dans l’ISO 8216, peuvent contenir jusqu’à 7,0 %

d’EMAG en volume (voir Tableau 1), dans quel cas les EMAG doivent, au moment du mélange, être

conformes aux exigences spécifiées dans l’EN 14214 ou l’ASTM D6751.
Les produits de la catégorie DMX doivent être exempts d’EMAG.

Les produits des catégories DMA, DMZ, DMB et RM ne doivent pas contenir d’EMAG autres qu’au niveau

“de minimis”. Dans le contexte du présent document, «de minimis» signifie une quantité qui ne rende

© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 8217:2017(F)

pas le combustible impropre à son utilisation pour les applications marines qui ne sont pas conçues ou

appropriées au traitement de combustibles contenant des EMAG.
NOTE Voir l’Annexe A pour plus de détails sur le niveau et les impacts d’EMAG.

5.2 Le combustible ne doit contenir aucun produit à une concentration qui rende le combustible

inadmissible pour son utilisation conformément à l’Article 1 (i.e. il n’est pas à une concentration qui

est nocive pour le personnel, qui compromet la sécurité du bateau ou qui nuit aux performances de la

machinerie.)
NOTE Voir l’Annexe C.

5.3 S’ils sont en conformité avec les exigences définies en 5.1 et 5.2, les additifs qui améliorent certaines

caractéristiques des combustibles ou leur performance sont autorisés.
6 Méthodes d’essai
6.1 Masse volumique

En cas de litige sur la masse volumique, toutes les parties doivent s’accorder, avant un essai

supplémentaire, sur la méthode d’essai à utiliser.
6.2 CCAI
L’indice de carbone aromatique calculé (CCAI) doit être conforme au Tableau 2.
[7]

La valeur du CCAI est calculée suivant l’Équation de Lewis, et al. en utilisant la Formule (1):

T + 273
 
CCAIl=−ρ 81 −⋅141 glg0v + ,85l−⋅483 g (1)
 
323
ρ est la masse volumique à 15 °C, exprimée en kilogrammes par mètre cube;
lg est le logarithme de base 10;

v est la viscosité cinématique à la température T, exprimée en millimètres carré par seconde;

T est la température, exprimée en degrés Celsius, à laquelle la viscosité cinématique est

déterminée.

La masse volumique, ρ , et la viscosité, v, doivent être déterminées selon méthodes d’essai spécifiées

dans le Tableau 2.

NOTE 1 L’indice de carbone aromatique calculé (CCAI) a été conçu à l’origine comme un indicateur de la qualité

d’auto-inflammation, mais est ajouté au Tableau 2 dans le but d’écarter les combustibles qui ont des relations

masse volumique-viscosité anormales. Voir l’Annexe C.

NOTE 2 Pour les moteurs et/ou les applications où la qualité d’auto-inflammation est connue pour être

particulièrement critique, l’Annexe C fournit une base à partir de laquelle les fournisseurs et les acheteurs de

combustibles résiduels peuvent convenir de caractéristiques d’auto-inflammation plus sévères.

NOTE 3 Pour le RME 180 et le RMK 380, lorsque la masse volumique est proche de ou égale à la limite

maximale, la limite de CCAI restreint les combinaisons de masse volumique et de viscosité.

4 © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 8217:2017(F)
6.3 Soufre

La fidélité de l’essai soufre pour les combustibles contenant des EMAG n’a pas été établie pour les

méthodes d’essai ISO 8754 et ISO 14596 au moment de l’élaboration du présent document. La fidélité de

l’essai soufre pour les distillats contenant des EMAG a été établie pour la méthode d’essai ASTM D4294.

La méthode d’essai de référence doit être l’ISO 8754 pour les catégories DM et RM et l’ASTM D4294 pour

les catégories DF.

En cas de désaccord sur la teneur en soufre, toutes les parties doivent, avant de commencer les essais,

s’entendre sur un matériau de référence certifié de soufre.
6.4 Point d’éclair

Le point d’éclair de tous les combustibles, excepté de ceux de la catégorie DMX, est fixé à 60 °C minimum

[2]
suivant la Convention Internationale pour la Sécurité de Vie en mer (SOLAS) .

Les combustibles résiduels peuvent générer une atmosphère inflammable dans le ciel gazeux du

bac, même quand ils sont stockés à des températures inférieures au point d’éclair mesuré. Des

précautions appropriées sont donc nécessaires pour garantir la sécurité des personnes et du navire.

Des informations et des conseils supplémentaires sur les mesures de précaution sont donnés dans les

Références [8] à [11].

La valeur du point d’éclair n’est pas une constante physique mais dépend de la méthode d’essai, de

l’appareillage et du mode opératoire utilisés.

Pour toutes les catégories de combustibles définies dans le Tableau 1, le point d’éclair doit être déterminé

conformément à l’ISO 2719, Procédure A. Le point d’éclair des combustibles dans le Tableau 2 doit être

déterminé conformément à l’ISO 2719, Procédure B.
6.5 Hydrogène sulfuré
La méthode d’essai de référence doit être l’IP 570, Procédure A.

ATTENTION — L’hydrogène sulfuré, H S, est un gaz extrêmement toxique. Une exposition à de

fortes concentrations de vapeur est dangereuse et dans des cas extrêmes peut être mortelle.

Il est essentiel que les armateurs, les opérateurs et toute autre partie responsable continuent

de maintenir les consignes et les procédures de sécurité appropriées pour la protection de

l’équipage et de toute autre personne qui pourrait être exposée à l’H S. Voir l’Annexe D.

6.6 Indice d’acide

Le combustible doit être exempt d’acides minéraux. Le combustible doit être soumis à essai

conformément à l’ASTM D664.
NOTE Voir l’Annexe E.
6.7 Stabilité à l’oxydation
La stabilité à l’oxydation doit être telle que spécifiée dans le Tableau 1.

NOTE 1 La limite sur la stabilité à l’oxydation prend en compte que les procédés de raffin

...

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