Information technology — Digitally recorded media for information interchange and storage — Data migration method for optical disks for long-term data storage

ISO/IEC 29121:2018 specifies the data migration method for DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, +R, +RW, CD-R, CD-RW, BD Recordable and BD Rewritable disks for long-term data storage. By applying this document for information storage, digital data can be migrated to a next new disk without loss from the present disk as long as data errors are completely corrected before and during the migration and provided copying of the data is allowed. ISO/IEC 29121:2018 specifies: - a data migration method for long-term data storage; - test methods including test parameters, test area, test drive, disk preparation and test execution; - an initial performance test and a periodic performance test that check a readability of the data recorded on the disks with categorized Maximum Data Error tables; and - a necessity of precaution to reduce the possibility of deterioration in order to assure the integrity of the disks during their use, storage, handling or transportation. ISO/IEC 29121:2018 offers guidelines to use disks with estimated lifetime of Bmig (B0,000 1) Life which is introduced using B5 Life and B50 Life specified in ISO/IEC 16963.

Technologies de l'information — Supports enregistrés numériquement pour échange et stockage d'information — Méthode de migration de données pour disques optiques pour le stockage à long terme

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
13-Mar-2018
Withdrawal Date
13-Mar-2018
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
28-Jan-2021
Completion Date
28-Jan-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 29121
Third edition
2018-03
Information technology — Digitally
recorded media for information
interchange and storage — Data
migration method for optical disks for
long-term data storage
Technologies de l'information — Supports enregistrés
numériquement pour échange et stockage d'information — Méthode
de migration de données pour disques optiques pour le stockage à
long terme
Reference number
ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
ISO/IEC 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Test parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Test area ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.3 Test drive ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 Test drive calibration ................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4 Disk preparation .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Test execution .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Test interval for periodic performance test ............................................................................................................................. 5

6 Test result evaluation ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Initial performance test ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Periodic performance test ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Prevention of deterioration ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Causes of deterioration for optical disks for long-term data storage ..................8

Annex B (informative) Recommendations on handling, storage and cleaning conditions for

optical disks for long-term data storage...................................................................................................................................10

Annex C (informative) Relation between BER and PI SUM 8 ....................................................................................................12

Annex D (informative) Guideline for adjustment of the estimated lifetime to higher

stress conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex E (informative) Calculation for B Life using B Life and B Life ...............................................................15

mig 50 5

Annex F (informative) Guideline of test interval and migration ..........................................................................................17

Annex G (informative) Test area.............................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex H (informative) Max RSER criteria for BD Recordable and BD Rewritable disks .............................21

Annex I (informative) Guideline for treatment of defects ...........................................................................................................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 23, Digitally Recorded Media for Information Interchange and Storage.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 29121:2013), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— CD-R, CD-RW, BD-Recordable and BD Rewritable disks have been added as the optical disks for long-

term data storage applicable in this document, and accordingly, the title of this document has been

changed.

— Terminologies have been harmonized with those used in ISO/IEC 16963 and relevant updates in the

latest version of ISO/IEC 16963 have been reflected.

— ISO/IEC 16963 has been moved from the Normative references clause to the Bibliography at

publication stage in order to conform to the requirements from the ISO/IEC Directives Part 2.

— Minor editorial changes have been made to conform to the latest version of ISO/IEC Directives Part 2.

iv © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
Introduction

Many organizations now use optical disks for long-term storage of information. It is assumed that a disk

selected for recording has already been qualified for that purpose. It is therefore important to be able

to verify that data have been recorded correctly and remains readable for the required amount of time.

Previous International Standards clearly defined requirements for interchange, but did not contain

requirements for longevity.

Longevity is limited both by disk degradation and by technology obsolescence. Interchange is regularly

verified to assure that information on existing recorded disks will continue to be recoverable. Users can

have a maintenance policy that protects disks against unanticipated failure or use, such as by making

one copy, another to function as a backup or master and another for routine access. Hardware-support

life cycles typically vary between five to ten years, and technology life cycles usually end after 20

years. Consequently, recordings that require a longer life cycle may have to be transferred to upgraded

platforms every 10 to 30 years.

