Information and documentation — Research activity identifier (RAiD)

This document defines the use and structure of the Research Activity Identifier (RAiD) system. The RAiD system includes a registry which supports the identification of research projects, i.e. projects managed in a scholarly or industrial environment which are expected to lead to specified outputs. It also specifies the RAiD metadata record which holds key metadata relating to the identified project and indicates relationships to other entities and their persistent identifiers and metadata. RAiD is an identifier for research projects and sub projects or tasks within such projects. It is not itself an identifier for any individual, group or institution, it is not a repository for project documentation or deliverables, nor is it a repository, platform or storage method. It does not apply to research outputs.

Information et documentation — Identificateur d'activité de recherche (RAiD)

Informatika in dokumentacija - Informacijska tehnologija identifikatorja raziskovalne dejavnosti - Učenje, izobraževanje, usposabljanje in raziskovanje (RAiD)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Dec-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
21-Aug-2022
Completion Date
21-Dec-2022

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23527
First edition
2022-12
Information and documentation —
Research activity identifier (RAiD)
Information et documentation — Identificateur d'activité de
recherche (RAiD)
Reference number
ISO 23527:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23527:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23527:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 RAiD components ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Assignment of a RAiD ........................................................................................................................................... ...........................................4

6 RAiD register ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Presentation of RAiD names ...................................................................................................................................................................5

8 Administration of the RAiD system .................................................................................................................................................5

Annex A (normative) General principles for the assignment and use of RAiD .......................................................6

Annex B (normative) Administration of the RAiD system ........................................................................................................... 7

Annex C (informative) Implementing the RAiD system .................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23527:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 9, Identification and description.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23527:2022(E)
Introduction

The research activity identifier (RAiD) is a persistent identifier for research projects and supports data

management across all phases of research by placing the research activity (or project) at the centre of

research workflows, creating a chain of provenance, improving discovery and access, and ensuring that

output is attributable and reportable.
[8]

It also supports the F.A.I.R Principles of making research data findable, accessible, interoperable, and

re-usable.
A RAiD name is associated with a RAiD metadata record.

The RAiD metadata record holds metadata including standard identifiers that relate to research entities

or objects encountered by or related to the activity. This includes participant institutions (by use of

ISNI, GRID or ROR) and researchers (ORCID ID, ISNI or other identifier).
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23527:2022(E)
Information and documentation — Research activity
identifier (RAiD)
1 Scope

This document defines the use and structure of the Research Activity Identifier (RAiD) system. The

RAiD system includes a registry which supports the identification of research projects, i.e. projects

managed in a scholarly or industrial environment which are expected to lead to specified outputs.

It also specifies the RAiD metadata record which holds key metadata relating to the identified project

and indicates relationships to other entities and their persistent identifiers and metadata.

RAiD is an identifier for research projects and sub projects or tasks within such projects. It is not itself

an identifier for any individual, group or institution, it is not a repository for project documentation or

deliverables, nor is it a repository, platform or storage method. It does not apply to research outputs.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
Open Research and Contributor Identifier
ORCID

non-proprietary alphanumeric numbering system designed not to collide with the ISNI (3.2) number

system and hosted by the ORCID organization, aiming to provide a unique number to scientific and

other academic authors so as to uniquely identify such authors' contributions to research

Note 1 to entry: ORCID is managed by ORCID, INC which maintains a webpage at https:// orcid .org/ .

3.2
ISNI

international standard code data identifying the public identity of parties (a person or an organization)

across multiple fields of creative activity
Note 1 to entry: ISNI is specified in ISO 27729.

Note 2 to entry: The name and contact information of the ISO 27729 Registration Authority can be found at

https:// www .iso .org/ mara.

[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, modified – Note 2 to entry has been added and emphasis and terminology

cross references were removed.]
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 23527:2022(E)
3.3
grant

money or in kind assistance provided by a research funding organization (3.13) to allow research (3.10)

to take place
3.4
Global Research Identifier Database
GRID
open, persistent identifier (3.15) for research organizations

Note 1 to entry: GRID was managed by Digital Science and Research Solutions Ltd which maintains a webpage at

https:// www .grid .ac/ .

