Wildland firefighting personal protective equipment -- Requirements and test methods

This document specifies the minimum performance requirements and methods of test for helmets used for wildland firefighting. This document covers the general design of wildland firefighting helmets, the minimum levels of performance for the materials employed and the methods of test used. The personal protection equipment (PPE) is not intended to provide protection during fire entrapment. This document does not cover PPE for structural firefighting (see ISO 11999 series), for use against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, or for use where a reflective outer surface is required (see ISO 15538). Activities in support of wildland firefighting, such as the cutting of trees and the use of a chainsaw can require additional protection to that provided in this document. Users are directed to those relevant standards for the requirements associated with such protection.

Équipement de protection individuelle pour la lutte contre les feux d'espaces naturels -- Exigences et méthodes d'essai

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Dec-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Nov-2019
Completion Date
11-Dec-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16073-5
First edition
2019-12
Wildland firefighting personal
protective equipment —
Requirements and test methods —
Part 5:
Helmets
Équipement de protection individuelle pour la lutte contre les feux
d'espaces naturels — Exigences et méthodes d'essai —
Partie 5: Casques
Reference number
ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Design and general requirements ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Helmet shell ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Vertical clearance .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.4 Horizontal clearance .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.5 Wearing height ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.6 Mass .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.7 Shell conspicuity .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.8 Retroreflective material .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.9 Neck protector ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.10 Retention system ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.11 Accessories attached on the helmet ..................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Performance requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Shock absorption .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.1 Crown impact ...................................................................... ................................................................................................ 4

5.1.2 Off-crown impacts .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Resistance to penetration .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Retention system strength ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Lateral rigidity ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Flame resistance .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 High-temperature stability ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.7 High radiant heat environments .............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.8 Electrical insulation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.9 Optional low-temperature tests ............................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Test requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Samples ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Conditioning for testing .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.2.1 Preconditioning chamber ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.2 Preconditioning ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2.3 Low temperature conditioning............................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.4 High temperature conditioning........................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.5 Wet conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3 Headforms ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.1 Construction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.3.2 Selection of size ...................................................................... ........................................................................................... 7

6.3.3 Measurement of clearances and wearing height.................................................................................. 7

6.4 Shock absorption test ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.4.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.3 Test procedures..............................................................................................................................................................10

6.5 Penetration resistance test ........................................................................................................................................................10

6.5.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................10

6.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6 Retention system strength test ..............................................................................................................................................11

6.6.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)

6.7 Lateral rigidity test ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.8 Flame resistance test ......................................................................................................................................................................13

6.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.8.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................13

6.8.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................13

6.9 Electrical insulation test ..............................................................................................................................................................13

7 Marking and labelling ..................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.1 General marking requirements .............................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Label durability and legibility .................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Compliance marking requirements ...................................................................................................................................14

8 Manufacturer’s information ..................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) Conditioning and testing schedule ............................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Guidelines for personal protective equipment (helmet) design ............................18

Annex C (normative) Thermal stability of helmets at elevated temperatures ......................................................19

Annex D (informative) Recommendations for the materials and construction of helmets .....................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94, Personal safety — Protective

equipment, Subcommittee SC 14, Firefighters personal equipment.

This first edition of ISO 16073-5, together with ISO 16073-1 to ISO 16073-8, cancels and replaces

ISO 16073:2011.
The main changes are as follows:
— the content has been reviewed and separated into several parts;
— the respiratory protection has been deleted from the document.
A list of all parts in the ISO 16073 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
Introduction

Wildland firefighting involves work carried out mostly in summer temperatures and for many hours,

during which the firefighter can develop high levels of metabolic heat. Consequently, a helmet should be

light and commensurate with the risks to which the firefighter can be exposed in order to be effective

without introducing excessive heat stress to the wearer.

It is important to train firefighters in the selection, use, care and maintenance of the personal protective

equipment (PPE) covered by this document, including an understanding of its limitations.

It is intended that a risk assessment be undertaken to determine if the PPE covered by this document is

suitable for its intended use and the expected exposure.

This document provides minimum performance requirements for wildland firefighters' personal

protective equipment designed for use for extended periods during wildland firefighting.

vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
Wildland firefighting personal protective equipment —
Requirements and test methods —
Part 5:
Helmets
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum performance requirements and methods of test for helmets used

for wildland firefighting.

This document covers the general design of wildland firefighting helmets, the minimum levels of

performance for the materials employed and the methods of test used. The personal protection

equipment (PPE) is not intended to provide protection during fire entrapment.

