Soil quality -- Guidance on the establishment and maintenance of monitoring programmes

ISO 16133:2004 gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of objectives for soil-monitoring programmes. ISO 16133:2004 is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be involved in a monitoring scheme. Examples of soil-monitoring programmes from several countries are provided in Annex A.

Qualité du sol -- Lignes directrices pour l'établissement et l'entretien de programmes de surveillance

L'ISO 16133:2004 donne des lignes directrices générales pour la sélection de procédures visant à établir et entretenir des systèmes de surveillance à long terme de la qualité du sol. Elle tient compte du grand nombre d'objectifs visés par les programmes de surveillance du sol. L'ISO 16133:2004 vise à fournir une aide à l'instauration d'une base de dialogue entre les parties susceptibles d'être impliquées dans un système de surveillance. Des exemples de programmes de surveillance du sol appliqués dans plusieurs pays sont donnés dans l'Annexe A.

Kakovost tal – Navodilo za vzpostavitev in vzdrževanje programov monitoringa

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
11-Mar-2004
Withdrawal Date
11-Mar-2004
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Feb-2004
Completion Date
12-Mar-2004

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16133
First edition
2004-03-15
Soil quality — Guidance on the
establishment and maintenance of
monitoring programmes
Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices pour l'établissement et l'entretien
de programmes de surveillance
Reference number
ISO 16133:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Monitoring objectives........................................................................................................................... 3

3.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.2 Examples of monitoring purposes...................................................................................................... 4

4 Monitoring programme......................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General considerations........................................................................................................................ 4

4.2 Elements of a monitoring programme ................................................................................................ 5

4.2.1 Status of the monitoring sites ............................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Changes at the monitoring sites ......................................................................................................... 5

4.2.3 Interpretation of status and changes.................................................................................................. 6

4.2.4 Selection of sites................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Sampling and measurement................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Site design and identification .............................................................................................................. 7

4.3.3 Soil and site description....................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.4 Sampling................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.5 Field and laboratory measurements ................................................................................................... 7

4.3.6 Specimen banking................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.7 Time interval between samplings........................................................................................................ 8

5 Data quality and quantity ..................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Examples of monitoring programmes ....................................................................... 9

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 33

iii
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16133 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil and site

assessment.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)
Introduction

Monitoring is the process of repetitive observation, for defined purposes, of one or more components of the

environment according to pre-arranged schedules in space and time using comparable methods for

environmental sensing and data collection (see reference [1] in the Bibliography). Monitoring schemes are

used all over the world for a large number of purposes. Soil monitoring, particularly, is a long-term undertaking.

The quality and the utility of the information from the monitoring is to a large degree determined by the choice

of monitoring sites and by their maintenance over the years, and by appropriate quality control at all stages of

the process.

Monitoring associated with industrial (contaminated) sites can involve many specific considerations, including

legal requirements. The guidance in this International Standard is not designed or intended to cover such

situations.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16133:2004(E)
Soil quality — Guidance on the establishment and maintenance
of monitoring programmes
1 Scope

This International Standard gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and

maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of

objectives for soil-monitoring programmes.

This International Standard is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be

involved in a monitoring scheme. Examples of soil-monitoring programmes from several countries are

provided in Annex A.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
accumulation

increase of the concentration of a substance in soil due to substance input being larger than substance output

NOTE Adapted from ISO 11074-1:1996
2.2
anthropogenic influence
changes in soil properties caused by human activities
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.3
background concentration
natural pedogeochemical content

geogeneous or pedogeneous average concentration of a substance in an examined soil

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.4
diffuse source input
non-point source input

input of a substance emitted from moving sources, from sources with a large area or from many sources

NOTE 1 The sources can be cars, application of substances through agricultural practices, emissions from town or

region, deposition of sediment through flooding of a river.

NOTE 2 Diffuse source input usually leads to sites that are relatively uniformly contaminated. At some sites, the input

conditions may nevertheless cause a higher local input near the source or where atmospheric deposition/rain is increased.

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)
2.5
leaching

movement of dissolved substances caused by the movement of water or other liquids in the soil

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.6
locally contaminated site
site with discrete areas of high concentrations of substances hazardous to soil

NOTE The extent of contamination is usually small and the gradient of concentration within the site is steep.

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.7
monitoring

process of repetitive observation, for defined purposes, of one or more elements of the environment according

to pre-arranged schedules in space and time using comparable methods for environmental sensing and data

collection
2.8
monitoring site
area in which investigations will take place
NOTE Areas which are relatively homogeneous are usually chosen.
2.9
point-source input
input of a substance from a stationary discrete source of definite size

NOTE 1 The sources can be stack emissions, accidental spills, waste dumps, spills on industrial sites, major leaks

from sewers and other pipelines.

NOTE 2 Point-source input can cause both locally contaminated sites and relatively uniformly contaminated sites.

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.10
risk assessment

assessment of damaging effects of a polluted site on man and the environment with respect to their nature,

extent and probability of occurrence
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.11
sample
portion of material selected from a large quantity of material
[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.12
sampling
process of drawing or constituting a sample
[ISO 3534-1:1993]
2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)

NOTE For the purpose of soil investigation, “sampling” also relates to selection of locations for the purpose of in situ

testing carried out in the field without removal of material.
[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.13
sampling point
location within the monitoring site at which physical sampling takes place
2.14
sampling procedure

operational requirements and/or instructions relating to the use of a particular sampling plan

[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.15
soil damage

alteration of soil properties which cause negative effects on one or more soil functions, human health or

environment
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.16
substance input
movement of a substance from another environmental compartment into a soil
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.17
substance output
movement of a substance from the soil into another environmental compartment
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.18
uniformly contaminated site
site with a generally uniform concentration of a substance hazardous to soil

NOTE The extent of the contamination is usually large and the gradient of concentration within the site is rather

shallow.
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3 Monitoring objectives
3.1 General

Monitoring is an important tool for the early detection of environmental impact on soil and soil processes. It

thus has a major role in the prevention or minimization of environmental damage or the detection of

environmental improvement. By the early detection of environmental impact, or the potential for such impact, a

monitoring programme could help to reduce or remove the costs of reaching or maintaining a given level of

environmental management, protection or quality.

Monitoring programmes can also be used to evaluate the outcome of environmental policies, to assist in the

development of strategies for soil protection and environment management. They can also serve as research

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)

platforms for the development and validation of field and analytical methods and of models of soil and related

environmental processes.

The range of purposes for which soil-monitoring programmes can be designed encompasses such a vast

range of time scales, variables and processes that it is not possible to give specific guidance on the design of

a monitoring programme to meet all the objectives which might be covered by this diversity. The selection of

sites, sampling schemes, etc. should be made from a consideration of the specific objectives of the particular

monitoring programme. This International Standard identifies the principles underlying such programmes.

