Additive manufacturing — General principles — Fundamentals and vocabulary

This document establishes and defines terms used in additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which applies the additive shaping principle and thereby builds physical three-dimensional (3D) geometries by successive addition of material. The terms have been classified into specific fields of application.

Fabrication additive — Principes généraux — Fondamentaux et vocabulaire

Le présent document établit et définit les termes utilisés dans la technologie de la fabrication additive (FA), qui applique le principe de mise en forme additive et construit ainsi des géométries physiques en trois dimensions (3D) par ajout successif de matériau. Les termes ont été classés par champs d’application spécifiques.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Nov-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Nov-2021
Due Date
11-Sep-2021
Completion Date
16-Nov-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52900
Second edition
2021-11
Additive manufacturing — General
principles — Fundamentals and
vocabulary
Fabrication additive — Principes généraux — Fondamentaux et
vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
© ISO/ASTM International 2021
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11 Phone: +610 832 9634
Fax: +610 832 9635
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: khooper@astm.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.astm.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Process categories ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Processing: general ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

3.4 Processing: data .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.5 Processing: positioning, coordinates and orientation ........................................................................................ 7

3.6 Processing: material ....................................................................................................................................................................... 10

3.7 Processing: material extrusion............................................................................................................................................. 11

3.8 Processing: powder bed fusion ............................................................................................................................................. 12

3.9 Parts: general ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

3.10 Parts: applications ............................................................................................................................................................................ 14

3.11 Parts: properties ................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

3.12 Parts: evaluation ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16

Annex A (normative) Identification of AM processes based on process categories and

determining characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Basic principles .........................................................................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................26

iii
© ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation with ASTM

Committee F42, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership agreement between

ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on additive

manufacturing, and in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 438, Additive manufacturing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical

cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition of ISO/ASTM 52900 replaces the first edition (ISO/ASTM 52900:2015), which has

been technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— new and modified terms and definitions;
— abbreviations added for seven process categories;

— new annex for the specification of AM processes based on process categories and determining

characteristics (Annex A).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
Introduction

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the general term for those technologies that successively join material

to create physical objects as specified by 3D model data. These technologies are presently used for

various applications in engineering industry as well as other areas of society, such as medicine,

education, architecture, cartography, toys and entertainment.

During the development of additive manufacturing technology, there have been numerous different

terms and definitions in use, often with reference to specific application areas and trademarks. This

is often ambiguous and confusing, which hampers communication and wider application of this

technology.

It is the intention of this document to provide a basic understanding of the fundamental principles

for additive manufacturing processes, and based on this, to give clear definitions for terms and

nomenclature associated with additive manufacturing technology. The objective of this standardization

of terminology for additive manufacturing is to facilitate communication between people involved in

this field of technology on a worldwide basis.
© ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
Additive manufacturing — General principles —
Fundamentals and vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes and defines terms used in additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which

applies the additive shaping principle and thereby builds physical three-dimensional (3D) geometries

by successive addition of material.
The terms have been classified into specific fields of application.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
3D printer, noun
machine used for 3D printing (3.3.1)
3.1.2
additive manufacturing, noun

process of joining materials to make parts (3.9.1) from 3D model data, usually layer (3.3.7) upon layer,

as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies

Note 1 to entry: Historical terms include: additive fabrication, additive processes, additive techniques, additive

layer manufacturing, layer manufacturing, solid freeform fabrication and freeform fabrication.

Note 2 to entry: The meaning of “additive-”, “subtractive-” and “formative-” manufacturing methodologies is

further discussed in Annex B.
3.1.3
additive system, noun
additive manufacturing system
additive manufacturing equipment
machine and auxiliary equipment used for additive manufacturing (3.1.2)
3.1.4
AM machine, noun

section of the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) including hardware, machine control software,

required set-up software and peripheral accessories necessary to complete a build cycle (3.3.8) for

producing parts (3.9.1)
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
3.1.5
AM machine user, noun
operator of or entity using an AM machine (3.1.4)
3.1.6
AM system user, noun
additive system user

operator of or entity using an entire additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) or any component of an

additive system (3.1.3)
3.1.7
front, noun

side of the machine that the

operator faces to access the user interface, or primary viewing window, or both
3.1.8
material supplier, noun

provider of material/feedstock (3.6.6) to be processed in an additive manufacturing system (3.1.3)

3.1.9
multi-step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which parts (3.9.1) are fabricated in two or more

operations where the first typically provides the basic geometric shape and the following consolidates

the part to the fundamental properties of the intended material

Note 1 to entry: Fundamental properties of the intended product material are typically metallic properties for

intended metallic products, ceramic properties for intended ceramic products, polymer properties for intended

polymer (plastic) products and composite material properties for products intended to be made of a composite

material.

Note 2 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning can many times be necessary; however, in this

context, this operation is not considered as a separate process step.

Note 3 to entry: The principle of single-step (3.1.10) and multi-step processes is further discussed in Annex B.

3.1.10
single-step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which parts (3.9.1) are fabricated in a single operation

where the basic geometric shape and basic material properties of the intended product are achieved

simultaneously

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning can many times be necessary; however, in this

context, this operation is not considered as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single-step and multi-step processes (3.1.9) is further discussed in Annex B.

3.2 Process categories
3.2.1
binder jetting, noun
BJT

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join

powder materials

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different binder jetting processes shall be consistent with the method described

in Annex A.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
3.2.2
directed energy deposition, noun
DED

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by

melting as they are being deposited

Note 1 to entry: “Focused thermal energy” means that an energy source (for example laser, electron beam or

plasma arc) is focused to melt the materials being deposited.

Note 2 to entry: Identification of different directed energy deposition processes shall be consistent with the

method described in Annex A.
3.2.3
material extrusion, noun
MEX

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or

orifice

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different material extrusion processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.4
material jetting, noun
MJT

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which droplets of feedstock material are selectively deposited

Note 1 to entry: Example feedstock materials for material jetting include photopolymer resin and wax.

Note 2 to entry: Identification of different material jetting processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.5
powder bed fusion, noun
PBF

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder

bed (3.8.5)

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different powder bed fusion processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.6
sheet lamination, noun
SHL

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which sheets of material are bonded to form a part (3.9.1)

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different sheet lamination processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.7
vat photopolymerization, noun
VPP

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by

light-activated polymerization

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different vat photopolymerization processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
3.3 Processing: general
3.3.1
3D printing, noun

fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle or another printer

technology

Note 1 to entry: This term is often used in a non-technical context synonymously with additive manufacturing

(3.1.2) and, in these cases, typically associated with machines used for non-industrial purposes including

personal use.
3.3.2
build chamber, noun

enclosed location within the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) where the parts (3.9.1) are fabricated

3.3.3
build space, noun

location where it is possible for parts (3.9.1) to be fabricated, typically within the build chamber (3.3.2)

or on a build platform (3.3.5)
3.3.4
build volume, noun
total usable volume available in the machine for building parts (3.9.1)
3.3.5
build platform, noun

base which provides a surface upon which the building of the parts (3.9.1) is started and

supported throughout the build process

Note 1 to entry: In some systems, the parts (3.9.1) are built attached to the build platform, either directly or

through a support (3.3.9) structure. In other systems, such as certain types of powder bed (3.8.5) systems, a

direct mechanical fixture between the part and the build platform is not necessarily required.