This document does not cover PPE for structural firefighting (see ISO 11999 series), for use against

chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, or for use where a reflective outer surface is

required (see ISO 15538).

Activities in support of wildland firefighting, such as the cutting of trees and the use of a chainsaw can

require additional protection to that provided in this document. Users are directed to those relevant

standards for the requirements associated with such protection.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13688:2013, Protective clothing — General requirements

ISO 15025, Protective clothing — Protection against flame — Method of test for limited flame spread

ISO/TR 19591, Personal protective equipment for firefighters — Standard terms and definitions

EN 960, Headforms for use in the testing of protective helmets
CIE 54.2, Retroreflection — Definition and measurement
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in ISO/TR 19591 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
4 Design and general requirements
4.1 General

Wildland firefighters require helmets to minimize the impact or penetration caused by falling

tree branches as well as to provide protection to the head from flames, flying embers and radiant

heat. Helmets shall also be fitted with securing mechanisms to prevent them from being dislodged

during wildland firefighting operations. Recommendations for general consideration of design and

construction of helmets are given in Annex B and Annex D. A summary of design and performance

requirements are given in Table 1.

The helmet may be required to interface with other items of PPE used for wildland firefighting.

The helmet shall meet the requirements as detailed in ISO 13688:2013, 4.2.
NOTE For more information, see ISO/TS 11999-2.
4.2 Helmet shell

There shall be no sharp edges, roughness or projection on any part of the helmet which may cause

injury to the wearer, in contact or potential contact with the wearer when it is worn.

There shall be no holes on the shell’s surface that may allow ingression of flying embers or hot debris.

The profile at the front edge of the shell shall not prevent the wearing of spectacles or goggles.

4.3 Vertical clearance

The vertical clearance between the top of the headform and the inside of the shell as shown in Figure 1,

when measured under the conditions given in 6.3.3, shall be no more than 50 mm.
4.4 Horizontal clearance

The horizontal clearance at the front and sides of the helmet, when measured under the conditions

given in 6.3.3. shall be no less than 5 mm.
4.5 Wearing height

The wearing height, being the distance between the top of the headform and the bottom edge of the

headband, when measured either at the front of the headform or at the side under the conditions given

in 6.3.3, shall be no less than:
— 80 mm for helmets mounted on headform size designation 525 (as per EN 960);
— 85 mm for helmets mounted on headform size designation 555 (as per EN 960);
— 90 mm for helmets mounted on headform size designation 585 (as per EN 960).
4.6 Mass

If the mass of a complete helmet, including harness but without accessories, exceeds 800 g, this mass,

determined to the nearest 30 g, shall be shown on a label attached to the helmet.

4.7 Shell conspicuity

The helmet shell shall have retroreflective markings in accordance with 4.8 adhered to the shell exterior.

A minimum of 26 cm of the markings shall be visible when the helmet is viewed from any angle at the

reference plane (see figure footnote b on Figure 2). A material which combines both the fluorescent and

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)

retroreflective properties may be used. Care should be exercised when selecting marking materials to

ensure they will not degrade the helmet shell.
4.8 Retroreflective material

The material shall have a coefficient of luminous intensity per square meter (CIL/m ) of not less than

85 cd/lx/m when measured in accordance with CIE 54.2 with an observation angle of 0,2° and entrance

angle of −4°.
4.9 Neck protector

A neck protector shall be fitted and designed to protect the wearer’s neck from heat and embers and as

such when fitted:
— the helmet continues to comply with requirements in this document;

— the limited flame spread test shall be performed in accordance with ISO 15025, Procedure A (Surface

ignition) for an application time of 10 s with the following acceptable performance requirements:

1) no specimen shall give hole formation;
2) no specimen shall give molten or flaming debris;
3) the mean value of the afterflame time shall be ≤2 s;
4) the mean value of the afterglow time shall be ≤2 s.

— the material when tested together with the helmet in test methods given in C.4 (Test 1) and C.5

(Test 2), shall not ignite, melt or drip.
4.10 Retention system

The helmet shall be fitted with a retention system, including a chin strap. The chin strap shall be

adjustable in length.

A minimum of three-point retention system shall have at least three separate points of attachment to

the shell. That part of the chin strap which comes into contact with the jaw shall have a minimum width

of 15 mm under an intermediate load of 250 N (see 5.3).
4.11 Accessories attached on the helmet

Any accessories, whether permanently attached on or detachable from the helmet, when fitted shall

continue to meet the requirements of this standard. Accessories that are permanently attached to the

helmet, e.g. lamp bracket, cable clips, mounting points, attachment rails, badges and trims, shall be

considered as part of the helmet for the purpose of testing.

