This document addresses the measurement methods, procedures and uncertainty estimation for the measurement, using a personal dosimeter, of the effective dose to the caregiver in the vicinity of the patient treated with radioiodine to ablate the thyroid. The general requirements for the patient and caregiver and a guidance (see Annex A) for designated expert on instructing caregivers of discharged patients is considered to effectively measure the effective dose to the caregiver in the vicinity of the patient.

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This document describes radon-222 integrated measurement techniques with passive sampling. It gives indications for determining the average activity concentration of the radon-222 in the air from measurements based on easy-to-use and low-cost passive sampling, and the conditions of use for the sensors. This document covers samples taken without interruption over periods varying from a few days to one year. This measurement method is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentrations greater than 5 Bq/m3.

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This document focuses on monitoring the activity concentrations of radioactive gases. They allow the calculation of the activity releases, in the gaseous effluent discharge from facilities producing positron emitting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Such facilities produce short-lived radionuclides used for medical purposes or research and can release gases typically including, but not limited to 18F, 11C, 15O and 13N. These facilities include accelerators, radiopharmacies, hospitals and universities. This document provides performance‑based criteria for the design and use of air monitoring equipment including probes, transport lines, sample monitoring instruments, and gas flow measuring methods. This document also provides information on monitoring program objectives, quality assurance, development of air monitoring control action levels, system optimisation and system performance verification. The goal of achieving an unbiased measurement is accomplished either by direct (in-line) measurement on the exhaust stream or with samples extracted from the exhaust stream (bypass), provided that the radioactive gases are well mixed in the airstream. This document sets forth performance criteria and recommendations to assist in obtaining valid measurements. NOTE 1 The criteria and recommendations of this document are aimed at monitoring which is conducted for regulatory compliance and system control. If existing air monitoring systems were not designed according to the performance criteria and recommendations of this document, an evaluation of the performance of the system is advised. If deficiencies are discovered based on a performance evaluation, a determination of the need for a system retrofit is to be made and corrective actions adopted where practicable. NOTE 2 The criteria and recommendations of this document apply under both normal and off‑normal operating conditions, provided that these conditions do not include production of aerosols or vapours. If the normal and/or off-normal conditions produce aerosols and vapours, then the aerosol collection principles of ISO 2889 also apply.

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These international guidelines are based on the assumption that monitoring of environmental components (atmosphere, water, soil and biota) as well as food quality ensure the protection of human health[2][4][5][6][7][8]. The guidelines constitute a basis for the setting of national regulations and standards, inter alia, for monitoring air, water and food in support of public health, specifically to protect the public from ionizing radiation. This document provides — guidance to collect data needed for the assessment of human exposure to radionuclides naturally present or discharged by anthropogenic activities in the different environmental compartments (atmosphere, waters, soils, biological components) and food; — guidance on the environmental characterization needed for the prospective and/or retrospective dose assessment methods of public exposure; — guidance for staff in nuclear installations responsible for the preparation of radiological assessments in support of permit or authorization applications and national authorities' officers in charge of the assessment of doses to the public for the purposes of determining gaseous or liquid effluent radioactive discharge authorizations; — information for the public on the parameters used to conduct a dose assessment for any exposure situations to a representative person/population. It is important that the dose assessment process be transparent, and that assumptions are clearly understood by stakeholders who can participate in, for example, the selection of habits of the representative person to be considered. Generic mathematical models used for the assessment of radiological human exposure are presented to identify the parameters to monitor, in order to select, from the set of measurement results, the "best estimates" of these parameter values. More complex models are often used that require the knowledge of supplementary parameters. The reference and limit values are not included in this document.

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This document specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non‑negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008/Suppl.1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In ISO 11929-1:2019, Annex A the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences and in ISO 11929-1:2019, Annex B, measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered. ISO 11929-2 extends ISO 11929-1 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008/Suppl.1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and Bayesian statistics in measurements. ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, alpha- and gamma-spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of ISO 11929 (all parts), summarizing shortly the general procedure and then presenting a wide range of numerical examples. The examples cover elementary applications according to ISO 11929-1 and ISO 11929-2. The ISO 11929 (all parts) also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found in other International Standards, for example, see References [1 to 20].