3.3.6
build surface, noun

area where material is added, normally on the last deposited layer (3.3.7), which becomes the foundation

upon which the next layer is formed

Note 1 to entry: For the first layer, the build surface is often the build platform (3.3.5).

Note 2 to entry: In the case of directed energy deposition (3.2.2) processes, the build surface can be an existing

part onto which material is added.

Note 3 to entry: If the orientation of the material deposition or consolidation means (or both) is (are) variable, it

may be defined relative to the build surface.
3.3.7
layer, noun
material laid out, or spread, to create a surface
3.3.8
build cycle, noun

single process cycle in which one or more components are built by successive joining of material within

the build space (3.3.3) of the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3)
3.3.9
support, noun

structure separate from the part (3.9.1) geometry that is created to provide a base and anchor for the

part during the building process
Note 1 to entry: Supports are typically removed from the part prior to use.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: For certain processes such as material extrusion (3.2.3) and material jetting (3.2.4), the support

material can be different from the part material and deposited from a separate nozzle or print head.

Note 3 to entry: For certain processes such as metal powder bed fusion (3.2.5) processes, auxiliary supports can

be added to serve as an additional heat sink for the part during the building process.

3.3.10
process parameters, noun
operating parameters and system settings used during a build cycle (3.3.8)
3.3.11
system set-up, noun
configuration of the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) for a build cycle
3.3.12
manufacturing lot, noun

set of manufactured parts (3.9.1) having commonality between feedstock (3.6.6), production run (3.3.14),

additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) and post-processing (3.6.10) steps (if required) as recorded on a

single manufacturing work order

Note 1 to entry: The additive manufacturing system can include one or several AM machines (3.1.4) and/or post-

processing machine units as agreed by AM (3.1.2) provider and customer.
3.3.13
manufacturing plan, noun

document setting out the specific manufacturing practices, technical resources and sequences of

activities relevant to the production of a particular product including any specified acceptance criteria

at each stage

Note 1 to entry: For additive manufacturing (3.1.2), the manufacturing plan typically includes, but is not limited to,

process parameters (3.3.10), preparation and post processing (3.6.10) operations as well as relevant verification

methods.

Note 2 to entry: Manufacturing plans are typically required under a quality management system such as ISO 9001

and ASQ C1.
3.3.14
production run, noun

set of all parts (3.9.1) produced in one build cycle (3.3.8) or sequential series of build cycles using the

same feedstock (3.6.6) batch and process conditions
3.3.15
process chain, noun

sequence of operations necessary for the part (3.9.1) to achieve desired functionality and properties

3.4 Processing: data
3.4.1
Additive Manufacturing File Format, noun
AMF

file format for communicating additive manufacturing (3.1.2) model data including a description of the

3D surface geometry with native support for colour, materials, lattices, textures, constellations and

metadata

Note 1 to entry: Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) can represent one of multiple objects arranged in a

constellation. Similar to STL (3.4.6), the surface geometry is represented by a triangular mesh, but in AMF the

triangles can also be curved. AMF can also specify the material and colour of each volume and the colour of each

[7]
triangle in the mesh. ISO/ASTM 52915 gives the standard specification of AMF.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
3.4.2
AMF consumer, noun

software reading (parsing) the AMF (3.4.1) file for fabrication, visualization or analysis

Note 1 to entry: AMF files are typically imported by additive manufacturing equipment (3.1.3), as well as viewing,

analysis and verification software.
3.4.3
AMF editor, noun
software reading and rewriting the AMF (3.4.1) file for conversion

Note 1 to entry: AMF editor applications are used to convert an AMF from one form to another, for example

to convert all curved triangles to flat triangles or convert porous material specification into an explicit mesh

surface.
3.4.4
AMF producer, noun
software writing (generating) the AMF (3.4.1) file from original geometric data

Note 1 to entry: AMF files are typically exported by CAD software, scanning software or directly from

computational geometry algorithms.
3.4.5
STEP, noun
standard for the exchange of product model data

Note 1 to entry: This is an International Standard that provides a representation of product information along

[4]

with the necessary mechanisms and definitions to enable product data to be exchanged. ISO 10303 applies to

the representation of product information, including components and assemblies, the exchange of product data,

including storing, transferring, accessing and archiving.

Note 2 to entry: ISO 10303-238, commonly referred to as STEP-NC, specifies the slicing operation and other

mechanical commands in the AM process.
3.4.6
STL, noun

file format for model data describing the surface geometry of an object as a tessellation of triangles

used to communicate 3D geometries to machines in order to build physical parts (3.9.1)

Note 1 to entry: The STL file format was originally developed as part of the CAD package for the early

STereoLithography Apparatus, thus referring to that process. It is sometimes also described as “Standard

Triangulation Language” or “Standard Tessellation Language”, though it has never been recognized as an official

standard by any standards developing organization.
3.4.7
PDES, noun
Product Data Exchange Specification
data exchange specification using STEP (3.4.5)

Note 1 to entry: Originally, a product data exchange specification developed in the 1980s by the IGES/PDES

Organization, a program of US Product Data Association (USPRO). It was adopted as the basis for and subsequently

[4]
superseded by ISO 10303 STEP.
3.4.8
attribute, noun

characteristic representing one or more aspects, descriptors or elements of the data

Note 1 to entry: In object-oriented systems, attributes are characteristics of objects. In Extensible Markup

[10]
Language (XML) , attributes are characteristics of elements (3.3.10).

Note 2 to entry: In the AMF (3.4.1)-file, attributes can, for example, be used to carry notices enabling backwards

traceability to CAD components, or markers that allow track and trace mechanisms for the file.

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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
3.4.9
comment, noun
remark in source code which does not affect the behaviour of the program

Note 1 to entry: Comments are used for enhancing human readability of the file and for debugging purposes.

Note 2 to entry: In the AMF (3.4.1)-file, comments can, for example, be used to carry material specification or

notices enabling backwards traceability to CAD components.
3.4.10
element, noun
[10]

information unit within an XML document consisting of a start tag, an end tag, the content between

the tags and any attributes (3.4.8).