Optical disks for long-term storage should be evaluated. Significant longevity differences can exist

for disks from different manufacturers and even between disks from the same manufacturer. It is

preferable that disks selected for long-term preservation should have a long estimated lifetime, which

can be estimated according to ISO/IEC 16963.

Disks with initially poor quality do not offer sufficient headroom and can reach the unrecoverable-

error threshold before the next scheduled inspection, which is to be avoided for long-term data storage.

This means that a disk of high initial recorded quality that maintains this condition for life is expected

to have superior longevity.

Because read data are corrected by an error-correction decoder, it is impossible to detect degradation

without detecting the raw error rate or raw error number. The raw error can be detected with a

standard test drive. The quality of the disk can be specified as the number of erroneous inner-parity

detections with DVD-R, DVD-RW, +R and +RW disks. The quality of a DVD-RAM disk is defined instead

by its byte error rate. Deterioration can be monitored by checking the raw error numbers and continues

to be monitored. Methods described in this document define a quality-control policy that can non-

destructively identify degradation, and thereby support timely and effective corrective action.

DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, +R and +RW disks are based on the technology now widely known as DVD

in the market. This entails the use of red laser diodes, two 0,6-mm thick substrates bonded together

by an adhesive layer to protect the recording layer from dust, write-once (DVD-R, +R) or phase-change

recording layers (DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, +RW) and a 0,60 or 0,65 NA objective lens to ensure good spatial

margins required for a professional data preservation. Disks having dual recording layers with a spacer

between them are used in addition to those with a conventional single recording layer.

After the issuance of the previous edition of this document, ISO/IEC standards for the physical format

of BD Recordable and Rewritable disks were published in 2013. ISO/IEC 16963 was also updated to

include testing of BD Recordable and Rewritable disks in 2015. Accordingly, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 23 started

work to include BD Recordable and Rewritable disks in this document and held joint discussions with

Ecma International TC31. The BD data migration part of this work was standardized separately by

Ecma International as ECMA-413, along with contributions from the Japanese national committee of

SC 23. CD-R and CD-RW disks included in ISO/IEC 16963 are also incorporated.

ISO/IEC 16963 was initially listed as a normative reference in this document to introduce the lifetime

estimation method. However, as the application of this method is strongly recommended as opposed

to required, ISO/IEC 16963 was moved from the Normative references clause to the Bibliography for

conformance with the ISO/IEC Directives Part 2.
© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
Information technology — Digitally recorded media for
information interchange and storage — Data migration
method for optical disks for long-term data storage
1 Scope

This document specifies the data migration method for DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, +R, +RW, CD-R, CD-

RW, BD Recordable and BD Rewritable disks for long-term data storage. By applying this document for

information storage, digital data can be migrated to a next new disk without loss from the present disk

as long as data errors are completely corrected before and during the migration and provided copying

of the data is allowed.
This document specifies:
— a data migration method for long-term data storage;

— test methods including test parameters, test area, test drive, disk preparation and test execution;

— an initial performance test and a periodic performance test that check a readability of the data

recorded on the disks with categorized Maximum Data Error tables; and

— a necessity of precaution to reduce the possibility of deterioration in order to assure the integrity of

the disks during their use, storage, handling or transportation.

This document offers guidelines to use disks with estimated lifetime of B (B ) Life which is

mig 0,000 1
introduced using B Life and B Life specified in ISO/IEC 16963.
5 50
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 12862, Information technology — 120 mm (8,54 Gbytes per side) and 80 mm (2,66 Gbytes per side)

DVD recordable disk for dual layer (DVD-R for DL)

ISO/IEC 13170, Information technology — 120 mm (8,54 Gbytes per side) and 80 mm (2,66 Gbytes per side)

DVD re-recordable disk for dual layer (DVD-RW for DL)

ISO/IEC 17341, Information technology — Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +RW

format — Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 4X)