3.2 Examples of monitoring purposes
The following list gives some examples of monitoring purposes:

 short-, intermediate- and long-term environmental impacts varying in magnitude, importance, duration

and probability;

 changes in chemical, biological and physical soil properties (e.g. pH, adsorption processes, toxic element

accumulation, radiation, compaction, erosion) and the dynamics of changes in such properties;

 effects of human impacts;

 differentiation of human impacts from inter-annual variability and longer-term climate change;

 differentiation of local contamination from long-range transport;
 evaluation of productivity;
 assessment of biological diversity;

 input of elements into the soil environment and output of elements from the soil environment;

 transport processes in the soil profile (gases; particles; elements or compounds in solution);

 calculations of elements uptake and retention by particular components of the ecosystem.

4 Monitoring programme
4.1 General considerations

It is generally not feasible to monitor all variables at all locations. Wherever possible, consideration should be

given to the monitoring of soil properties which, as well as being of specific interest themselves, might also act

as a surrogate for some property or process which is otherwise difficult, time consuming or expensive to

measure directly. For example, soil pH and clay content (a potential surrogate for soil hydrological behaviour)

might act as factors for ranking pollutant mobility. It will be important to establish what long-term records

already exist at a site before identifying additional variables for monitoring and what degree of continuity of

measurement is required into the future. The close reciprocal benefits of monitoring and research on specific

scientific questions should be considered.

The final series of potential monitoring options should be ranked according to their value (scientific relevance;

sensitivity to impacts; value as an index for changes in many other environmental variables that are not

measured) and feasibility (financial, logistic, analytical, ease of interpretation). This prioritization should also

be revised and updated at regular intervals. The costs of appropriate storage of samples and long-term quality

assurance, e.g. cross-checking when improvements in analytical techniques are made, should not be

underestimated.
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)

Identification of habitat types is a key element of the monitoring plan, and is also a logical starting point for the

development of an environmental monitoring strategy. It is also necessary to consider the number of sites that

might be required to give appropriate spatial and temporal cover for the monitoring, and whether the site

density is appropriate for all variables. It is usually impractical to establish sites that cover all combinations of

soil and habitat. Consideration needs to be given, for example, to combinations that are most common or

most sensitive to a given impact. It should be remembered that other research, into e.g. water quality or

biodiversity, might be possible on the same site, thus adding to its value.
Some other factors that have to be considered are the following:

 partners and organizations involved, and an assessment of their objectives and long-term commitment;

 existing guides and protocols, and the degree to which they satisfy the objectives of the programme;

 ownership of sites, and likely long-term commitment of the site or sites to a monitoring programme;

 availability of sites;

 effects of future changes in land use (if this is an important factor), or the landscape in the vicinity of the

site(s) since changes might affect the usefulness of the site in the long term;
 the funding of the programme, and its long-term security;
 quality assurance, including documentation (see below);

 data management, accessibility of the data, intellectual property and issues of confidentiality and rights to

publish.

It is very strongly recommended that all parties to a long-term monitoring programme agree to the objectives,

funding, mutual responsibilities and other relevant issues before a monitoring programme begins, and that

they enter into a formal agreement which defines each party's role in the programme, including financial and

legal constraints.
4.2 Elements of a monitoring programme
4.2.1 Status of the monitoring sites

The history of all sites, which might be considered, should be documented. This is an essential part of any

assessment of representativeness, and ensures that the chances of the unexpected, which might jeopardize

the usefulness of the site, are minimized. Such assessment can involve the characterizing of present-day soil

properties at representative sites. Issues such as ownership, access, etc. (see 4.1) can usually be resolved at

this stage. Information about other monitoring programmes forms part of this preliminary investigation.

4.2.2 Changes at the monitoring sites

The purpose of measuring change in soil properties should be clear from the start. It may also be useful to

invert the question and ask what changes could be measured using such a particular site or programme

design, even if all the properties might not be required at the start. Sites which allow expansion of activity for

future needs can have advantages over more limited sites. It might be that one purpose of the programme is

to establish changes in soil properties (e.g. pH, humus content, levels of toxic substances, water permeability,

microbiological activity) and the dynamics of changes in such properties over shorter rather than longer time

scales. This has large implications for the amount of soil sampling, and thus site disturbance, which the site

might have to accommodate without having its functions seriously affected. The possibility of investigating

other environmental compartments can make one site a more attractive proposition than another, especially if

it interests a larger group of researchers, funders, etc.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)
4.2.3 Interpretation of status and changes
The data on status and changes may be used to interpret the following:
 reference/background properties;

 degradation/improvement of one or more soil characteristics and functions (and the effect of this on other

soil or site properties);

 short-term and long-term environmental impact and bioavailability of extraneous inputs, applied wastes,

atmospheric or water-borne substances or off-site management;
 ecological functions of soils;
 productivity functions of soils;

 influence on other environmental compartments, or of these on the soils at the site.

4.2.4 Selection of sites

The sites should be selected so that they are suitable for the objectives of the programme with respect to

geology, soil type, vegetation and land use, topography, climate and ecological habitat. Other important

criteria are anthropogenic impact and natural background conditions (e.g. trace element levels, acidity, salinity,

buffer capacity).

The choice of geographical distribution of monitoring sites is often influenced by the degree of pre-existing

knowledge of the landscape or soil pattern. Where relatively little is known, statistical approaches are often the

most appropriate, although this can imply considerable preliminary investigation to establish the variability of

the area in question. In general, there are four main choices in the selection of geographical distribution. They

are listed below without priority.

 Regular grid. The sites are selected using a regular grid. In order to provide representative data, this

approach generally requires a large number of sites. The interval between the grid points is very

dependent on the size of the area of interest, as well as the degree of change being measured in the

property. The smaller the change to be measured in a property, the larger the number of sites required in

a given area.

 Statistical approach. The sites are selected by using (geo)statistically produced patterns, designed to

minimize the required number of sites. However, this implies considerable preliminary investigation, as

geostatistical investigations have, as their central aim, the establishment of a reliable variogram for a

given property. If the different properties have different degrees of spatial dependence, as they often do in

soils, then the number of sites needed to establish this can be as large as that for the regular grid.

 Hypothesis-oriented approach. The monitoring options are evaluated on the basis of their ability to

detect and quantify impacts hypothesized to result from specific human activities. The sensitivity, spatial

extent and frequency of monitoring have to be appropriate to detect the hypothesized impacts. This can

also involve considerable preliminary investigation.

 Typological approach. This is based on a stratification of soils according to land use and/or soil type, or

soil horizon, on soil parent material, or soil extent, or distance from potential contamination sources, etc.

In order to make efficient use of available resources, it is always important to consider the possibilities to

integrate the sites with other monitoring programmes. Examples of selection of monitoring sites are given in

Annex A. Both synergistic and disturbing effects (e.g. caused by sampling activities or experimental

treatments) should be considered if sites are to be used for different monitoring programmes.