Note 1 to entry: In the XML framework of AMF (3.4.1), an element can contain data, attributes structures such as

constellations, as well as including other elements.
3.4.11
facet, noun

three- or four-sided polygon that represents an element of a 3D polygonal mesh surface or model

Note 1 to entry: Triangular facets are used in the file formats most significant to AM (3.1.2): AMF (3.4.1) and STL

(3.4.6); however, AMF files permit a triangular facet to be curved.
3.4.12
surface model, noun

mathematical or digital representation of an object as a set of planar or curved surfaces, or both, that

can, but does not necessarily have to represent a closed volume
3.4.13
3D scanning, noun
3D digitizing

method of acquiring the shape and size of an object as a 3-dimensional representation by recording x,

y, z coordinates on the object’s surface and through software converting the collection of points into

digital data

Note 1 to entry: Typical methods use some amount of automation, coupled with a touch probe, optical sensor or

other device.

Note 2 to entry: In additive manufacturing process chains, 3D scanning can typically be used for generation of

surface models, in situ monitoring, non-destructive testing, as well as verification of the part geometry.

3.5 Processing: positioning, coordinates and orientation
3.5.1
bounding box, noun

orthogonally oriented minimum perimeter cuboid that can span the maximum extents of

the points on the surface of a 3D part (3.9.1)

Note 1 to entry: Where the manufactured part includes the test geometry plus additional external features (for

example labels, tabs or raised lettering), the bounding box may be specified according to the test part geometry

excluding the additional external features if noted. Different varieties of bounding boxes are illustrated in

[8]
ISO/ASTM 52921 .
3.5.2
arbitrarily oriented bounding box, noun

bounding box (3.5.1) calculated without any constraints on the resulting orientation of the

box
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(E)
3.5.3
machine bounding box, noun

bounding box (3.5.1) for which the surfaces are parallel to the machine coordinate system

(3.5.11)
3.5.4
master bounding box, noun
bounding box (3.5.1) which encloses all of the parts (3.9.1) in a single build
3.5.5
geometric centre, noun
centroid

location at the arithmetic middle of the bounding box (3.5.1)

Note 1 to entry: The geometric centre of the bounding box can lie outside the part (3.9.1) that is enclosed by the

bounding box.
3.5.6
orthogonal orientation notation, noun

description of the orientation of the bounding box (3.5.1) according to overall length in decreasing

magnitude, parallel to the axes of the machine coordinate system (3.5.11)

Note 1 to entry: Notation typically consists of a combination of X, Y and Z, each referring to the corresponding

axis as defined by the machine coordinate system.

Note 2 to entry: Orthogonal orientation notation requires that the bounding box be aligned with the machine

coordinate system. Machine coordinate system and different bounding boxes, including examples of orthogonal

[8]
orientation notation, are illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 .
3.5.7
initial build orientation, noun

orientation of the part as it is first placed in the build volume (3.3.4)

[8]
Note 1 to entry: Initial build orientation is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 .
3.5.8
part reorientation, noun

rotation around the geometric centre (3.5.5) of the part’s bounding box (3.5.1) from the specified initial

build orientation (3.5.7) of that part (3.9.1)
[8]
Note 1 to entry: Part reorientation is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 .
3.5.9
build envelope, noun

largest external dimensions of the x-axis (3.5.16), y-axis (3.5.17) and z-axis (3.5.18) within the build

space (3.3.3) where parts (3.9.1) can be fabricated

Note 1 to entry: The dimensions of the build space are larger than the build envelope.

3.5.10
nesting, participle
situation when parts (3.9.1
...

NORME ISO/ASTM
INTERNATIONALE 52900
Deuxième édition
2021-11
Fabrication additive — Principes
généraux — Fondamentaux et
vocabulaire
Additive manufacturing — General principles — Fundamentals and
vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
© ISO/ASTM International 2021
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO/ASTM International 2021

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou un intranet, sans autorisation écrite soit de l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après,

soit d’un organisme membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur. Aux États-Unis, les demandes doivent être adressées à ASTM

International.
ISO copyright office ASTM International
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
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Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11 Tél.: +610 832 9634
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Web: www.iso.org Web: www.astm.org
Publié en Suisse
© ISO/ASTM International 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ...................................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Références normatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Termes et définitions ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Termes généraux ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Catégories de procédé ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Traitement: généralités ........................................................................................................................................... ........................ 4

3.4 Traitement: données ........................................................................................................................................... ............................... 6

3.5 Traitement: positionnement, coordonnées et orientation ............................................................................... 8

3.6 Traitement: matériau ..................................................................................................................................................................... 10

3.7 Traitement: extrusion de matériau ...................................................................................................................................12

3.8 Traitement: fusion sur lit de poudre ................................................................................................................................ 13

3.9 Pièces: généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 14

3.10 Pièces: applications ......................................................................................................................................................................... 15

3.11 Pièces: propriétés .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15

3.12 Pièces: évaluation ............................................................................................................................................................................. 17

Annexe A (normative) Identification des procédés de FA basée sur des catégories

de procédé et la détermination des caractéristiques ................................................................................................18

Annexe B (informative) Principes de base .................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

Index alphabétique ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

iii
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document

a été rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2

(voir www.iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www.iso.org/iso/fr/avant-propos.html.

Le présent document a été élaboré par l’ISO/TC 261, Fabrication additive, en coopération avec le

Comité F42 de l’ASTM, Technologies de fabrication additive, dans le cadre d’un accord de partenariat

entre l’ISO et ASTM International dans le but de créer un ensemble commun de normes ISO/ASTM sur

la fabrication additive et en collaboration avec le Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN), Comité

technique CEN/TC 438, Fabrication additive, conformément à l’Accord de coopération technique entre

l’ISO et le CEN (Accord de Vienne).

Cette deuxième édition de l’ISO/ASTM 52900 remplace la première édition (l’ISO/ASTM 52900:2015),

qui a fait l'objet d'une révision technique. Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition

précédente sont les suivantes:
— termes et définitions nouveaux et modifiés;
— abréviations ajoutées pour sept catégories de procédé;

— nouvelle annexe pour la spécification des procédés FA sur la base des catégories de procédé et la

détermination des caractéristiques (Annexe A).

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www.iso.org/fr/members.html.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
Introduction

Fabrication additive (FA) est le terme général pour les technologies qui joignent successivement

du matériau pour créer des objets physiques tels que spécifiés par des données d’un modèle 3D. Ces

technologies sont actuellement utilisées dans diverses applications d’ingénierie industrielle ainsi que

dans d’autres secteurs de la société, comme la médecine, l’éducation, l’architecture, la cartographie, les

jouets et le divertissement.

Au cours du développement de la technologie de la fabrication additive, de nombreux termes et

définitions différents ont été utilisés, souvent en référence à des domaines d’application et à des

marques déposées spécifiques. Ceux-ci sont souvent ambigus et prêtent à confusion, ce qui nuit à la

communication et à une plus large diffusion de cette technologie.