Certain accessories or non-integral additional protective devices like earmuffs and mesh face shield are

suited only for non-firefighting activities like road clearance and wood cutting. Information should be

provided by the manufacturer as to the circumstances under which such items may be used.

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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)
5 Performance requirements
5.1 Shock absorption
5.1.1 Crown impact

The helmet shall be tested to the method given in 6.4.3.1 at low temperature, high temperature, and wet

conditions, and the force transmitted to the headform shall not exceed 5,0 kN, for an impact energy of

(50 ± 2) J.
5.1.2 Off-crown impacts

The helmet shall be tested to the method given in 6.4.3.2 at low temperature, high temperature, and

wet conditions, and the force transmitted to the headform shall not exceed 5,0 kN, for an impact energy

of (25 ± 1) J.
5.2 Resistance to penetration

The helmet shall be tested to the method given in 6.5, and the point of the striker shall not contact the

surface of the headform, for an impact energy of (30 ± 1) J.
5.3 Retention system strength

The chinstrap on the helmet shall be tested to the method given in 6.6, and the following shall apply:

a) Maximum dynamic elongation shall not exceed 25 mm under the intermediate load (250 N);

b) Minimum width of the chin strap under an intermediate load (250 N) shall be 15 mm;

c) The release point of the retention system shall be between 500 N and 1 000 N.
5.4 Lateral rigidity

The helmet shall be tested to the method given in 6.7, where the maximum lateral deformation of the

shell shall not exceed 40 mm, and the residual deformation shall not exceed 15 mm.

5.5 Flame resistance

The helmet shell shall be tested to the method given in 6.8, and the material shall not burn with the

emission of flame after a period of 5 s has elapsed following removal of the flame source.

5.6 High-temperature stability

The helmet shall be tested in accordance with C.4 (Test 1), and there shall be no visible distortion of

the shell.

Any failure of headbands or other internal components during this test (e.g. melting or collapse of the

headband) shall not be the basis for rejection of the helmet.

NOTE The purpose of this test is to ensure the suitability of the shell material when it is exposed to high heat

sources capable of raising the temperature of the helmet shell to 180 °C. Headbands within the helmet and in

contact with the wearer's head are not in contact with or exposed to such sources.

5.7 High radiant heat environments

The helmet shall be tested in accordance with C.5 (Test 2), and it shall meet the following requirements.

a) no part of the helmet shell shall touch the headform;
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ISO 16073-5:2019(E)

b) no shell distortion in the posterior portion of the helmet brim shall extend more than 20 mm below

the original position;

c) no distortion of the anterior and lateral portions of the helmet brim shall extend more than 15 mm

below the original position;
d) no ignition of any part of the helmet assembly shall occur;

e) no melting or dripping of the helmet shell, including the labels on the interior of the helmet.

Any failure of headbands or other internal components during this test (e.g. melting or collapse of the

headband), shall not be the basis of rejection of the head protective device.

NOTE The purpose of this test is to ensure the suitability of the shell material when it is exposed to radiant

heat sources capable of raising the temperature of the helmet shell to 260 °C for a short period of time. Headbands

within the helmet and in direct contact with the wearer's head are not in contact with or exposed to such sources.

5.8 Electrical insulation

The helmet shall be tested to the method given in 6.9, and the leakage current shall not exceed 1,2 mA.

NOTE This requirement is intended to ensure protection from voltages of up to 440 V.

5.9 Optional low-temperature tests

When (−20 ± 2) °C is selected, conditioning at −10 °C is not required. Following conditioning, helmets

shall be tested for shock absorption in accordance with 6.4 and for resistance to penetration in

accordance with 6.5 and shall meet the requirements of 5.1 and 5.2 respectively.

The test report shall identify the temperature used. Helmets meeting these requirements (see Table 1)

shall state this fact on the label attached to the helmet.
Table 1 — Summary of design and performance requirements
Performance Requirements Clause Criteria
Design Vertical clearance 4.3 ≤50 mm
Horizontal clearance 4.4 ≥5 mm
Wearing height 4.5 ≥80 mm for 525 headform
≥85 mm for 555 headform
≥90 mm for 585 headform
Mechanical Shock absorption, crown and off- 5.1 ≤5 kN
crown
Resistance to penetration 5.2 No contact with the surface
...

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