ISO/IEC 17342, Information technology — 80 mm (1,46 Gbytes per side) and 120 mm (4,70 Gbytes per side)

DVD re-recordable disk (DVD-RW)

ISO/IEC 17344, Information technology — Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +R

format — Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 16X)

ISO/IEC 17592, Information technology — 120 mm (4,7 Gbytes per side) and 80 mm (1,46 Gbytes per side)

DVD rewritable disk (DVD-RAM)

ISO/IEC 23912, Information technology — 80 mm (1,46 Gbytes per side) and 120 mm (4,70 Gbytes per side)

DVD Recordable Disk (DVD-R)

ISO/IEC 25434, Information technology — Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +R

DL format — Capacity: 8,55 Gbytes and 2,66 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 16X)

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)

ISO/IEC 26925, Information technology — Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +RW

HS format — Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed 8X)

ISO/IEC 29642, Information technology — Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +RW

DL format — Capacity: 8,55 Gbytes and 2,66 Gbytes per side (recording speed 2,4X)

ISO/IEC 30190:2016, Information technology — Digitally recorded media for information interchange

and storage — 120 mm Single Layer (25,0 Gbytes per disk) and Dual Layer (50,0 Gbytes per disk) BD

Recordable disk

ISO/IEC 30191:2015, Information technology — Digitally recorded media for information interchange and

storage — 120 mm Triple Layer (100,0 Gbytes single sided disk and 200,0 Gbytes double sided disk) and

Quadruple Layer (128,0 Gbytes single sided disk) BD Recordable disk

ISO/IEC 30192, Information technology — Digitally recorded media for information interchange

and storage — 120 mm Single Layer (25,0 Gbytes per disk) and Dual Layer (50,0 Gbytes per disk) BD

Rewritable disk

ISO/IEC 30193, Information technology — Digitally recorded media for information interchange and

storage — 120 mm Triple Layer (100,0 Gbytes per disk) BD Rewritable disk
ECMA-394, Recordable Compact Disc Systems CD-R Multi-Speed
ECMA-395, Recordable Compact Disc Systems CD-RW Ultra-Speed
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
B Life
mig
mig

lifetime (3.9) for use of data migration (3.5) and identical to B Life which is 0,000 001 quantile of

0.000 1

the lifetime distribution (i.e. 0,000 1 % failure time) or 99,999 9 % survival lifetime

Note 1 to entry: See Annex E.
3.2
B Life

5 percentile of the lifetime (3.9) distribution (i.e. 5 % failure time) or 95 % survival lifetime

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 16963:2017, 3.4]
3.3
(B Life)
5 L
95 % lower confidence bound of B Life
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 16963:2017, 3.5]
3.4
B Life

50 percentile of the lifetime (3.9) distribution (i.e. 50 % failure time) or 50 % survival lifetime

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 16963:2017, 3.6]
2 © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
3.5
data migration
process to copy data from one storage device or medium to another
3.6
Error Correction Code
ECC

mathematical computation yielding check bytes used for the detection and correction of errors in data

Note 1 to entry: For DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, +R and +RW disks, the Reed-Solomon product code defined in

ISO/IEC 16448 for DVD-ROM systems is applied. For BD Recordable and BD Rewritable disks, the Long Distance

Code (LDC) + Burst-Indicating Subcode (BIS) defined in ISO/IEC 30190, ISO/IEC 30191, ISO/IEC 30192 and

ISO/IEC 30193 is applied. For CD-R and CD-RW disks, the Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC) and the

Reed-Solomon Product-like Code (RSPC) defined in ISO/IEC 10149 are applied.
3.7
error rate
rate of errors on the recorded disk measured before error correction is applied
3.8
initial performance test
test of the recording performance of data recorded on a disk before storing
3.9
lifetime
time that information is retrievable in a system (3.18)
3.10
Max BER

maximum byte error rate (3.7) at any consecutive 32 ECC (3.6) blocks on a disk as measured in the first

pass of the decoder before correction
Note 1 to entry: Max BER is applied to DVD-RAM disks.
3.11
Max C1 Ave 10

maximum number of C1 errors per second before error correction averaged over any 10 s

Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 10149, ECMA-394 and ECMA-395.
3.12
Maximum Data Error

greatest level of data error measured anywhere in one of the relevant areas on the disk

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 16963:2017, 3.13, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted.]
3.13
Max PI SUM 8

maximum Parity of Inner (PI) code error count at any consecutive 8 ECC (3.6) blocks on a disk as

measured in the first pass of the decoder before correction

Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 16448, ISO/IEC 23912, ISO/IEC 17341, ISO/IEC 17342 and ISO/IEC 17344.

3.14
Max RSER

maximum Random Symbol Error Rate before error correction, which excludes burst errors of length

greater than or equal to 40 bytes

Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 30190, ISO/IEC 30191, ISO/IEC 30192, ISO/IEC 30193 and ISO/IEC 16963.

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
3.15
periodic performance test

periodic test of the recording performance of data recorded on a disk during the storage

3.16
retrievability
ability to recover physical information as recorded
3.17
storage time
time that a disk is being stored since data are recorded on the disk
3.18
system

combination of hardware, software, storage medium and documentation used to record, retrieve and

reproduce information
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 16963:2017, 3.20]
3.19
uncorrectable error

error in the playback data that could not be corrected by the error correcting decoders

3.20
X Life
mig
mig
migration interval (year) which is determined by the user
Note 1 to entry: See Annex F.
4 Test method
4.1 Test parameters

For DVD-R disk defined in ISO/IEC 12862 and ISO/IEC 23912, DVD-RW disk defined in ISO/IEC 13170

and ISO/IEC 17342, +R disk defined in ISO/IEC 17344 and ISO/IEC 25434, and +RW disk defined in

ISO/IEC 17341, ISO/IEC 26925 and ISO/IEC 29642, the maximum inner-parity error shall be measured

at any consecutive 8 ECC blocks (Max PI SUM 8) in the first pass of the decoder before correction.

For a DVD-RAM disk defined in ISO/IEC 17592, the maximum Byte error rate (Max BER) shall be

measured (see Annex C).

For CD-R disk defined in ECMA-394 and CD-RW disk defined in ECMA-395, the maximum C1 Ave 10

(Max C1 Ave 10) shall be measured.

For BD Recordable disk defined in ISO/IEC 30190 and ISO/IEC 30191 and BD Rewritable disk defined

in ISO/IEC 30192 and ISO/IEC 30193, the maximum Random Symbol Error Rate (Max RSER) shall be

measured (see Annex H).
4.2 Test area

The test area for the initial performance test shall be the whole recorded area of all disks.

The test area for the periodic performance test should be the whole recorded area of all disks

(see Annex G).
4 © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)
4.3 Test drive
4.3.1 General

For DVD-R disks defined in ISO/IEC 12862 and ISO/IEC 23912, the test drive shall comply with each

standard. For DVD-RW disks defined in ISO/IEC 13170 and ISO/IEC 17342, the test drive shall comply

with each standard. For +R disks defined in ISO/IEC 17344 and ISO/IEC 25434, the test drive shall

comply with each standard. For +RW disks defined in ISO/IEC 17341, ISO/IEC 26925 and ISO/IEC 29642,

the test drive shall comply with each standard. The test drive shall have the capability to measure Max

PI SUM 8.

For DVD-RAM disk, the test drive shall comply with ISO/IEC 17592. The test drive shall have the

capability to measure Max BER.

For CD-R and CD-RW disks, the test drive shall comply with ECMA-394 and ECMA-395, respectively.

The test drive shall have the capability to measure Max C1 Ave 10.

For BD Recordable disks defined in ISO/IEC 30190 and ISO/IEC 30191, the test drive shall comply with

each standard. For BD Rewritable disks defined in ISO/IEC 30192 and ISO/IEC 30193, the test drive

shall comply with each standard. The test drive shall have the capability to measure Max RSER.