6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)
4.3 Sampling and measurement
4.3.1 General

A sampling and measurement plan is an important part of a monitoring programme. Such a plan should

include procedures in the following areas.
4.3.2 Site design and identification

The chosen site(s) should allow the range of measurements appropriate for the objectives of the soil-

monitoring programme, and any other monitoring activities which add value to this programme. The layout of

the site should allow repeated representative sampling, without compromising the overall functioning of the

site or the soils within it. The site should be protected from unwanted external disturbances.

The choice of sampling points within the monitoring site depends on several factors. The sampling point might

have to allow for the digging of soil-profile pits, the installation of soil instruments, repeated sampling by

augers, possibly the introduction of designed experiments, e.g. to test the effect of different cropping regimes

on the properties monitored, and so on. These factors shall be estimated at the preliminary stage, and the site

design modified to include them. If none of these larger factors needs to be allowed for, the sampling point

may be located at the centroid of the monitoring site.
4.3.3 Soil and site description

Soil and site description should be performed in accordance with ISO 15903 and ISO 11259.

4.3.4 Sampling

Sampling includes for example the sampling strategy, sampling techniques, labelling, transport and storage.

Whenever possible International Standards should be used, see Bibliography. Careful thought should be

given to sampling schemes so as to cause minimum disturbance to the site and its properties. Some

examples covering the principles of the design and implementation of soil monitoring programmes are given in

Annex A.
4.3.5 Field and laboratory measurements

Field and laboratory measurements should be selected according to the objectives.

It is strongly recommended that the following minimum data set of chemical and physical parameters be

included, as many of these underpin the interpretation of soil data in the wider context: pH, organic carbon

content, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, dry matter content, particle size distribution and bulk

density. There is no recommended minimum data set for biological parameters, as the choice depends on the

objectives. Standardized methods should be used wherever possible.

The relevant International Standards for the recommended minimum data set are given in the Bibliography.

Examples of selection of parameters in relation to the purpose of the monitoring objectives are given in

Annex A.
4.3.6 Specimen banking

A specified portion of each sample should be stored for future needs as appropriate. Sufficient sample should

be taken so as to allow re-analysis of many of the properties for an extended period into the future. A

specimen bank also makes it possible to include new forms of analysis in the monitoring programme at a later

date.

It should be considered at the outset whether special storage conditions, e.g. temperature or humidity, have to

be maintained in order to guarantee that important parameters will remain stable over time. In some cases

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 16133:2004(E)

samples should be stored frozen, rather than dried. If determinations of some parameters have to be

postponed, for financial or other reasons, and long-time parameter stability cannot be guaranteed, efforts

should be made to determine these parameters at the earliest possible occasion.

Contamination from sample containers should be minimized by careful choice of storage media.

The costs of specimen banking over many years can be considerable. The amount of space required to store

samples in the long term can be considerable if many samples are involved, whether they are from separate

sites, or numerous locations within one site, or both.
4.3.7 Time interval between samplings

The planned time interval depends on the objectives and parameters (e.g. spatial variability, dynamics, and

expected changes). It should be taken into account that time intervals may have to be changed because of

unexpected events, and almost certainly will differ with different variables.
5 Data quality and quantity
The quality of the data obtained can be assured by

 proper training of all staff, not only of those involved at the start of the project, but also of those who

replace them over time. It is strongly recommended to keep a record of the training given,

 setting formal data quality objectives (e.g. for accuracy, reproducibility, etc.),

 using sampling procedures based on guidance in International Standards,

 using standardized analytical and test methods such as those listed in the Bibliography or, where

International Standard methods are not available, those published by national standardization

organizations or official bodies,
[32]
 using laboratories which apply methods accredited under ISO 17025 ,
 using laboratories that take part in relevant proficiency testing schemes,
 using commissioning agents who employ their own quality assurance procedures,
 adherence to agreed protocols,

 the keeping of proper records at all stages of the monitoring programme, ensuring that these records

remain readable and unambiguous, and keeping such records in an accessible place.

As monitoring is a long-term undertaking, it may be impossible to avoid changes in methodology and/or use of

different laboratories. It
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 16133:2006
01-december-2006
Kakovost tal – Navodilo za vzpostavitev in vzdrževanje programov monitoringa
Soil quality -- Guidance on the establishment and maintenance of monitoring
programmes

Qualité du sol -- Lignes directrices pour l'établissement et l'entretien de programmes de

surveillance
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 16133:2004
ICS:
13.080.01 Kakovost tal in pedologija na Soil quality and pedology in
splošno general
SIST ISO 16133:2006 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16133:2006
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16133:2006
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16133
First edition
2004-03-15
Soil quality — Guidance on the
establishment and maintenance of
monitoring programmes
Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices pour l'établissement et l'entretien
de programmes de surveillance
Reference number
ISO 16133:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16133:2006
ISO 16133:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16133:2006
ISO 16133:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Monitoring objectives........................................................................................................................... 3

3.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.2 Examples of monitoring purposes...................................................................................................... 4

4 Monitoring programme......................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General considerations........................................................................................................................ 4

4.2 Elements of a monitoring programme ................................................................................................ 5

4.2.1 Status of the monitoring sites ............................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Changes at the monitoring sites ......................................................................................................... 5

4.2.3 Interpretation of status and changes.................................................................................................. 6

4.2.4 Selection of sites................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Sampling and measurement................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Site design and identification .............................................................................................................. 7

4.3.3 Soil and site description....................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.4 Sampling................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.5 Field and laboratory measurements ................................................................................................... 7

4.3.6 Specimen banking................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.7 Time interval between samplings........................................................................................................ 8

5 Data quality and quantity ..................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Examples of monitoring programmes ....................................................................... 9

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 33

iii
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16133:2006
ISO 16133:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16133 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil and site

assessment.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16133:2006
ISO 16133:2004(E)
Introduction

Monitoring is the process of repetitive observation, for defined purposes, of one or more components of the

environment according to pre-arranged schedules in space and time using comparable methods for

environmental sensing and data collection (see reference [1] in the Bibliography). Monitoring schemes are

used all over the world for a large number of purposes. Soil monitoring, particularly, is a long-term undertaking.

The quality and the utility of the information from the monitoring is to a large degree determined by the choice

of monitoring sites and by their maintenance over the years, and by appropriate quality control at all stages of

the process.

Monitoring associated with industrial (contaminated) sites can involve many specific considerations, including

legal requirements. The guidance in this International Standard is not designed or intended to cover such

situations.
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SIST ISO 16133:2006
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16133:2004(E)
Soil quality — Guidance on the establishment and maintenance
of monitoring programmes
1 Scope

This International Standard gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and

maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of

objectives for soil-monitoring programmes.

This International Standard is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be

involved in a monitoring scheme. Examples of soil-monitoring programmes from several countries are

provided in Annex A.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
accumulation

increase of the concentration of a substance in soil due to substance input being larger than substance output

NOTE Adapted from ISO 11074-1:1996
2.2
anthropogenic influence
changes in soil properties caused by human activities
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.3
background concentration
natural pedogeochemical content

geogeneous or pedogeneous average concentration of a substance in an examined soil

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.4
diffuse source input
non-point source input

input of a substance emitted from moving sources, from sources with a large area or from many sources

NOTE 1 The sources can be cars, application of substances through agricultural practices, emissions from town or

region, deposition of sediment through flooding of a river.