Le présent document a pour objectif de fournir une compréhension basique des principes fondamentaux

des procédés de fabrication additive, et sur cette base, de donner des définitions claires aux termes et

à la nomenclature associés à la technologie de la fabrication additive. Le but de cette normalisation

de la terminologie pour la fabrication additive est de faciliter la communication entre les personnes

concernées par ce domaine technologique dans le monde entier.
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
Fabrication additive — Principes généraux —
Fondamentaux et vocabulaire
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document établit et définit les termes utilisés dans la technologie de la fabrication additive

(FA), qui applique le principe de mise en forme additive et construit ainsi des géométries physiques en

trois dimensions (3D) par ajout successif de matériau.
Les termes ont été classés par champs d’application spécifiques.
2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Termes généraux
3.1.1
imprimante 3D, nom
machine utilisée pour l’impression 3D (3.3.1)
3.1.2
fabrication additive, nom

procédé d’assemblage de matériaux pour fabriquer des pièces (3.9.1) à partir de données de modèle 3D,

en général couche (3.3.7) après couche, à l’inverse des méthodologies de fabrication soustractive et de

fabrication mise en forme

Note 1 à l'article: Les termes historiques comprennent: fabrication additive, procédés additifs, techniques

additives, fabrication par couches additives, fabrication en couches, fabrication solide en forme libre et fabrication

en forme libre.

Note 2 à l'article: La signification des méthodologies de fabrication «additive», «soustractive» et «mise en forme»

est discutée plus en détail à l’Annexe B.
3.1.3
système additif, nom
système de fabrication additive
équipement de fabrication additive
machine et équipements auxiliaires utilisés pour la fabrication additive (3.1.2)
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
3.1.4
machine de FA, nom

section du système de fabrication additive (3.1.3) comprenant le matériel, le logiciel de commande de la

machine, le logiciel d’installation requis et les accessoires périphériques nécessaires à l’exécution d'un

cycle de fabrication (3.3.8) pour produire des pièces (3.9.1)
3.1.5
utilisateur de machine de FA, nom
opérateur ou entité utilisant une machine de FA (3.1.4)
3.1.6
utilisateur de système FA, nom
utilisateur de système additif

opérateur ou entité utilisant un système de fabrication additive (3.1.3) complet ou tout composant d’un

système additif (3.1.3)
3.1.7
avant, nom

côté de la machine

auquel l’opérateur fait face pour accéder à l’interface utilisateur ou à la fenêtre de visualisation

principale, ou aux deux
3.1.8
fournisseur du matériau, nom

pourvoyeur du matériau/de la matière première (3.6.6) à traiter dans un système de fabrication additive

(3.1.3)
3.1.9
procédé multi-étapes, nom

type de procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel les pièces (3.9.1) sont fabriquées en deux

opérations ou plus, où la première produit généralement la forme géométrique de base et les suivantes

consolident la pièce pour les propriétés fondamentales du matériau prévu

Note 1 à l'article: Les propriétés fondamentales du matériau du produit prévu sont généralement les propriétés

métalliques pour les produits métalliques prévus, les propriétés céramiques pour les produits céramiques

prévus, les propriétés polymères pour les produits polymères (plastiques) prévus et les propriétés du matériau

composite pour les produits destinés à être constitués d'un matériau composite.

Note 2 à l'article: Le retrait de la structure de support et le nettoyage peuvent être nécessaires à plusieurs

reprises; cependant, dans ce contexte, cette opération n’est considérée comme une étape séparée du procédé.

Note 3 à l'article: Le principe des procédés à étape unique (3.1.10) et multi-étapes est discuté plus en détail à

l’Annexe B.
3.1.10
procédé à étape unique, nom

type de procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel les pièces (3.9.1) sont fabriquées en une seule

opération, où la forme géométrique de base et les propriétés de base du matériau du produit prévus

sont obtenues simultanément

Note 1 à l'article: Le retrait de la structure de support et le nettoyage peuvent être nécessaires à plusieurs

reprises; cependant, dans ce contexte, cette opération n’est considérée comme une étape séparée du procédé.

Note 2 à l'article: Le principe des procédés à étape unique et multi-étapes (3.1.9) est discuté plus en détail à

l’Annexe B.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
3.2 Catégories de procédé
3.2.1
projection de liant, nom
BJT (binder jetting)

procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel un agent de liaison liquide est déposé de manière

sélective pour assembler des matériaux poudreux

Note 1 à l'article: L'identification des différents procédés de projection de liant doit être cohérente avec la

méthode décrite à l'Annexe A.
3.2.2
dépôt de matière sous énergie concentrée, nom
DED (directed energy deposition)

procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel l’énergie thermique focalisée est utilisée pour

fusionner des matériaux en les fondant pendant leur dépôt

Note 1 à l'article: «Energie thermique focalisée» signifie qu’une source d’énergie (par exemple, laser, faisceau

d’électrons, ou arc plasma) est focalisée pour faire fondre les matériaux pendant leur dépôt.

Note 2 à l'article: L'identification des différents procédés de dépôt de matière sous énergie concentrée doit être

cohérente avec la méthode décrite à l'Annexe A.
3.2.3
extrusion de matériau, nom
MEX (material extrusion)

procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel le matériau est distribué de manière sélective par

une buse ou à travers un orifice

Note 1 à l'article: L'identification des différents procédés d’extrusion de matériau doit être cohérente avec la

méthode décrite à l'Annexe A.
3.2.4
projection de matériau, nom
MJT (material jetting)

procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel des gouttelettes de matière première sont déposées

de manière sélective

Note 1 à l'article: Un exemple de matière première pour la projection de matériau comprend la résine

photopolymère et la cire.

Note 2 à l'article: L'identification des différents procédés de projection de matériau doit être cohérente avec la

méthode décrite à l'Annexe A.
3.2.5
fusion sur lit de poudre, nom
PBF (powder bed fusion)

procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel l’énergie thermique fusionne de manière sélective

certaines zones d’un lit de poudre (3.8.5)

Note 1 à l'article: L'identification des différents procédés de fusion sur lit de poudre doit être cohérente avec la

méthode décrite à l'Annexe A.
3.2.6
stratification de couches, nom
SHL (sheet lamination)

procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel des couches de matériau sont liées pour former une

pièce (3.9.1)