NOTE The measuring circuit for RSER described in ISO/IEC 30191 and ISO/IEC 30193 is different from

that of described in ISO/IEC 30190 and ISO/IEC 30192, especially in HF signal pre-processing circuit. See

ISO/IEC 30190:2016, Annex H and ISO/IEC 30191:2015, Annex H.
4.3.2 Test drive calibration

The test drive shall be calibrated by using a calibration disk prepared by the test drive manufacturer

based on the calibration procedure defined by the manufacturer. The calibration shall be done at the

intervals recommended by the manufacturer.
4.4 Disk preparation

Prior to conducting tests, the disks shall be checked that no dust, fingerprints or other contaminants on

them has been confirmed. If there are dust, fingerprints or other contaminants and appropriate, such

contaminants shall be removed in accordance with the disk-manufacturer’s recommendations. Certain

options are contained in Annex B. Microscopic examination can reveal physical deterioration, such as

delamination and porosity of the protective coating.
4.5 Test execution

Before testing disks, the test drive shall be verified by checking the calibration disk supplied with the

test drive or publicly verified. If the drive passes the calibration check, the disk to be checked shall be

tested by the test drive.

On testing disks, care handling of the disks shall be taken in order to avoid introducing unexpected

defects. See Annex I.

Test results shall be judged by Maximum Data Error. Maximum Data Error is Max PI SUM 8 for DVD-R,

DVD-RW, +R and +RW disks; Max BER for a DVD-RAM disk; Max C1 Ave 10 for CD-R and CD-RW disks

and Max RSER for BD Recordable and BD Rewritable disks.
5 Test interval for periodic performance test

If estimated lifetime of the disks is known, the test interval may be determined according to the

estimated lifetime; otherwise, the disks should be checked every three years or less.

In cases where the estimated lifetime is provided in accordance with ISO/IEC 16963, the disks should

be checked according to Annex E and Annex F.
© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC 29121:2018(E)

Disks having well-defined characteristics that are stored under conditions described in Annex B are

carefully handled and are read infrequently may require testing only every few years. A history of

satisfactory longevity with similar disks would encourage longer intervals between testing.

The occurrence of retrievability problems or long read times may indicate a need for immediate testing.

When tests indicate deterioration of one disk, additional tests may be performed on other disks of the

same type, age or lot to ascertain their condition. Replacement of all similarly affected disks should be

considered if such additional tests indicate significant problems.
6 Test result evaluation
6.1 General

The readability of the data recorded on the disks is checked by the initial performance test and the

periodic performance test. When data are recorded on disks, the initial recording performance shall be

checked by the initial recording performance test. Depending on the test result of the initial recording

test, disks are selected to be used for the long-term data storage. The performance of the recorded data

on those disks should be periodically checked in the storage duration with the periodic performance

test. Depending on the test result of the periodic performance test, the necessity of the data migration

is judged.
6.2 Initial performance test

The initial recording performance is categorized as Level 1, 2 and 3 by Maximum Data Error as shown

in Table 1.

At least, the initial recording performance shall be within Level 1. Disks showing the initial recording

performance of Level 2 should not be used. Disks showing the initial recording performance of Level 3

are out of the specification and shall not be used.

If the initial recording performance is worse than Level 1, the performance of the disk and drive used

for recording the data should be verified because Maximum Data Error depends on the performance

of both disks and drives. If the drive is not good, the drive should be replaced. If the disk is not good,

another lot of disks should be used.
Table 1 — Category of initial recording performance
Level Status DVD_R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM CD-R, CD-RW BD Recordable,
+R, +RW BD Rewritable
−4 −4
1 Recommended <140 <5,0 × 10 <110 <5,0 × 10
−4 −4
2 Should not be used 140 to 280 5,0 × 10 110 to 220 5,0 × 10
−3 −3
to 1,0 × 10 to 1,0 × 10
−3 −3
3 Shall not be used >280 >1,0 × 10 >220 >1,0 × 10
...

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