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This document applies to the testing of surfaces that may become contaminated by radioactive materials. The ease of decontamination is a property of a surface and an important criterion for selecting surface materials used in the nuclear industry, interim storage or disposal facilities from which contamination can be removed easily and rapidly without damaging the surface. The test described in this document is a rapid laboratory-based method to compare the ease of decontamination of different surface materials. The results from the test can be one parameter to take into account when selecting surface coatings such as varnish or impervious layers such as ceramics and other surfaces. The radionuclides used in this test are those commonly found in the nuclear industry (137Cs, 134Cs and 60Co) in aqueous form. The test can also be adopted for use with other radionuclides and other chemical forms, depending on the customer requirements, if the solutions are chemically stable and do not corrode the test specimen. The test does not measure the ease of decontamination of the surface materials in practical use, as this depends on the radionuclide(s) present, their chemical form, the duration of exposure to the contaminant and the environmental conditions amongst other factors. The test method is not intended to describe general decontamination procedures or to assess the efficiency of decontamination procedures (see ISO 7503 series). The test method is not suitable for use of radiochemicals if the radionuclide emit low energy gamma rays or beta particles that are readily attenuated in the surface.

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The purpose of this document is to provide minimum criteria required for quality assurance and quality control, evaluation of the performance and to facilitate the comparison of measurements related to absorbed dose estimation obtained in different laboratories applying ex vivo X-band EPR spectroscopy with human tooth enamel. This document covers the determination of absorbed dose in tooth enamel (hydroxyapatite). It does not cover the calculation of dose to organs or to the body. This document addresses: a) responsibilities of the customer and laboratory; b) confidentiality and ethical considerations; c) laboratory safety requirements; d) the measurement apparatus; e) preparation of samples; f) measurement of samples and EPR signal evaluation; g) calibration of EPR dose response; h) dose uncertainty and performance test; i) quality assurance and control.

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The primary purpose of this document is to provide minimum acceptable criteria required to establish a procedure for retrospective dosimetry by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and to report the results. The second purpose is to facilitate the comparison of measurements related to absorbed dose estimation obtained in different laboratories. This document covers the determination of absorbed dose in the measured material. It does not cover the calculation of dose to organs or to the body. It covers measurements in both biological and inanimate samples, and specifically: a) based on inanimate environmental materials like glass, plastics, clothing fabrics, saccharides, etc., usually made at X-band microwave frequencies (8 GHz to 12 GHz); b) in vitro tooth enamel using concentrated enamel in a sample tube, usually employing X-band frequency, but higher frequencies are also being considered; c) in vivo tooth dosimetry, currently using L-band (1 GHz to 2 GHz), but higher frequencies are also being considered; d) in vitro nail dosimetry using nail clippings measured principally at X-band, but higher frequencies are also being considered; e) in vivo nail dosimetry with the measurements made at X-band on the intact finger or toe; f) in vitro measurements of bone, usually employing X-band frequency, but higher frequencies are also being considered. For biological samples, in vitro measurements are carried out in samples after their removal from the person or animal and under laboratory conditions, whereas the measurements in vivo are carried out without sample removal and may take place under field conditions. NOTE The dose referred to in this document is the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation in the measured materials.

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This document specifies methods and procedures for characterizing the responses of devices used for the determination of ambient dose equivalent for the evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft. The methods and procedures are intended to be understood as minimum requirements.

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This document specifies the conceptual basis for the determination of ambient dose equivalent for the evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft and for the calibration of instruments used for that purpose.

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This document specifies the different leakage test methods for sealed sources. It gives a comprehensive set of procedures using radioactive and non-radioactive means. This document applies to the following situations: — leakage testing of test sources following design classification testing in accordance with ISO 2919[1]; — production quality control testing of sealed sources; — periodic inspections of the sealed sources performed at regular intervals, during the working life. Annex A of this document gives guidance to the user in the choice of the most suitable method(s) according to situation and source type. It is recognized that there can be circumstances where special tests, not described in this document, are required. It is emphasized, however, that insofar as production, use, storage and transport of sealed radioactive sources are concerned, compliance with this document is no substitute for complying with the requirements of the relevant IAEA regulations[17] and other relevant national regulations. It is also recognized that countries can enact statutory regulations which specify exemptions for tests, according to sealed source type, design, working environment, and activity (e.g., for very low activity reference sources where the total activity is less than the leakage test limit).

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This document specifies the characteristics of reference measurement standards of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This document relates to alpha-emitters, beta-emitters, and photon emitters of maximum photon energy not greater than 1,5 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference measurement standards for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC 60325[6], IEC 62363[7], and other documents. NOTE Since some of the proposed photon standards include filters, the photon standards are to be regarded as reference measurement standards of photons of a particular energy range and not as reference measurement standards of a particular radionuclide. For example, a 241Am source with the recommended filtration does not emit from the surface the alpha particles or characteristic low-energy L X-ray photons associated with the decay of the nuclide. It is designed to be a reference measurement standard that emits photons with an average energy of approximately 60 keV. This document also specifies preferred reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. These reference radiations are realized in the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of surface emission rate and activity which are traceable to national standards.