NOTE 2 Diffuse source input usually leads to sites that are relatively uniformly contaminated. At some sites, the input

conditions may nevertheless cause a higher local input near the source or where atmospheric deposition/rain is increased.

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
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ISO 16133:2004(E)
2.5
leaching

movement of dissolved substances caused by the movement of water or other liquids in the soil

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.6
locally contaminated site
site with discrete areas of high concentrations of substances hazardous to soil

NOTE The extent of contamination is usually small and the gradient of concentration within the site is steep.

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.7
monitoring

process of repetitive observation, for defined purposes, of one or more elements of the environment according

to pre-arranged schedules in space and time using comparable methods for environmental sensing and data

collection
2.8
monitoring site
area in which investigations will take place
NOTE Areas which are relatively homogeneous are usually chosen.
2.9
point-source input
input of a substance from a stationary discrete source of definite size

NOTE 1 The sources can be stack emissions, accidental spills, waste dumps, spills on industrial sites, major leaks

from sewers and other pipelines.

NOTE 2 Point-source input can cause both locally contaminated sites and relatively uniformly contaminated sites.

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.10
risk assessment

assessment of damaging effects of a polluted site on man and the environment with respect to their nature,

extent and probability of occurrence
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.11
sample
portion of material selected from a large quantity of material
[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.12
sampling
process of drawing or constituting a sample
[ISO 3534-1:1993]
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ISO 16133:2004(E)

NOTE For the purpose of soil investigation, “sampling” also relates to selection of locations for the purpose of in situ

testing carried out in the field without removal of material.
[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.13
sampling point
location within the monitoring site at which physical sampling takes place
2.14
sampling procedure

operational requirements and/or instructions relating to the use of a particular sampling plan

[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.15
soil damage

alteration of soil properties which cause negative effects on one or more soil functions, human health or

environment
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.16
substance input
movement of a substance from another environmental compartment into a soil
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.17
substance output
movement of a substance from the soil into another environmental compartment
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.18
uniformly contaminated site
site with a generally uniform concentration of a substance hazardous to soil

NOTE The extent of the contamination is usually large and the gradient of concentration within the site is rather

shallow.
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3 Monitoring objectives
3.1 General

Monitoring is an important tool for the early detection of environmental impact on soil and soil processes. It

thus has a major role in the prevention or minimization of environmental damage or the detection of

environmental improvement. By the early detection of environmental impact, or the potential for such impact, a

monitoring programme could help to reduce or remove the costs of reaching or maintaining a given level of

environmental management, protection or quality.

Monitoring programmes can also be used to evaluate the outcome of environmental policies, to assist in the

development of strategies for soil protection and environment management. They can also serve as research

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ISO 16133:2004(E)

platforms for the development and validation of field and analytical methods and of models of soil and related

environmental processes.

The range of purposes for which soil-monitoring programmes can be designed encompasses such a vast

range of time scales, variables and processes that it is not possible to give specific guidance on the design of

a monitoring programme to meet all the objectives which might be covered by this diversity. The selection of

sites, sampling schemes, etc. should be made from a consideration of the specific objectives of the particular

monitoring programme. This International Standard identifies the principles underlying such programmes.

3.2 Examples of monitoring purposes
The following list gives some examples of monitoring purposes:

 short-, intermediate- and long-term environmental impacts varying in magnitude, importance, duration

and probability;

 changes in chemical, biological and physical soil properties (e.g. pH, adsorption processes, toxic element

accumulation, radiation, compaction, erosion) and the dynamics of changes in such properties;

 effects of human impacts;

 differentiation of human impacts from inter-annual variability and longer-term climate change;

 differentiation of local contamination from long-range transport;
 evaluation of productivity;
 assessment of biological diversity;

 input of elements into the soil environment and output of elements from the soil environment;

 transport processes in the soil profile (gases; particles; elements or compounds in solution);

 calculations of elements uptake and retention by particular components of the ecosystem.

4 Monitoring programme
4.1 General considerations

It is generally not feasible to monitor all variables at all locations. Wherever possible, consideration should be

given to the monitoring of soil properties which, as well as being of specific interest themselves, might also act

as a surrogate for some property or process which is otherwise difficult, time consuming or expensive to

measure directly. For example, soil pH and clay content (a potential surrogate for soil hydrological behaviour)

might act as factors for ranking pollutant mobility. It will be important to establish what long-term records

already exist at a site before identifying additional variables for monitoring and what degree of continuity of

measurement is required into the future. The close reciprocal benefits of monitoring and research on specific

scientific questions should be considered.

The final series of potential monitoring options should be ranked according to their value (scientific relevance;

sensitivity to impacts; value as an index for changes in many other environmental variables that are not

measured) and feasibility (financial, logistic, analytical, ease of interpretation). This prioritization should also

be revised and updated at regular intervals. The costs of appropriate storage of samples and long-term quality

assurance, e.g. cross-checking when improvements in analytical techniques are made, should not be

underestimated.
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Identification of habitat types is a key element of the monitoring plan, and is also a logical starting point for the

development of an environmental monitoring strategy. It is also necessary to consider the number of sites that

might be required to give appropriate spatial and temporal cover for the monitoring, and whether the site

density is appropriate for all variables. It is usually impractical to establish sites that cover all combinations of

soil and habitat. Consideration needs to be given, for example, to combinations that are most common or

most sensitive to a given impact. It should be remembered that other research, into e.g. water quality or

biodiversity, might be possible on the same site, thus adding to its value.
Some other factors that have to be considered are the following:

 partners and organizations involved, and an assessment of their objectives and long-term commitment;

 existing guides and protocols, and the degree to which they satisfy the objectives of the programme;

 ownership of sites, and likely long-term commitment of the site or sites to a monitoring programme;

 availability of sites;

 effects of future changes in land use (if this is an important factor), or the landscape in the vicinity of the

site(s) since changes might affect the usefulness of the site in the long term;
 the funding of the programme, and its long-term security;
 quality assurance, including documentation (see below);

 data management, accessibility of the data, intellectual property and issues of confidentiality and rights to

publish.

It is very strongly recommended that all parties to a long-term monitoring programme agree to the objectives,

funding, mutual responsibilities and other relevant issues before a monitoring programme begins, and that

they enter into a formal agreement which defines each party's role in the programme, including financial and

legal constraints.
4.2 Elements of a monitoring programme
4.2.1 Status of the monitoring sites

The history of all sites, which might be considered, should be documented. This is an essential part of any

assessment of representativeness, and ensures that the chances of the unexpected, which might jeopardize

the usefulness of the site, are minimized. Such assessment can involve the characterizing of present-day soil

properties at representative sites. Issues such as ownership, access, etc. (see 4.1) can usually be resolved at

this stage. Information about other monitoring programmes forms part of this preliminary investigation.