Note 1 à l'article: L'identification des différents procédés de stratification de couches doit être cohérente avec la

méthode décrite à l'Annexe A.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
3.2.7
photopolymérisation en cuve, nom
VPP (vat photopolymerization)

procédé de fabrication additive (3.1.2) dans lequel un photopolymère liquide dans une cuve est durci de

manière sélective par polymérisation activée par la lumière

Note 1 à l'article: L'identification des différents procédés de photopolymérisation en cuve doit être cohérente

avec la méthode décrite à l'Annexe A.
3.3 Traitement: généralités
3.3.1
impression 3D, nom

fabrication d’objets par dépôt d’un matériau au moyen d’une tête d’impression, d’une buse ou d’une

autre technologie d’impression

Note 1 à l'article: Ce terme est souvent utilisé dans un contexte non technique comme synonyme de fabrication

additive (3.1.2) et, dans ces cas, généralement associé à des machines utilisées à des fins non industrielles, y

compris à usage personnel.
3.3.2
chambre de fabrication, nom

emplacement fermé à l’intérieur du système de fabrication additive (3.1.3) où les pièces (3.9.1) sont

fabriquées
3.3.3
espace de fabrication, nom

emplacement où les pièces (3.9.1) peuvent être fabriquées, généralement à l’intérieur de la chambre de

fabrication (3.3.2) ou sur une plateforme de fabrication (3.3.5)
3.3.4
volume de fabrication, nom
volume total utilisable dans la machine pour fabriquer des pièces (3.9.1)
3.3.5
plateforme de fabrication, nom

base qui offre une surface sur laquelle la fabrication des pièces (3.9.1) est lancée et

supportée tout au long du procédé de fabrication

Note 1 à l'article: Dans certains systèmes, les pièces (3.9.1) sont fabriquées en étant fixées à la plateforme de

fabrication, soit directement, soit par le biais d’une structure de support (3.3.9). Dans d’autres systèmes, tels que

certains types de systèmes à lit de poudre (3.8.5), une fixation mécanique directe entre la pièce et la plateforme

de fabrication n’est pas nécessairement requise.
3.3.6
surface de fabrication, nom

zone où le matériau est ajouté, normalement sur la dernière couche (3.3.7) déposée, qui devient la

fondation sur laquelle la couche suivante est formée

Note 1 à l'article: Pour la première couche, la surface de fabrication est souvent la plateforme de fabrication (3.3.5).

Note 2 à l'article: Dans le cas des procédés de dépôt de matière sous énergie concentrée (3.2.2), la surface de

fabrication peut être une pièce existante sur laquelle le matériau est ajouté.

Note 3 à l'article: Si l’orientation du dépôt de matériau ou les moyens de consolidation (ou des deux) est (sont)

variable(s), cela peut être défini par rapport à la surface de fabrication.
3.3.7
couche, nom
matériau déposé, ou étalé, pour créer une surface
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
3.3.8
cycle de fabrication, nom

cycle de procédé unique dans lequel un ou plusieurs composants sont fabriqués par assemblage

successif de matériau dans l’espace de fabrication (3.3.3) du système de fabrication additive (3.1.3)

3.3.9
support, nom

structure séparée de la géométrie de la pièce (3.9.1) qui est créée pour fournir une base et un point

d’ancrage pour la pièce pendant le procédé de fabrication

Note 1 à l'article: Les supports sont généralement retirés de la pièce avant utilisation.

Note 2 à l'article: Pour certains procédés tels que l’extrusion de matériau (3.2.3) et la projection de matériau

(3.2.4), le matériau de support peut être différent du matériau de la pièce et déposé à partir d’une buse ou d’une

tête d’impression séparée.

Note 3 à l'article: Pour certains procédés tels que les procédés de fusion sur lit de poudre (3.2.5) métallique, des

supports auxiliaires peuvent être ajoutés pour servir de radiateur supplémentaire pour la pièce pendant le

procédé de fabrication.
3.3.10
paramètres du procédé, nom

paramètres de fonctionnement et réglages du système utilisés pendant un cycle de fabrication (3.3.8)

3.3.11
réglage du système, nom

configuration du système de fabrication additive (3.1.3) pour un cycle de fabrication

3.3.12
lot de fabrication, nom

ensemble de pièces (3.9.1) fabriquées présentant des points communs en termes de matière première

(3.6.6), de cycle de production (3.3.14), de système de fabrication additive (3.1.3) et d’étapes de post-

traitement (3.6.10) (si exigées) enregistrés sur une seule commande de fabrication

Note 1 à l'article: Le système de fabrication additive peut comprendre une ou plusieurs machines de FA (3.1.4) et/

ou des machines de post-traitement selon l’accord entre le fournisseur de FA (3.1.2) et le client.

3.3.13
gamme de fabrication, nom

document définissant les pratiques de fabrication, les ressources techniques ainsi que les séquences

d’activités spécifiques pertinentes pour la production d’un produit particulier y compris les critères

spécifiés d’acceptation à chaque étape

Note 1 à l'article: Pour la fabrication additive (3.1.2), la gamme de fabrication comprend généralement, mais sans

s’y limiter, les paramètres du procédé (3.3.10), les opérations de préparation et de post-traitement (3.6.10) ainsi

que les méthodes de vérification pertinentes.

Note 2 à l'article: Les plans de fabrication sont généralement requis dans le cadre d’un système de gestion de la

qualité tel que l’ISO 9001 et l’ASQ C1.
3.3.14
cycle de production, nom

ensemble de toutes les pièces (3.9.1) produites en un seul cycle de fabrication (3.3.8) ou en une série

séquentielle de cycles de fabrication en utilisant le même lot de matière première (3.6.6) et les mêmes

conditions de procédé
3.3.15
chaîne de procédé, nom

séquence des opérations nécessaires pour obtenir la fonctionnalité et les propriétés souhaitées de la

pièce (3.9.1)
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
3.4 Traitement: données
3.4.1
format Additive Manufacturing File, nom
AMF

format de fichier destiné à communiquer des données de modèle de fabrication additive (3.1.2)

comprenant une description de la géométrie de surface en 3D avec un support natif pour la couleur, les

matériaux, les treillis, les textures, les constellations et les métadonnées

Note 1 à l'article: Le format Additive Manufacturing File (AMF) peut représenter l’un de nombreux objets

agencés en une constellation. De même que dans le format STL (3.4.6), la géométrie de surface est représentée

par un maillage triangulaire, mais dans l’AMF les triangles peuvent également être courbes. L’AMF peut

également spécifier le matériau et la couleur de chaque volume et la couleur de chaque triangle dans le maillage.