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The use of a continuous air monitor (CAM) is mainly motivated by the need to be alerted quickly and in the most accurate way possible with an acceptable false alarm rate when significant activity concentration value is exceeded, in order to take appropriate measures to reduce exposure of those involved. The performance of this CAM does not only depend on the metrological aspect characterized by the decision threshold, the limit of detection and the measurement uncertainties but also on its dynamic capacity characterized by its response time as well as on the minimum detectable activity concentration corresponding to an acceptable false alarm rate. The ideal performance is to have a minimum detectable activity concentration as low as possible associated with a very short response time, but unfortunately these two criteria are in opposition. It is therefore important that the CAM and the choice of the adjustment parameters and the alarm levels be in line with the radiation protection objectives. This document describes — the dynamic behaviour and the determination of the response time, — the determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit, limits of the coverage interval), and — a possible way to determine the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup. Finally the annexes of this document show actual examples of CAM data which illustrate how to quantify the CAM performance by determining the response time, the characteristics limits, the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup.

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The use of a continuous air monitor (CAM) is mainly motivated by the need to be alerted quickly and in the most accurate way possible with an acceptable false alarm rate when a significant activity concentration value is exceeded, in order to take appropriate measures to reduce exposure of those involved. The performance of this CAM does not only depend on the metrological aspect characterized by the decision threshold, the limit of detection and the measurement uncertainties but also on its dynamic capacity characterized by its response time as well as on the minimum detectable activity concentration corresponding to an acceptable false alarm rate. The ideal performance is to have a minimum detectable activity concentration as low as possible associated with a very short response time, but unfortunately these two criteria are in opposition. It is therefore important that the CAM and the choice of the adjustment parameters and the alarm levels be in line with the radiation protection objectives. The knowledge of a few factors is needed to interpret the response of a CAM and to select the appropriate CAM type and its operating parameters. Among those factors, it is important to know the half-lives of the radionuclides involved, in order to select the appropriate detection system and its associated model of evaluation. CAM using filter media accumulation sampling techniques are usually of two types: a) fixed filter; b) moving filter. This document first describes the theory of operation of each CAM type i.e.: — the different models of evaluation considering short or long radionuclides half-lives values, — the dynamic behaviour and the determination of the response time. In most case, CAM is used when radionuclides with important radiotoxicities are involved (small value of ALI). Those radionuclides have usually long half-life values. Then the determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit, limits of the coverage interval) of a CAM is described by the use of long half-life models of evaluation. Finally, a possible way to determine the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup is pointed out. The annexes of this document show actual examples of CAM data which illustrate how to quantify the CAM performance by determining the response time, the characteristics limits, the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup.

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This document specifies the requirements for personal contamination monitoring and dose assessment following wounds involving radioactive materials. It includes requirements for the direct monitoring at the wound site, monitoring of uptake of radionuclides into the body and assessment of local and systemic doses following the wound event. It does not address: — details of monitoring and assessment methods for specific radionuclides; — monitoring and dose assessment for materials in contact with intact skin or pre-existing wounds, including hot particles; — therapeutic protocols. However, the responsible entity needs to address the requirements for decontamination and decorporation treatments if appropriate.

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This document describes continuous measurement methods for radon-222. It gives indications for continuous measuring of the temporal variations of radon activity concentration in open or confined atmospheres. This document is intended for assessing temporal changes in radon activity concentration in the environment, in public buildings, in homes and in work places, as a function of influence quantities such as ventilation and/or meteorological conditions. The measurement method described is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentration greater than 5 Bq/m3.

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This document describes radon-222 spot measurement methods. It gives indications for carrying out spot measurements, at the scale of a few minutes at a given place, of the radon activity concentration in open and confined atmospheres. This measurement method is intended for rapid assessment of the radon activity concentration in the air. The result cannot be extrapolated to an annual estimate of the radon activity concentration. This type of measurement is therefore not applicable for assessment of the annual exposure or for determining whether or not to mitigate citizen exposures to radon or radon decay products. The measurement method described is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentration greater than 50 Bq·m−3. NOTE For example, using an appropriate device, the radon activity concentration can be spot measured in the soil and at the interface of a material with the atmosphere (see also ISO 11665-7[8]).