4.2.2 Changes at the monitoring sites

The purpose of measuring change in soil properties should be clear from the start. It may also be useful to

invert the question and ask what changes could be measured using such a particular site or programme

design, even if all the properties might not be required at the start. Sites which allow expansion of activity for

future needs can have advantages over more limited sites. It might be that one purpose of the programme is

to establish changes in soil properties (e.g. pH, humus content, levels of toxic substances, water permeability,

microbiological activity) and the dynamics of changes in such properties over shorter rather than longer time

scales. This has large implications for the amount of soil sampling, and thus site disturbance, which the site

might have to accommodate without having its functions seriously affected. The possibility of investigating

other environmental compartments can make one site a more attractive proposition than another, especially if

it interests a larger group of researchers, funders, etc.
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ISO 16133:2004(E)
4.2.3 Interpretation of status and changes
The data on status and changes may be used to interpret the following:
 reference/background properties;

 degradation/improvement of one or more soil characteristics and functions (and the effect of this on other

soil or site properties);

 short-term and long-term environmental impact and bioavailability of extraneous inputs, applied wastes,

atmospheric or water-borne substances or off-site management;
 ecological functions of soils;
 productivity functions of soils;

 influence on other environmental compartments, or of these on the soils at the site.

4.2.4 Selection of sites

The sites should be selected so that they are suitable for the objectives of the programme with respect to

geology, soil type, vegetation and land use, topography, climate and ecological habitat. Other important

criteria are anthropogenic impact and natural background conditions (e.g. trace element levels, acidity, salinity,

buffer capacity).

The choice of geographical distribution of monitoring sites is often influenced by the degree of pre-existing

knowledge of the landscape or soil pattern. Where relatively little is known, statistical approaches are often the

most appropriate, although this can imply considerable preliminary investigation to establish the variability of

the area in question. In general, there are four main choices in the selection of geographical distribution. They

are listed below without priority.

 Regular grid. The sites are selected using a regular grid. In order to provide representative data, this

approach generally requires a large number of sites. The interval between the grid points is very

dependent on the size of the area of interest, as well as the degree of change being measured in the

property. The smaller the change to be measured in a property, the larger the number of sites required in

a given area.

 Statistical approach. The sites are selected by using (geo)statistically produced patterns, designed to

minimize the required number of sites. However, this implies considerable preliminary investigation, as

geostatistical investigations have, as their central aim, the establishment of a reliable variogram for a

given property. If the different properties have different degrees of spatial dependence, as they often do in

soils, then the number of sites needed to establish this can be as large as that for the regular grid.

 Hypothesis-oriented approach. The monitoring options are evaluated on the basis of their ability to

detect and quantify impacts hypothesized to result from specific human activities. The sensitivity, spatial

extent and frequency of monitoring have to be appropriate to detect the hypothesized impacts. This can

also involve considerable preliminary investigation.

 Typological approach. This is based on a stratification of soils according to land use and/or soil type, or

soil horizon, on soil parent material, or soil extent, or distance from potential contamination sources, etc.

In order to make efficient use of available resources, it is always important to consider the possibilities to

integrate the sites with other monitoring programmes. Examples of selection of monitoring sites are given in

Annex A. Both synergistic and disturbing effects (e.g. caused by sampling activities or experimental

treatments) should be considered if sites are to be used for different monitoring programmes.

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ISO 16133:2004(E)
4.3 Sampling and measurement
4.3.1 General

A sampling and measurement plan is an important part of a monitoring programme. Such a plan should

include procedures in the following areas.
4.3.2 Site design and identification

The chosen site(s) should allow the range of measurements appropriate for the objectives of the soil-

monitoring programme, and any other monitoring activities which add value to this programme. The layout of

the site should allow repeated representative sampling, without compromising the overall functioning of the

site or the soils within it. The site should be protected from unwanted external disturbances.

The choice of sampling points within the monitoring site depends on several factors. The sampling point might

have to allow for the digging of soil-profile pits, the installation of soil instruments, repeated sampling by

augers, possibly the introduction of designed experiments, e.g. to test the effect of different cropping regimes

on the properties monitored, and so on. These factors shall be estimated at the preliminary stage, and the site

design modified to include them. If none of these larger factors needs to be allowed for, the sampling point

may be located at the centroid of the monitoring site.
4.3.3 Soil and site description

Soil and site description should be performed in accordance with ISO 15903 and ISO 11259.

4.3.4 Sampling

Sampling includes for example the sampling strategy, sampling techniques, labelling, transport and storage.

Whenever possible International Standards should be used, see Bibliography. Careful thought should be

given to sampling schemes so as to cause minimum disturbance to the site and its properties. Some

examples covering the principles of the design and implementation of soil monitoring programmes are given in

Annex A.
4.3.5 Field and laboratory measurements

Field and laboratory measurements should be selected according to the objectives.

It is strongly recommended that the following minimum data set of chemical and physical parameters be

included, as many of these underpin the interpretation of soil data in the wider context: pH, organic carbon

content, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, dry matter content, particle size distribution and bulk

density. There is no recommended minimum data set for biological parameters, as the choice depends on the

objectives. Standardized methods should be used wherever possible.

The relevant International Standards for the recommended minimum data set are given in the Bibliography.

Examples of selection of parameters in relation to the purpose of the monitoring objectives are given in

Annex A.
4.3.6 Specimen banking

A specified portion of each sample should be stored for future needs as appropriate. Sufficient sample should

be taken so as to allow re-analysis of many of the properties for an extended period into the future. A

specimen bank also makes it possible to include new forms of analysis in the monitoring programme at a later

date.

It should be considered at the outset whether special storage conditions, e.g. temperature or humidity, have to

be maintained in order to guarantee that important parameters will remain stable over time. In some cases

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samples should be stored frozen, rather than dried. If determinations of some parameters have to be

postponed, for financial or other reasons, and long-time parameter stability cannot be guaranteed, efforts

should be made to determine these parameters at the earliest possible occasion.

Contamination from sample containers should be minimized by careful choice of storage media.