[7]
L’ISO/ASTM 52915 donne les spécifications normalisées pour l’AMF.
3.4.2
consommateur d’AMF, nom

logiciel qui lit (analyse) le fichier AMF (3.4.1) pour la fabrication, la visualisation et l’analyse

Note 1 à l'article: Les fichiers AMF sont généralement importés par l’équipement de fabrication additive (3.1.3),

ainsi que le logiciel de visualisation, d’analyse et de vérification.
3.4.3
éditeur d’AMF, nom
logiciel qui lit et réécrit le fichier AMF (3.4.1) pour la conversion

Note 1 à l'article: Les applications de l’éditeur d’AMF sont utilisées pour convertir un AMF d’une forme en une

autre, par exemple, pour convertir tous les triangles courbes en triangles plats ou convertir une spécification

relative à un matériau poreux en une surface de maillage explicite.
3.4.4
producteur d’AMF, nom

logiciel qui écrit (génère) le fichier AMF (3.4.1) à partir des données géométriques d’origine

Note 1 à l'article: Les fichiers AMF sont généralement exportés par un logiciel de CAO, un logiciel de balayage ou

directement à partir des algorithmes de la géométrie computationnelle.
3.4.5
STEP, nom
norme d’échange de données de modèles de produit

Note 1 à l'article: C’est une Norme internationale qui fournit une représentation des informations de produit, ainsi

[4]

que les mécanismes et définitions nécessaires pour permettre l’échange des données de produit. L’ISO 10303

s’applique à la représentation des informations de produit, y compris les composants et les assemblages, l’échange

des données du produit y compris le stockage, le transfert, l'accès et l'archivage.

Note 2 à l'article: L'ISO 10303-238, communément appelée STEP-NC, spécifie l'opération de couches et d'autres

commandes mécaniques dans le procédé de FA.
3.4.6
STL, nom

format de fichier pour données de modèle décrivant la géométrie de surface d’un objet comme un

pavage de triangles, utilisé pour communiquer des géométries 3D aux machines afin de fabriquer des

pièces (3.9.1) physiques

Note 1 à l'article: Le format de fichier STL a été développé à l'origine comme une partie d'un ensemble CAO pour

les débuts de l'appareil de STéréoLithographie, se référant donc à ce procédé. Il est parfois également décrit

comme «Standard Triangulation Language» ou «Standard Tessellation Language», si bien qu'il n'a jamais été

reconnu comme norme officielle par aucun organisme d’élaboration de normes.
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ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(F)
3.4.7
PDES, nom
Product Data Exchange Specification
spécification d'échange de données utilisant STEP (3.4.5)

Note 1 à l'article: À l’origine une spécification d’échange de données de produit développée dans les années 1980

par l’Organisation IGES/PDES, programme de l’association américaine de données de produit (US Product Data

[4]

Association, USPRO). Elle a été adoptée comme base puis remplacée par STEP de l’ISO 10303 .

3.4.8
attribut, nom

caractéristique représentant un ou plusieurs aspects, descripteurs ou éléments des données

Note 1 à l'article: Dans les systèmes orientés objet, les attributs sont les caractéristiques des objets. Dans le

[10]

langage de balisage extensible (Extensible Markup Language, XML) , les attributs sont des caractéristiques des

éléments (3.3.10).

Note 2 à l'article: Dans le fichier AMF (3.4.1), les attributs peuvent, par exemple, être utilisés pour porter des

notices permettant une traçabilité en amont jusqu'aux composants CAO, ou des marqueurs qui permettent des

mécanismes de suivi et de traçabilité du fichier.
3.4.9
commentaire, nom
remarque en code source qui n'affecte pas le comportement du programme

Note 1 à l'article: Les commentaires sont utilisés pour améliorer la lisibilité humaine du fichier et à des fins de

débogage.

Note 2 à l'article: Dans le fichier AMF (3.4.1), les commentaires peuvent, par exemple, être utilisés pour porter des

spécifications de matériau ou des notices permettant une traçabilité en amont jusqu'aux composants CAO.

3.4.10
élément, nom
[10]

unité d’information dans un document XML composée d’une balise de début, d'une balise de fin, d’un

contenu entre les balises, et d’attributs (3.4.8)

Note 1 à l'article: Dans le cadre XML de l'AMF (3.4.1), un élément peut contenir des données, des structures

d'attributs telles que des constellations, aussi bien que comprendre d'autres éléments.

3.4.11
facette, nom

polygone à trois ou quatre côtés qui représente un élément d’une surface ou d’un modèle de maillage

polygonal en 3D

Note 1 à l'article: Des facettes triangulaires sont utilisées dans les formats de fichier les plus importants de la FA

(3.1.2): AMF (3.4.1) et STL (3.4.6); cependant les fichiers AMF permettent à une facette triangulaire d’être courbe.

3.4.12
modèle de surface, nom

représentation mathématique ou numérique d’un objet sous forme d’ensembles de surfaces planes ou

courbes ou les deux, pouvant, mais non nécessairement, représenter un volume fermé

3.4.13
balayage 3D, nom
numérisation 3D
méthode d’acquisition
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
52900
ISO/TC 261
Additive manufacturing — General
Secretariat: DIN
principles — Fundamentals and
Voting begins on:
2021­08­19 vocabulary
Voting terminates on:
Fabrication additive — Principes généraux — Fondamentaux et
2021­10­14
vocabulaire
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/ASTM 2021
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Process categories ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.3 Processing: general ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

3.4 Processing: data ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.5 Processing: positioning, coordinates and orientation .......................................................................................... 7

3.6 Processing: material ........................................................................................................................................................................10

3.7 Processing: material extrusion ..............................................................................................................................................11

3.8 Processing: powder bed fusion ..............................................................................................................................................12

3.9 Parts: general .........................................................................................................................................................................................14

3.10 Parts: applications.............................................................................................................................................................................14

3.11 Parts: properties .................................................................................................................................................................................14

3.12 Parts: evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (normative) Identification of AM processes based on process categories and

determining characteristics ..................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Basic principles ..........................................................................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation with ASTM

Committee F42, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership agreement between

ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on additive

manufacturing.

This second edition of ISO/ASTM 52900 replaces the first edition (ISO/ASTM 52900:2015), which has

been technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— new and modified terms and definitions;
— abbreviations added for seven process categories;

— new annex for the specification of AM processes based on process categories and determining

characteristics (Annex A).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
Introduction

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the general term for those technologies that successively join material

to create physical objects as specified by 3D model data. These technologies are presently used for

various applications in engineering industry as well as other areas of society, such as medicine,

education, architecture, cartography, toys and entertainment.

During the development of additive manufacturing technology, there have been numerous different

terms and definitions in use, often with reference to specific application areas and trademarks. This

is often ambiguous and confusing, which hampers communication and wider application of this

technology.

It is the intention of this document to provide a basic understanding of the fundamental principles

for additive manufacturing processes, and based on this, to give clear definitions for terms and

nomenclature associated with additive manufacturing technology. The objective of this standardization

of terminology for additive manufacturing is to facilitate communication between people involved in

this field of technology on a worldwide basis.
© ISO/ASTM International 2021 – All rights reserved v
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
Additive manufacturing — General principles —
Fundamentals and vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes and defines terms used in additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which

applies the additive shaping principle and thereby builds physical three-dimensional (3D) geometries

by successive addition of material.
The terms have been classified into specific fields of application.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
3D printer, noun
machine used for 3D printing (3.3.1)
3.1.2
additive manufacturing, noun

process of joining materials to make parts (3.9.1) from 3D model data, usually layer (3.3.7) upon layer,

as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies

Note 1 to entry: Historical terms include: additive fabrication, additive processes, additive techniques, additive

layer manufacturing, layer manufacturing, solid freeform fabrication and freeform fabrication.

