Information technology -- Metadata registries (MDR)

This document compliments ISO/IEC 11179-3 by describing registration of classification schemes and using them to classify registered items in an MDR. Any metadata item can be made a Classifiable_Item so it can be classified, which can include object classes, properties, representations, conceptual domains, value domains, data element concepts and data elements themselves. This document does not establish a particular classification scheme as pre-eminent. Sanction of a particular taxonomic approach and/or a particular epistemology is also beyond the scope of this document. These are addressed by other standards committees and/or tend to be tailored to a particular domain of discourse. The MDR can establish its own classification schemes, and other standards committees are developing or have developed normative languages for use in classification and/or particular techniques and structures that can be accommodated by this document. Each registration authority, as described and specified in ISO/IEC 11179-6, can classify classifiable items according to the classification schemes, structures and content that it deems appropriate. In documenting the classification aspects of classifiable items, the registration authority can use the principles, methods, procedures and attributes covered in this document.

Technologies de l'information -- Registres de métadonnées (RM)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Apr-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Mar-2019
Completion Date
12-Apr-2019
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TR
REPORT 11179-2
First edition
2019-04
Information technology — Metadata
registries (MDR) —
Part 2:
Classification
Technologies de l'information — Registres de métadonnées (RM) —
Partie 2: Classification
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 11179-2:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 11179-2:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 11179-2:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Meaning of classification .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Benefits of classification scheme ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Type of classification scheme .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Requirements for good classification scheme ....................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Usages of classification in an ISO/IEC 11179 metadata registry ...............................7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC TR 11179-2:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 32, Data management and interchange.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 11179 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 11179-2:2019(E)
Introduction

This document focuses on the part of the metadata registry (MDR) model called the classification region

(see ISO/IEC 11179-3:2013, 9.2). The classification region permits the registration and administration

of all or part of a classification scheme. A classification scheme can be used to classify a Classifiable

Item (see ISO/IEC 11179-3:2013, 9.2.2.1), which is a type that can be applied to any metadata item in a

metadata registry.

There are many efforts underway to devise classification schemes and to use the schemes to build and

populate classification structures for organizing information resources. Classification schemes can be

used to discover information pertaining to topics of interest. For the purpose of this document, the

following are all considered types of classification schemes of varying discriminatory power: tags,

keywords, lists of categories, hierarchies, thesauri, taxonomies and ontologies. These classification

schemes have potentially great utility for organizing objects in an MDR.

When applied to classifiable items in an MDR, the classification schemes covered in this document have

utility for:
— deriving and formulating other administered items;
— ensuring appropriate attribute and attribute-value inheritance;
— deriving names from a controlled vocabulary;
— disambiguating;
— recognizing superordinate, coordinate and subordinate concepts;
— recognizing relationships among items;

— deriving or clarifying the meaning of items associated with the classified items;

— assisting in the development of modularly designed names and definitions.

Each type of classification scheme mentioned above has particular strengths and weaknesses, and

provides the foundation upon which particular capabilities can be built. Tags and keywords, for

example, are a quick way to provide users some assistance in locating potentially useful classifiable

items. A thesaurus provides a more structured approach, arranging descriptive terms in a structure of

broader, narrower and related classification categories. A taxonomy provides a classification structure

that adds the power of inheritance of meaning from generalized taxa to specialized taxa. Ontologies,

with associated epistemologies, can provide rich, rigorously defined structures (e.g. directed acyclic

graphs with multiple inheritance) that can convey information needed by software, such as intelligent

agents and mediators that are useful in the provision of intelligent information services. When

classification systems are used to classify data elements, or value domains, it makes it easier for end

users to interpret the data that is associated with the data elements or value domains.

An example of a classification scheme that uses external standards or controlled vocabulary in

registering to a metadata registry is provided in Annex A.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 11179-2:2019(E)
Information technology — Metadata registries (MDR) —
Part 2:
Classification
1 Scope

This document compliments ISO/IEC 11179-3 by describing registration of classification schemes and

using them to classify registered items in an MDR. Any metadata item can be made a Classifiable_Item so

it can be classified, which can include object classes, properties, representations, conceptual domains,

value domains, data element concepts and data elements themselves.

This document does not establish a particular classification scheme as pre-eminent. Sanction of

a particular taxonomic approach and/or a particular epistemology is also beyond the scope of

this document. These are addressed by other standards committees and/or tend to be tailored to a

particular domain of discourse. The MDR can establish its own classification schemes, and other

standards committees are developing or have developed normative languages for use in classification

and/or particular techniques and structures that can be accommodated by this document.

Each registration authority, as described and specified in ISO/IEC 11179-6, can classify classifiable

items according to the classification schemes, structures and content that it deems appropriate. In

documenting the classification aspects of classifiable items, the registration authority can use the

principles, methods, procedures and attributes covered in this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
characteristic
abstraction of a property of an object (3.5) or of a set of objects
Note 1 to entry: Characteristics are used for describing concepts (3.3).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.4]
3.2
classification scheme

descriptive information for an arrangement or division of objects (3.5) into groups based on criteria

such as characteristics (3.1), which the objects have in common
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-3:2013, 3.2.16]

Note 1 to entry: A classification scheme is a concept system used for classifying some objects.

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC TR 11179-2:2019(E)
3.3
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by

the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.1]
3.4
concept system
set of concepts (3.3) structured according to the relations among them
[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.11]
3.5
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects may also be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), immaterial (e.g. a

conversion ratio, a project plan), or imagi
...

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