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This document describes spot measurement methods for determining the activity concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products in the air and for calculating the potential alpha energy concentration. This document gives indications for performing a spot measurement of the potential alpha energy concentration, after sampling at a given place for several minutes, and the conditions of use for the measuring devices. The measurement method described is applicable for a rapid assessment of the potential alpha energy concentration. The result obtained cannot be extrapolated to an annual estimate potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products. Thus, this type of measurement is not applicable for the assessment of annual exposure or for determining whether or not to mitigate citizen exposures to radon or radon decay products. This measurement method is applicable to air samples with potential alpha energy concentration greater than 5 nJ/m3. NOTE This document does not address the potential contribution of radon-220 decay products.

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This document describes a method for measuring 238Pu and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques. The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides. The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8]. The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

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This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories. These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout. In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr. The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure. Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

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This document provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. It applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation. The gross α or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions. Soil includes rock from bedrock and ore as well as construction materials and products, potery, etc. using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use. The test methods described in this document can also be used to assess gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8]. For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

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This document specifies requirements for the determination of the activity concentration of radon in all types of buildings. The buildings can be single family houses, public buildings, industrial buildings, underground buildings, etc. This document describes the measurement methods used to assess, during the initial investigation phase, the average annual activity concentration of radon in buildings. It also deals with investigations needed to identify the source, entry routes and transfer pathways of the radon in the building (additional investigations). Finally, this document outlines the applicable requirements for the immediate post‑mitigation testing of the implemented mitigation techniques, monitoring of their effectiveness and testing of the sustainability of the building's behaviour towards radon. This document does not address the technical building diagnostic or the prescription of mitigation work.

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This document specifies the dose assessment method when an RPLD is used for dosimetry audit in external high-energy X-ray beam radiotherapy. The dosimetry for electron beams and X-ray beams of stereotactic radiotherapy, gamma‑ray of brachytherapy is not included in this version. This document addresses RPLD handling, measurement method, conversion of measured value to dose, necessary correction coefficient, and the performance requirements for RPLD systems, including the reader.

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This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use. For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above. This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply. This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following: — define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement; — describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils; — define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples; — present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity; — identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil. This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases: — initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment; — routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory; — investigations of accident and incident situations; — planning and surveillance of remedial action; — decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements for the design of professional programmes to monitor workers exposed to a risk of ingestion to uranium compounds. This document establishes principles for the development of compatible goals and requirements for monitoring programmes and dose assessment for workers occupationally exposed to internal contamination. It establishes procedures and assumptions for risk analysis, monitoring programmes and the standardized interpretation of monitoring data in order to achieve acceptable levels of reliability for uranium and its compounds. It sets limits for the applicability of the procedures in respect to dose levels above which more sophisticated methods need to be applied. This document addresses those circumstances when exposure could be constrained by either radiological or chemical toxicity concerns. This document addresses, for ingestion of uranium and its compounds, the following items: a) purposes of monitoring and monitoring programmes; b) description of the different categories of monitoring programmes; c) suitable methods for monitoring and criteria for their selection; d) information that is collected for the design of a monitoring programme; e) procedures for dose assessment based on reference levels for special monitoring programmes; f) criteria for determining the significance of monitoring results; g) uncertainties arising from dose assessment and interpretation of bioassays data; h) reporting/documentation; i) quality assurance; j) record keeping requirements. It is not applicable to the following items: a) detailed descriptions of measuring methods and techniques for uranium; b) modelling for the improvement of internal dosimetry; c) potential influence of counter-measures (e.g. administration of chelating agents); d) investigation of the causes or implications of an exposure; e) dosimetry for inhalation exposures and for contaminated wounds.

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This document outlines guidance for measuring radon-222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in the air. The measurement methods fall into three categories: a) spot measurement methods; b) continuous measurement methods; c) integrated measurement methods. This document provides several methods commonly used for measuring radon-222 and its short-lived decay products in air. This document also provides guidance on the determination of the inherent uncertainty linked to the measurement methods described in its different parts.

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This document describes integrated measurement methods for short-lived radon‑222 decay products[4]. It gives indications for measuring the average potential alpha energy concentration of short‑lived radon-222 decay products in the air and the conditions of use for the measuring devices. This document covers samples taken over periods varying from a few weeks to one year. This document is not applicable to systems with a maximum sampling duration of less than one week. The measurement method described is applicable to air samples with potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products greater than 10 nJ/m3 and lower than 1 000 nJ/m3. NOTE For informative purposes only, this document also addresses the case of radon-220 decay products, given the similarity in behaviour of the radon isotopes 222 and 220.