Note 2 to entry: The meaning of “additive-”, “subtractive-” and “formative-” manufacturing methodologies is

further discussed in Annex B.
3.1.3
additive system, noun
additive manufacturing system
additive manufacturing equipment
machine and auxiliary equipment used for additive manufacturing (3.1.2)
3.1.4
AM machine, noun

section of the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) including hardware, machine control software,

required set-up software and peripheral accessories necessary to complete a build cycle (3.3.8) for

producing parts (3.9.1)
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
3.1.5
AM machine user, noun
operator of or entity using an AM machine (3.1.4)
3.1.6
AM system user, noun
additive system user

operator of or entity using an entire additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) or any component of an

additive system (3.1.3)
3.1.7
front, noun

side of the machine that the

operator faces to access the user interface, or primary viewing window, or both
3.1.8
material supplier, noun

provider of material/feedstock (3.6.6) to be processed in an additive manufacturing system (3.1.3)

3.1.9
multi-step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which parts (3.9.1) are fabricated in two or more

operations where the first typically provides the basic geometric shape and the following consolidates

the part to the fundamental properties of the intended material

Note 1 to entry: Fundamental properties of the intended product material are typically metallic properties for

intended metallic products, ceramic properties for intended ceramic products, polymer properties for intended

polymer (plastic) products and composite material properties for products intended to be made of a composite

material.

Note 2 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning can many times be necessary; however, in this

context, this operation is not considered as a separate process step.

Note 3 to entry: The principle of single-step (3.1.10) and multi­step processes is further discussed in Annex B.

3.1.10
single-step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which parts (3.9.1) are fabricated in a single operation

where the basic geometric shape and basic material properties of the intended product are achieved

simultaneously

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning can many times be necessary; however, in this

context, this operation is not considered as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single-step and multi-step processes (3.1.9) is further discussed in Annex B.

3.2 Process categories
3.2.1
binder jetting, noun
BJT

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join

powder materials

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different binder jetting processes shall be consistent with the method described

in Annex A.
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
3.2.2
directed energy deposition, noun
DED

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by

melting as they are being deposited

Note 1 to entry: “Focused thermal energy” means that an energy source (for example laser, electron beam or

plasma arc) is focused to melt the materials being deposited.

Note 2 to entry: Identification of different directed energy deposition processes shall be consistent with the

method described in Annex A.
3.2.3
material extrusion, noun
MEX

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or

orifice

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different material extrusion processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.4
material jetting, noun
MJT

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which droplets of feedstock material are selectively deposited

Note 1 to entry: Example feedstock materials for material jetting include photopolymer resin and wax.

Note 2 to entry: Identification of different material jetting processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.5
powder bed fusion, noun
PBF

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder

bed (3.8.5)

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different powder bed fusion processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.6
sheet lamination, noun
SHL

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which sheets of material are bonded to form a part (3.9.1)

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different sheet lamination processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
3.2.7
vat photopolymerization, noun
VPP

additive manufacturing (3.1.2) process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by

light-activated polymerization

Note 1 to entry: Identification of different vat photopolymerization processes shall be consistent with the method

described in Annex A.
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
3.3 Processing: general
3.3.1
3D printing, noun

fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle or another printer

technology

Note 1 to entry: This term is often used in a non-technical context synonymously with additive manufacturing

(3.1.2) and, in these cases, typically associated with machines used for non-industrial purposes including

personal use.
3.3.2
build chamber, noun

enclosed location within the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) where the parts (3.9.1) are fabricated

3.3.3
build space, noun

location where it is possible for parts (3.9.1) to be fabricated, typically within the build chamber (3.3.2)

or on a build platform (3.3.5)
3.3.4
build volume, noun
total usable volume available in the machine for building parts (3.9.1)
3.3.5
build platform, noun

base which provides a surface upon which the building of the parts (3.9.1) is started and

supported throughout the build process

Note 1 to entry: In some systems, the parts (3.9.1) are built attached to the build platform, either directly or

through a support (3.3.9) structure. In other systems, such as certain types of powder bed (3.8.5) systems, a

direct mechanical fixture between the part and the build platform is not necessarily required.

3.3.6
build surface, noun

area where material is added, normally on the last deposited layer (3.3.7), which becomes the foundation

upon which the next layer is formed

Note 1 to entry: For the first layer, the build surface is often the build platform (3.3.5).

Note 2 to entry: In the case of directed energy deposition (3.2.2) processes, the build surface can be an existing

part onto which material is added.

Note 3 to entry: If the orientation of the material deposition or consolidation means (or both) is (are) variable, it

may be defined relative to the build surface.
3.3.7
layer, noun
material laid out, or spread, to create a surface
3.3.8
build cycle, noun

single process cycle in which one or more components are built by successive joining of material within

the build space (3.3.3) of the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3)
3.3.9
support, noun

structure separate from the part (3.9.1) geometry that is created to provide a base and anchor for the

part during the building process
Note 1 to entry: Supports are typically removed from the part prior to use.
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: For certain processes such as material extrusion (3.2.3) and material jetting (3.2.4), the support

material can be different from the part material and deposited from a separate nozzle or print head.

Note 3 to entry: For certain processes such as metal powder bed fusion (3.2.5) processes, auxiliary supports can

be added to serve as an additional heat sink for the part during the building process.

3.3.10
process parameters, noun
operating parameters and system settings used during a build cycle (3.3.8)
3.3.11
system set-up, noun
configuration of the additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) for a build cycle
3.3.12
manufacturing lot, noun

set of manufactured parts (3.9.1) having commonality between feedstock (3.6.6), production run (3.3.14),

additive manufacturing system (3.1.3) and post-processing (3.6.10) steps (if required) as recorded on a

single manufacturing work order

Note 1 to entry: The additive manufacturing system can include one or several AM machines (3.1.4) and/or post­

processing machine units as agreed by AM (3.1.2) provider and customer.
3.3.13
manufacturing plan, noun

document setting out the specific manufacturing practices, technical resources and sequences of

activities relevant to the production of a particular product including any specified acceptance criteria

at each stage

Note 1 to entry: For additive manufacturing (3.1.2), the manufacturing plan typically includes, but is not limited to,

process parameters (3.3.10), preparation and post processing (3.6.10) operations as well as relevant verification

methods.