The costs of specimen banking over many years can be considerable. The amount of space required to store

samples in the long term can be considerable if many samples are involved, whether they are from separate

sites, or numerous locations within one site, or both.
4.3.7 Time interval between samplings

The planned time interval depends on the objectives and parameters (e.g. spatial variability, dynamics, and

expected changes). It should be taken into account that time intervals may have to be changed because of

unexpected events, and almost certainly will differ with different variables.
5 Data quality and quantity
The quality of the data obtained can be assured by
 proper training of all staff, not only of those involved at the start of the
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 16133
Première édition
2004-03-15
Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices pour
l'établissement et l'entretien de
programmes de surveillance
Soil quality — Guidance on the establishment and maintenance of
monitoring programmes
Numéro de référence
ISO 16133:2004(F)
ISO 2004
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ISO 16133:2004(F)
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ii © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16133:2004(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos..................................................................................................................................................... iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Domaine d'application.......................................................................................................................... 1

2 Termes et définitions ............................................................................................................................ 1

3 Objectifs de la surveillance.................................................................................................................. 3

3.1 Généralités............................................................................................................................................. 3

3.2 Exemples d'objectifs de surveillance ................................................................................................. 4

4 Programme de surveillance ................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 Considérations générales .................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Éléments d'un programme de surveillance........................................................................................ 5

4.2.1 État des sites de surveillance.............................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Modifications sur les sites de surveillance........................................................................................ 6

4.2.3 Interprétation de l'état et des modifications ...................................................................................... 6

4.2.4 Sélection des sites................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Échantillonnage et mesurage .............................................................................................................. 7

4.3.1 Généralités............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3.2 Conception et identification des sites ................................................................................................ 7

4.3.3 Description du site et du sol................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.4 Échantillonnage .................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.5 Mesurages in situ et en laboratoire..................................................................................................... 8

4.3.6 Banque de sols...................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.7 Échelonnement des échantillonnages dans le temps ...................................................................... 8

5 Qualité et quantité de données............................................................................................................ 8

Annexe A (informative) Exemples de programmes de surveillance ........................................................... 10

Bibliographie .................................................................................................................................................... 35

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ISO 16133:2004(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée

aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du

comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non

gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux. L'ISO collabore étroitement avec

la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI,

Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d'élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur

publication comme Normes internationales requiert l'approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres

votants.

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne

pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L'ISO 16133 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 7, Évaluation

des sols et des sites.
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ISO 16133:2004(F)
Introduction

La surveillance est le processus consistant à observer de façon répétée, pour répondre à des besoins définis,

un ou plusieurs composants environnementaux selon des planifications prédéfinies dans l'espace et dans le

temps, à l'aide de méthodes comparables de détection environnementale et de collecte des données (voir [1]

dans la Bibliographie). Des programmes de surveillance sont utilisés à travers le monde pour un grand

nombre d'applications. La surveillance du sol, notamment, est une action entreprise sur le long terme. La

qualité et l'utilité des informations recueillies par le biais de la surveillance dépendent, dans une large mesure,

du choix des sites de surveillance, de leur entretien au fil des ans et de l'existence d'un contrôle qualité

approprié à toutes les étapes du processus.

La surveillance des sites industriels (contaminés) peut donner lieu à de nombreuses considérations

spécifiques, notamment à des exigences légales. À cet égard, les lignes directrices du présent document ne

sont ni conçues pour de telles situations, ni destinées à y répondre.
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 16133:2004(F)
Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices pour l'établissement et
l'entretien de programmes de surveillance
1 Domaine d'application

La présente Norme internationale donne des lignes directrices générales pour la sélection de procédures

visant à établir et entretenir des systèmes de surveillance à long terme de la qualité du sol. Elle tient compte

du grand nombre d'objectifs visés par les programmes de surveillance du sol.

La présente Nome internationale vise à fournir une aide à l'instauration d'une base de dialogue entre les

parties susceptibles d'être impliquées dans un système de surveillance. Des exemples de programmes de

surveillance du sol appliqués dans plusieurs pays sont donnés dans l'Annexe A.
2 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s'appliquent.

2.1
accumulation

augmentation de la concentration d'une substance dans le sol due à des apports de substances supérieurs

aux pertes
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.2
influence anthropique
modifications des propriétés du sol provoquées par les activités humaines
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.3
concentration de fond
teneur pédogéochimique naturelle

concentration moyenne géogénique ou pédogénique d'une substance dans un sol étudié

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.4
apport dû à une source diffuse
apport dû à une source non ponctuelle

apport d'une substance émise par des sources mobiles, des sources de grande étendue ou de plusieurs

sources

NOTE 1 Les sources peuvent être des automobiles, des substances introduites par des pratiques agricoles, des

émissions venant d'une ville ou d'une région, un dépôt de sédiments par débordement d'une rivière.

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ISO 16133:2004(F)

NOTE 2 Les apports dus à une source diffuse conduisent habituellement à des sites à contamination relativement

uniforme. Pour certains sites, les conditions peuvent être des facteurs d'augmentation de l'apport local, à proximité de la

source ou à l'endroit où les dépôts atmosphériques/pluviaux sont intensifiés.
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.5
lixivation

mouvement de substances dissoutes causé par la percolation de l'eau ou d'autres liquides dans le sol

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.6
site localement contaminé

site présentant ponctuellement ou en plusieurs endroits de hautes concentrations d'une substance

dangereuse pour le sol

NOTE L'étendue de la contamination est généralement faible et le gradient de concentration à l'intérieur du site est

élevé.
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.7
surveillance

processus d'observation répétitive, répondant à des besoins définis, portant sur un ou plusieurs éléments

environnementaux suivant une planification prédéfinie dans l'espace et dans le temps et à l'aide de méthodes

comparables de détection environnementale et de collecte des données
2.8
site de surveillance
zone dans laquelle les recherches sont effectuées
NOTE Les zones sélectionnées sont généralement relativement homogènes.
2.9
apport dû à une source ponctuelle
apport d'une substance par une source ponctuelle fixe de taille définie

NOTE 1 Les sources peuvent être un conduit d'émissions, des déversements accidentels, des dépôts d'ordures, des

déversements sur sites industriels, des fuites importantes provenant des égouts et autres canalisations.

NOTE 2 L'apport dû à une source ponctuelle peut aussi bien être la cause de sites localement contaminés que de sites

contaminés de façon relativement uniforme.
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.10
évaluation du risque

évaluation des effets préjudiciables d'un site pollué sur l'homme et l'environnement, en considérant leur

nature, leur étendue et leur probabilité
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.11
échantillon
quantité de matériau prélevée dans un volume plus important de matériau
[ISO 11074-2:1998]
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ISO 16133:2004(F)
2.12
échantillonnage
processus de prélèvement ou de constitution d'un échantillon
[ISO 3534-1:1993]

NOTE Pour les besoins de l'étude des sols, le terme «échantillonnage» s'applique également au choix des endroits

dans lesquels des essais in situ seront effectués sur le terrain sans enlèvement de matériau.

[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.13
point d'échantillonnage

endroit d'un site de surveillance où est effectué le prélèvement physique des échantillons

2.14
procédure d'échantillonnage

exigences et/ou instructions opérationnelles concernant la mise en œuvre d'un plan d'échantillonnage

particulier
[ISO 11074-2:1998]
2.15
détérioration du sol
dégradation du sol

altération des propriétés du sol ayant des effets négatifs sur une ou plusieurs fonctions du sol, la santé

humaine ou l'environnement
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.16
apport de substance

migration vers un sol d'une substance venant d'un autre compartiment de l'environnement

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.17
exportation de substances
migration de substances du sol vers un autre compartiment de l'environnement
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
2.18
site uniformément contaminé

site présentant une concentration uniforme d'une substance dangereuse pour le sol

NOTE L'étendue de la contamination est généralement grande et le gradient de concentration à l'intérieur du site est

plutôt faible.
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3 Objectifs de la surveillance
3.1 Généralités

La surveillance est un outil fondamental pour permettre la détection précoce de l'impact environnemental sur

les sols et leurs fonctions. Elle tient donc un rôle majeur dans la prévention ou la réduction des dégradations

de l'environnement, ou dans la détection de l'amélioration de ce dernier. En permettant la détection précoce

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de l'impact environnemental ou des potentialités liées à un tel impact, un programme de surveillance peut

favoriser la réduction ou la suppression des coûts nécessaires à l'obtention ou au maintien d'un niveau donné

de management, de protection ou de qualité de l'environnement.