Note 2 to entry: GRID has been absorbed into ROR. Identifiers are included in the ROR system even if GRID is

deprecated.
3.5
DOI name
string that specifies a unique object within the DOI system (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Names consist of characters in a sequence specified by the DOI syntax (3.6).

Note 2 to entry: The terms “identifier” and “number” are sometimes but not always used in the same sense and

are to be avoided where ambiguity can arise. The unqualified use of “DOI” alone can also be ambiguous. Therefore

“DOI” is always used in conjunction with a specified noun [e.g. DOI name, DOI System] unless the meaning is

sufficiently clear from an earlier mention or the specific context.

Note 3 to entry: A DOI name is specified in ISO 26324. The name and contact information of the ISO 26324

Registration Authority can be found at https:// www .iso .org/ mara.
[SOURCE: ISO 26324:2012, 3.4, modified — Note 3 to entry has been added.]
3.6
DOI syntax

rules for the form and sequence of characters comprising any DOI name (3.5) specifically the form and

character of a prefix element, separator or suffix element
[SOURCE: ISO 26324:2012, 3.5]
3.7
DOI system

social and technical infrastructure for the assignment and administration of DOI names (3.5) as

identifiers (3.15) in computer-readable form through assignment, resolution, referent description,

administration, etc.
[SOURCE: ISO 26324:2012, 3.6]
3.8
Research Organization Registry
ROR
open, persistent identifier (3.15) for research organizations (3.12)

Note 1 to entry: The Research Organization Registry is managed by a group of cooperating organisations which

maintain a webpage at https:// ror .org.
3.9
research activity
identifiable package of work involving organized, systematic investigation

Note 1 to entry: A research activity is often described as a project but may be a program of smaller, subsidiary

projects or a single task within a larger project.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 23527:2022(E)
3.10
research
organized, systematic investigation
3.11
researcher
person involved in research (3.10)
3.12
research organization
organization where research (3.10) occurs
3.13
research funding organization

body that supplied monetary or in-kind support for research activities (3.9) to occur

3.14
research output
digital, physical or performative outcomes of the research activity (3.9)

Note 1 to entry: Research output (3.14) includes publications (digital and paper), data sets, works of art and non-

traditional research outputs such as performances.
3.15
identifier

data string or pointer that establishes the identity of an item, organization or person alone or in

combination with other elements
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, modified – removed cross references.]
3.16
RAiD register
database, or similar, of the RAiD names and metadata record contents
3.17
international Geo Sample Number
IGSN
open, persistent identifier (3.15) for physical objects
Note 1 to entry: IGSN maintain a webpage at https:// www .igsn .org/ .
3.18
handle

distributed information system designed to provide an efficient, extensible, and secured global name

service for use on networks such as the Internet
[SOURCE: IETF RFC 3650]
4 RAiD components
RAiD names are case-insensitive.

A RAiD name shall be a unique string of alphanumeric characters according to a syntax specified by the

Registration Authority following the general format:
/

The prefix part is taken from a list maintained and authorized by the Registration Authority. The

combination of the prefix part and suffix part shall be managed to be unique to each identified

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
01-december-2021
Informatika in dokumentacija - Informacijska tehnologija identifikatorja
raziskovalne dejavnosti - Učenje, izobraževanje, usposabljanje in raziskovanje
(RAiD)

Information and documentation -- Research activity identifier information technology --

Learning, education, training and research (RAiD)

Information et documentation -- Identificateur d'activité de recherche Technologies de

l'information -- Apprentissage, éducation, formation et recherche (RAiD)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/DIS 23527
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 23527
ISO/TC 46/SC 9 Secretariat: ANSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2021-09-20 2021-12-13
Information and documentation — Research activity
identifier information technology — Learning, education,
training and research (RAiD)

Information et documentation — Identificateur d'activité de recherche Technologies de l'information —

Apprentissage, éducation, formation et recherche (RAiD)
ICS: 01.140.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 23527:2021(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
ISO/DIS 23527:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
ISO/DIS 23527:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions (mandatory) ................................................................................................................................................. 1