Note 2 to entry: Manufacturing plans are typically required under a quality management system such as ISO 9001

and ASQ C1.
3.3.14
production run, noun

set of all parts (3.9.1) produced in one build cycle (3.3.8) or sequential series of build cycles using the

same feedstock (3.6.6) batch and process conditions
3.3.15
process chain, noun

sequence of operations necessary for the part (3.9.1) to achieve desired functionality and properties

3.4 Processing: data
3.4.1
Additive Manufacturing File Format, noun
AMF

file format for communicating additive manufacturing (3.1.2) model data including a description of the

3D surface geometry with native support for colour, materials, lattices, textures, constellations and

metadata

Note 1 to entry: Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) can represent one of multiple objects arranged in a

constellation. Similar to STL (3.4.6), the surface geometry is represented by a triangular mesh, but in AMF the

triangles can also be curved. AMF can also specify the material and colour of each volume and the colour of each

[7]
triangle in the mesh. ISO/ASTM 52915 gives the standard specification of AMF.
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
3.4.2
AMF consumer, noun

software reading (parsing) the AMF (3.4.1) file for fabrication, visualization or analysis

Note 1 to entry: AMF files are typically imported by additive manufacturing equipment (3.1.3), as well as viewing,

analysis and verification software.
3.4.3
AMF editor, noun
software reading and rewriting the AMF (3.4.1) file for conversion

Note 1 to entry: AMF editor applications are used to convert an AMF from one form to another, for example

to convert all curved triangles to flat triangles or convert porous material specification into an explicit mesh

surface.
3.4.4
AMF producer, noun
software writing (generating) the AMF (3.4.1) file from original geometric data

Note 1 to entry: AMF files are typically exported by CAD software, scanning software or directly from

computational geometry algorithms.
3.4.5
STEP, noun
standard for the exchange of product model data

Note 1 to entry: This is an International Standard that provides a representation of product information along

[4]

with the necessary mechanisms and definitions to enable product data to be exchanged. ISO 10303 applies to

the representation of product information, including components and assemblies, the exchange of product data,

including storing, transferring, accessing and archiving.

Note 2 to entry: ISO 10303-238, commonly referred to as STEP-NC, specifies the slicing operation and other

mechanical commands in the AM process.
3.4.6
STL, noun

file format for model data describing the surface geometry of an object as a tessellation of triangles

used to communicate 3D geometries to machines in order to build physical parts (3.9.1)

Note 1 to entry: The STL file format was originally developed as part of the CAD package for the early

STereoLithography Apparatus, thus referring to that process. It is sometimes also described as “Standard

Triangulation Language” or “Standard Tessellation Language”, though it has never been recognized as an official

standard by any standards developing organization.
3.4.7
PDES, noun
Product Data Exchange Specification
data exchange specification using STEP (3.4.5)

Note 1 to entry: Originally, a product data exchange specification developed in the 1980s by the IGES/PDES

Organization, a program of US Product Data Association (USPRO). It was adopted as the basis for and subsequently

[4]
superseded by ISO 10303 STEP.
3.4.8
attribute, noun

characteristic representing one or more aspects, descriptors or elements of the data

Note 1 to entry: In object-oriented systems, attributes are characteristics of objects. In Extensible Markup

[10]
Language (XML), attributes are characteristics of elements (3.3.10).

Note 2 to entry: In the AMF (3.4.1)-file, attributes can, for example, be used to carry notices enabling backwards

traceability to CAD components, or markers that allow track and trace mechanisms for the file.

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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
3.4.9
comment, noun
remark in source code which does not affect the behaviour of the program

Note 1 to entry: Comments are used for enhancing human readability of the file and for debugging purposes.

Note 2 to entry: In the AMF (3.4.1)-file, comments can, for example, be used to carry material specification or

notices enabling backwards traceability to CAD components.
3.4.10
element, noun
[10]

information unit within an XML document consisting of a start tag, an end tag, the content between

the tags and any attributes (3.4.8).

Note 1 to entry: In the XML framework of AMF (3.4.1), an element can contain data, attributes structures such as

constellations, as well as including other elements.
3.4.11
facet, noun

three- or four-sided polygon that represents an element of a 3D polygonal mesh surface or model

Note 1 to entry: Triangular facets are used in the file formats most significant to AM (3.1.2): AMF (3.4.1) and STL

(3.4.6); however, AMF files permit a triangular facet to be curved.
3.4.12
surface model, noun

mathematical or digital representation of an object as a set of planar or curved surfaces, or both, that

can, but does not necessarily have to represent a closed volume
3.4.13
3D scanning, noun
3D digitizing

method of acquiring the shape and size of an object as a 3-dimensional representation by recording x,

y, z coordinates on the object’s surface and through software converting the collection of points into

digital data

Note 1 to entry: Typical methods use some amount of automation, coupled with a touch probe, optical sensor or

other device.

Note 2 to entry: In additive manufacturing process chains, 3D scanning can typically be used for generation of

surface models, in situ monitoring, non-destructive testing, as well as verification of the part geometry.

3.5 Processing: positioning, coordinates and orientation
3.5.1
bounding box, noun

orthogonally oriented minimum perimeter cuboid that can span the maximum extents of

the points on the surface of a 3D part (3.9.1)

Note 1 to entry: Where the manufactured part includes the test geometry plus additional external features (for

example labels, tabs or raised lettering), the bounding box may be specified according to the test part geometry

excluding the additional external features if noted. Different varieties of bounding boxes are illustrated in

[8]
ISO/ASTM 52921 .
3.5.2
arbitrarily oriented bounding box, noun

bounding box (3.5.1) calculated without any constraints on the resulting orientation of the

box
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ISO/ASTM FDIS 52900:2021(E)
3.5.3
machine bounding box, noun

bounding box (3.5.1) for which the surfaces are parallel to the machine coordinate system

(3.5.11)
3.5.4
master bounding box, noun
bounding box (3.5.1) which encloses all of the parts (3.9.1) in a single build
3.5.5
geometric centre, noun
centroid

location at the arithmetic middle of the bounding box (3.5.1)

Note 1 to entry: The geometric centre of the bounding box can lie outside the part (3.9.1) that is enclosed by the

bounding box.
3.5.6
orthogonal orientation notation, noun

description of the orientation of the bounding box (3.5.1) according to overall length in decreasing

magnitude, parallel to the axes of the machine coordinate system (3.5.11)

Note 1 to entry: Notation typically consists of a combination of X, Y and Z, each referring to the corresponding

axis as defined by the machine coordinate system.

Note 2 to entry: Orthogonal orientation notation requires that the bounding box be aligned with the machine

coordinate system. Machine coordinate system and different bounding boxes, including examples of orthogonal

[8]
orientation notation, are illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 .
3.5.7
initial build orientation, noun

orientation of the part as it is first placed in the build volume (3.3.4)

[8]
Note 1 to entry: Initial build orientation is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 .
3.5.8
part reorientation, noun

rotation around the geometric centre (3.5.5) of the part’s bounding box (3.5.1) from the

...

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