Les programmes de surveillance peuvent également servir à évaluer le résultat des politiques

environnementales, afin d'aider à la mise en œuvre de stratégies de protection du sol et de management

environnemental. Ils peuvent également servir de plate-forme de recherche pour la mise au point et la

validation de protocoles d'essai in situ et de méthodes d'analyse, ou de modèles de fonctionnement des sols

et des autres processus environnementaux connexes.

Les programmes de surveillance du sol peuvent s'appliquer à des domaines regroupant une si grande

diversité d'échelles temporelles, de variables et de processus qu'il est impossible de définir des lignes

directrices spécifiques pouvant s'appliquer à la conception d'un programme de surveillance répondant à tous

les objectifs couverts par cette diversité. Il convient de sélectionner les sites, systèmes d'échantillonnage, etc.,

en tenant compte des objectifs spécifiques du programme de surveillance concerné. La présente Norme

internationale identifie les principes qui sous-tendent de tels programmes.
3.2 Exemples d'objectifs de surveillance
La liste suivante énumère quelques exemples d'objectifs de surveillance:

 impact environnemental à court, moyen et long terme, selon les variations de magnitude, d'ampleur, de

durée et de probabilité;

 modification des propriétés chimiques, biologiques et physiques du sol (telles que pH, adsorption,

accumulation de substances nocives, rayonnements, compactage, érosion) ainsi que la dynamique de

variation de ces propriétés;
 effets des impacts d'origine humaine;

 différenciation entre les impacts d'origine humaine et la variabilité interannuelle et le changement

climatique à plus long terme;

 différenciation entre contamination locale et migration sur de longues distances;

 évaluation de la productivité;
 évaluation de la biodiversité;

 apport d'éléments dans l'environnement du sol et exportation d'éléments en provenance de cet

environnement;

 phénomènes de transfert dans le profil du sol (gaz, particules, éléments ou composés en solution);

 calcul du prélèvement ou de la rétention d'éléments par certains composants particuliers de l'écosystème.

4 Programme de surveillance
4.1 Considérations générales

Il est généralement impossible de surveiller la totalité des variables sur l'ensemble des sites. Il convient,

chaque fois que possible, d'envisager la surveillance de propriétés du sol qui, outre leur intérêt spécifique

intrinsèque, sont également substituables aux propriétés ou processus dont le mesurage direct s'avérerait

autrement difficile ou exigeant en termes de temps ou de moyens. Par exemple, le pH et la teneur en argile

d'un sol (substituts possibles du comportement hydrologique d'un sol) peuvent servir de facteurs de

classification pour la mobilité des polluants. Il importe de recenser les enregistrements à long terme déjà

disponibles sur un site avant d'identifier d'autres variables à surveiller, et d'évaluer le degré de continuité des

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mesurages requis ultérieurement. Il convient de tenir compte des bénéfices réciproques pouvant être retirés

d'activités de surveillance et de recherche portant sur des questions scientifiques spécifiques.

Il convient de classer la liste finale des options de surveillance potentielles en fonction de leur valeur

(pertinence sur le plan scientifique; sensibilité aux impacts; valeur en tant qu'indice de variation de

nombreuses autres variables environnementales non mesurées) et de leur faisabilité (aspects financiers,

logistiques, analytiques, facilité d'interprétation). Il convient également de réviser et d'actualiser régulièrement

la définition de ces priorités. Il convient de ne pas sous-estimer les coûts induits par le stockage approprié des

échantillons et l'assurance qualité à long terme, par exemple lors de la réalisation de vérifications par

recoupement suite à une amélioration des techniques d'analyse.

L'identification des types d'habitat constitue un élément fondamental du plan de surveillance, ainsi qu'un point

de départ logique pour la mise en œuvre d'une stratégie de surveillance environnementale. Il est également

nécessaire de considérer le nombre de sites susceptibles de devoir répondre aux nécessités spatio-

temporelles de la surveillance et d'estimer si la densité du site est adaptée à toutes les variables. Il est

généralement inconcevable d'établir des sites couvrant l'ensemble des combinaisons de sol et d'habitat. Il est

par exemple nécessaire de prendre en compte les combinaisons les plus communes ou les plus sensibles à

un impact donné. Il convient de garder à l'esprit que d'autres recherches, portant par exemple sur la qualité de

l'eau ou la biodiversité, sont susceptibles d'avoir lieu sur le même site, ce qui accroît la valeur de ce dernier.

Les autres facteurs devant être pris en considération sont les suivants:

 les partenaires et organisations impliqués, ainsi qu'une estimation de leurs objectifs et de leurs

engagements à long terme;

 les guides et protocoles existants, ainsi que leur degré de satisfaction aux objectifs du programme;

 la propriété des sites et la probabilité d'implication à long terme du ou des sites dans un programme de

surveillance;
 la disponibilité des sites;

 les effets liés aux futures conditions d'exploitation du sol (si ce facteur s'avère important) ou de

l'environnement proche du ou des sites, car ces changements peuvent affecter l'utilité du site à long

terme;
 le financement du programme et sa pérennité;
 l'assurance qualité, y compris la documentation (voir ci-après);

 la gestion et l'accessibilité des données, la propriété intellectuelle et les clauses relatives à la

confidentialité et aux droits d'édition.

Il est fortement recommandé de veiller à ce que toutes les parties impliquées dans un programme de

surveillance à long terme parviennent à un accord sur les objectifs, le financement, les responsabilités

mutuelles et les autres considérations de même ordre avant le début du programme de surveillance, et

qu'elles définissent un accord formel précisant le rôle de chaque partie dans le cadre du programme, y

compris en termes de contraintes financières et légales.
4.2 Éléments d'un programme de surveillance
4.2.1 État des sites de surveillance

Il convient de documenter l'historique de tous les sites pouvant être pris en considération. Cette partie

essentielle de toute évaluation de représentativité garantit la minimisation des risques aléatoires susceptibles

de dévaloriser l'utilité du site. Une telle évaluation peut consister à caractériser les propriétés du sol à une

date donnée, sur certains sites représentatifs. Les questions relatives à la propriété, l'accès, etc. (voir 4.1)

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peuvent généralement être résolues à ce stade. Les informations concernant d'autres programmes de

surveillance entrent dans le cadre de cette investigation préliminaire.
4.2.2 Modifications sur les sites de surveillance