4 RAiD Components ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 RAiD number ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 RAiD data management record ................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Assignment of a RAiD ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 RAiD register ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Presentation of RAiD numbers .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Administration of the RAiD system ................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (normative) General principles for the assignment and use of RAiD .........................................................6

Annex B (normative) Administration of the RAiD system.............................................................................................................. 7

Annex C (informative) Implementing the RAiD system .................................................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
ISO/DIS 23527:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 9, Identification and description.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
ISO/DIS 23527:2021(E)
Introduction

The Research Activity iDentifier (RAiD) is a persistent identifier for research projects and supports

data management across all phases of research by placing the research activity (or project) at the centre

of research workflows, creating a chain of provenance, improving discovery and access, and ensuring

that output is attributable and reportable.

It also supports the F.A.I.R Principles [1] of making research data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable,

and Re-usable.
A RAiD number is associated with a RAiD Data Management Record (DMR).

The RAiD DMR holds metadata including persistent identifiers that relate to research entities or objects

encountered by or related to the activity. This includes participant institutions (by use of ISNI, GRID or

ROR), researchers (email or ORCID ID), instruments (DOI or other), stored data (Handle, DOI or other),

physical specimens (IGSN) and outputs (DOI or other).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 23527:2021(E)
Information and documentation — Research activity
identifier information technology — Learning, education,
training and research (RAiD)
1 Scope

This document defines the use and structure of the Research Activity Identifier (RAiD) system. The

Research Activity Identifier (RAiD) system includes a registry which supports the identification of

research projects, i.e. projects managed in a scholarly or industrial environment which are expected to

lead to specified outputs.

It also specifies the RAiD Data Management Record (RAiD DMR) which holds key metadata relating to

the identified project and indicates relationships to other entities and their persistent identifiers and

metadata.

RAiD is an identifier for an abstract research project. It is not itself an identifier for any individual, group

or institution, it is not a repository for project documentation or deliverables, nor is it a repository,

platform or storage method. It does not apply to research outputs.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

3 Terms and definitions (mandatory)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
ORCID
Open Research and Contributor Identifier

non-proprietary alphanumeric numbering system designed not to collide with the ISNI (3.3) number

system and hosted by the ORCID organization, aiming to provide a unique number to scientific and

other academic authors so as to uniquely identify such authors' contributions to research

Note 1 to entry: ORCID is managed by ORCID, INC which maintains a webpage at https:// orcid .org/ ” https:// orcid

.org/
3.2
registration
Assignment of a persistent, unique, and unambiguous identifier
3.3
ISNI
International Standard Name Identifier in accordance with ISO 27729

Note 1 to entry: The name and contact information of the ISO 27729 registration authority can be found at

https:// www .iso .org/ mara.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 23527:2021
ISO/DIS 23527:2021(E)
3.4
GRID

Global Research Identifier Database. An open, persistent identifier for research organizations.

Note 1 to entry: GRID is managed by Digital Science and Research Solutions Ltd which maintains a webpage at

https:// www .grid .ac/ ” https:// www .grid .ac/
3.5
Digital Object Identifier name
DOI
persistent identifier for unique identification of objects of any type.

Note 1 to entry: A DOI name is specified in ISO 26324 and the name and contact information of the ISO 26324

registration authority can be found at https:// www .iso .org/ mara.
3.6
Research Organization Registry
ROR
Open, persistent identifier for research organizations

Note 1 to entry: The Research Organization Registry is managed by a group of cooperating organisations which

maintain a webpage at https:// ror .org
3.7
Registration authority

Entity appointed by ISO to fulfil the registration services in a registration authority standard

3.8
research activity
Identifiable package of work involving organized, systematic investigation

Note 1 to entry: A research activity is often described as a project but may be a program of smaller, subsidiary

projects or a single task within a larger project.
3.9
research
organized, systematic investigation
3.10
researcher
person involved in research (3.9).
3.11
research organization
organization where research (3.9) occurs
3.12
research funding organization

body that supplied monetary or in-kind support for research activities (3.8) to occur.

3.13
grant

Money or in kind assistance provided by a research funding organization (3.12) to allow research (3.9) to

take place
3.14
research data set
specific collection of data produced in the course of resear
...

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