Il convient de fixer clairement dès le début l'objectif du mesurage des modifications des propriétés du sol. Il

peut également être utile de retourner le problème et de se demander quels changements peuvent être

mesurés à l'aide de ce site ou de ce programme particulier, même si toutes les propriétés ne sont pas

nécessairement requises au départ. Les sites permettant l'expansion de l'activité au titre des besoins futurs

peuvent présenter des avantages par rapport à d'autres sites plus limités. Il peut être question que l'un des

objectifs d'un programme consiste à établir les modifications des propriétés du sol (telles que le pH, la teneur

en humus ou en substances nocives, la perméabilité à l'eau, l'activité microbiologique) ainsi que les variations

dynamiques de ces propriétés, observées de préférence sur de courtes périodes plutôt que sur des échelles

temporelles plus longues. Ceci a des implications importantes sur la quantité de sol échantillonné et, par

conséquent, sur la perturbation du site, car ce dernier peut être amené à s'adapter sans subir de modification

profonde de son fonctionnement. La possibilité d'effectuer des recherches sur d'autres compartiments

environnementaux peut favoriser l'attrait d'un site par rapport à un autre, notamment s'il intéresse un plus

grand nombre de chercheurs, d'investisseurs, etc.
4.2.3 Interprétation de l'état et des modifications

Les données relatives à l'état et aux modifications peuvent servir à interpréter les facteurs suivants:

 propriétés de référence/de base;

 dégradation/amélioration d'une ou plusieurs caractéristiques et fonctions du sol (ainsi que leurs effets sur

d'autres propriétés du sol ou du site);

 impact environnemental à court et à long termes et biodisponibilité des apports de substances étrangères,

épandage de déchets, substances d'origine atmosphérique ou aquatique ou issues d'activités de gestion

extérieures au site;
 fonctions écologiques des sols;
 fonctions de productivité des sols;

 influence sur d'autres compartiments environnementaux, ou influence de ces derniers sur le sol du site.

4.2.4 Sélection des sites

Il convient de sélectionner les sites dans la perspective de leur conformité aux objectifs du programme en

termes de géologie, de type de sol, de végétation, d'utilisation du sol, de topographie, de climat et d'habitat

écologique. Les autres critères essentiels concernent l'impact anthropique et les conditions naturelles de fond

(telles que la concentration en éléments traces, l'acidité, la salinité ou le pouvoir tampon).

Le choix de la situation géographique des sites de surveillance est souvent influencé par le degré de

connaissance préalable du paysage ou du type de sol. Lorsque relativement peu d'informations sont connues,

des approches statistiques s'avèrent souvent la solution la mieux adaptée, encore qu'elles impliquent des

recherches préliminaires considérables pour établir la variabilité de la zone considérée. D'une manière

générale, quatre orientations majeures président à la sélection de la répartition géographique. Ces choix sont

énumérés ci-après, sans ordre de priorité.

 Quadrillage régulier. Les sites sont sélectionnés sur la base d'un quadrillage régulier. Pour que cette

approche produise des données représentatives, elle exige généralement un nombre élevé de sites. La

distance entre les points du quadrillage dépend en grande partie des dimensions de la zone considérée,

ainsi que de l'amplitude de variation d'une propriété que l'on tente de mesurer. Plus l'amplitude de

variation d'une propriété à mesurer est faible, plus le nombre de sites requis pour l'étude d'une zone

donnée est élevé.
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 Approche statistique. Les sites sont sélectionnés à partir de modèles d'origine statistique ou

géostatistique visant à réduire le nombre de sites nécessaires. Toutefois, cette approche implique des

recherches préliminaires considérables, car les recherches géostatistiques visent en premier lieu à établir

un variogramme fiable pour une propriété donnée. Si les différentes propriétés présentent un degré de

dépendance spatiale inégal, comme c'est souvent le cas avec les sols, le nombre de sites requis pour

établir ces données peut être aussi élevé qu'avec un quadrillage régulier.

 Approche hypothétique. Les options de surveillance sont évaluées sur la base de leur aptitude à

détecter et quantifier les impacts résultant, par hypothèse, d'activités humaines spécifiques. La sensibilité,

l'étendue dans l'espace et la fréquence de la surveillance doivent permettre de détecter de façon

appropriée les impacts présumés. Cette approche peut également impliquer des recherches préliminaires

considérables.

 Approche typologique. Cette approche repose sur une stratification des sols en fonction de

l'exploitation du sol et/ou du type de sol, de son horizon, des matériaux initiaux, de l'étendue du sol, de la

distance de ce dernier par rapport à des sources de contamination potentielles, etc.

Pour tirer efficacement parti des ressources disponibles, il importe de toujours envisager les possibilités

d'intégrer les sites à d'autres programmes de surveillance. L'Annexe A donne des exemples de sélection de

sites de surveillance. Il convient de prendre en considération à la fois les effets synergiques et les effets

perturbateurs (par exemple ceux provoqués par les activités d'échantillonnage ou les traitements

expérimentaux) s'il est prévu d'utiliser les sites pour plusieurs programmes de surveillance.

4.3 Échantillonnage et mesurage
4.3.1 Généralités

Un plan d'échantillonnage et de mesurage constitue une partie fondamentale d'un programme de surveillance.

Il convient qu'un tel plan comprenne des procédures applicables aux domaines énumérés ci-après.

4.3.2 Conception et identification des sites

Il convient que le(s) site(s) sélectionné(s) permette(nt) de mener à bien l'ensemble des mesurages requis

conformément aux objectifs du programme de surveillance du sol, ainsi que toute autre activité de

surveillance constituant une valeur ajoutée pour ce programme. Il convient que la configuration du site

permette d'effectuer des échantillonnages répétés sans que cette activité ne nuise au fonctionnement global

du site ou des sols qu'il comprend. Il convient que le site soit protégé des perturbations extérieures

indésirables.

Le choix des points d'échantillonnage au sein du site de surveillance dépend de plusieurs facteurs. Il peut

arriver que le point d'échantillonnage implique la possibilité de forer des puits dans le profil du sol, d'installer

des instruments au sol, de procéder à des échantillonnages répétés à l'aide de tarières, ou d'introduire des

expérimentations prédéfinies visant, par exemple, à évaluer les effets de différentes méthodes de culture sur

les propriétés surveillées, etc. L'estimation de ces facteurs doit intervenir lors de l'étape préliminaire et la

conception du site doit être modifiée en vue de les inclure. Si la prise en compte de ces facteurs

complémentaires n'est pas nécessaire, le point d'échantillonnage peut être placé au centre géographique du

site de surveillance.
4.3.3 Description du site et du sol

Il convient d'effectuer la description du sol et du site conformément à l'ISO 15903 et à l'ISO 11259.

4.3.4 Échantillonnage

L'échantillonnage inclut, par exemple, la stratégie et les techniques d'échantillonnage, l'étiquetage, le

transport et le stockage. Il convient, autant que possible, de se référer aux Normes internationales (voir la

Bibliographie). Il convient d'être attentif à ce que les syst
...

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