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This document describes rules for the procedures, applications, and systems of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for dose measurements according to the probe method. It is particularly applicable to solid "TL detectors", i.e. rods, chips, and microcubes, made from LiF:Mg,Ti or LiF:Mg,Cu,P in crystalline or polycrystalline form. It is not applicable to LiF powders because their use requires special procedures. The probe method encompasses the arrangement, particularly in a water phantom or in a tissue-equivalent phantom, of single TL detectors or of "TL probes", i.e. sets of TL detectors arranged in thin-walled polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) casings. The purpose of these rules is to guarantee the reliability and the accuracy indispensable in clinical dosimetry when applied on or in the patient or phantom. This document applies to dosimetry in teletherapy with both photon radiation from 20 keV to 50 MeV and electron radiation from 4 MeV to 25 MeV, as well as in brachytherapy with photon-emitting radionuclides. These applications are complementary to the use of ionization chambers.

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This document describes the methods for determining the activity in becquerel (Bq) of gamma‑ray emitting radionuclides in test samples by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurements are carried out in a testing laboratory following proper sample preparation. The test samples can be solid, liquid or gaseous. Applications include: — routine surveillance of radioactivity released from nuclear installations or from sites discharging enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials; — contributing to determining the evolution of radioactivity in the environment; — investigating accident and incident situations, in order to plan remedial actions and monitor their effectiveness; — assessment of potentially contaminated waste materials from nuclear decommissioning activities; — surveillance of radioactive contamination in media such as soils, foodstuffs, potable water, groundwaters, seawater or sewage sludge; — measurements for estimating the intake (inhalation, ingestion or injection) of activity of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in the body. It is assumed that the user of this document has been given information on the composition of the test sample or the site. In some cases, the radionuclides for analysis have also been specified if characteristic limits are needed. It is also assumed that the test sample has been homogenised and is representative of the material under test. General guidance is included for preparing the samples for measurement. However, some types of sample are to be prepared following the requirements of specific standards referred to in this document. The generic recommendations can also be useful for the measurement of gamma-ray emitters in situ. This document includes generic advice on equipment selection (see Annex A), detectors (more detailed information is included in Annex D), and commissioning of instrumentation and method validation. Annex F summarises the influence of different measurement parameters on results for a typical gamma-ray spectrometry system. Quality control and routine maintenance are also covered, but electrical testing of the detector and pulse processing electronics is excluded. It is assumed that any data collection and analysis software used has been written and tested in accordance with relevant software standards such as ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207. Calibration using reference sources and/or numerical methods is covered, including verification of the results. It also covers the procedure to estimate the activity content of the sample (Bq) from the spectrum. The principles set out in this document are applicable to measurements by gamma-ray spectrometry in testing laboratories and in situ. However, the detailed requirements for in situ measurement are given in ISO 18589-7 and are outside the scope of this document. This document covers, but is not restricted to, gamma-ray emitters which emit photons in the energy range of 5 keV to 3 000 keV. However, most of the measurements fall into the range 40 keV to 2 000 keV. The activity (Bq) ranges from the low levels (sub-Bq) found in environmental samples to activities found in accident conditions and high level radioactive wastes.

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This document is intended for the validation of codes used for the calculation of doses received by individuals on board aircraft. It gives guidance to radiation protection authorities and code developers on the basic functional requirements which the code fulfils. Depending on any formal approval by a radiation protection authority, additional requirements concerning the software testing can apply.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the free radon exhalation rate of a batch of mineral based building materials. This document only refers to 222Rn exhalation determination using two test methods: liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and gamma ray spectrometry (see Annex A and Annex B). The exhalation of thoron (220Rn) does not affect the test result when applying the determination methods described in this document.

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The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and evaluation of the performance of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories. This document addresses: a) the responsibilities of both the customer and the laboratory; b) the confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the laboratory; c) the laboratory safety requirements; d) sample processing; culturing, staining and scoring, including the criteria for scoring for translocation analysis by FISH; e) the calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose‑response curves that contribute to the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency and the detection limit; f) the scoring procedure for translocations stained by FISH used for evaluation of exposure; g) the criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose (also appears as "dose"); h) the reporting of results; i) the QA and QC; j) Annexes A to F containing sample instructions for the customer, sample questionnaire, sample datasheet for recording aberrations, sample of report and fitting of the low dose-response curve by the method of maximum likelihood and calculating the uncertainty of dose estimate.

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The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the GUM Supplement 1 in this document, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A of ISO 11929-1:2019 the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered in Annex B of ISO 11929-1:2019. This document extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. It also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements. ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of ISO 11929, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. Information on the statistical roots of ISO 11929 and on its current development may be found elsewhere[30,31]. ISO 11929 also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[1], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[6], ISO 28218[7], and ISO 11885[8]. NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 119291 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[27][28] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/en/fi/fields-of-activity/marine-environment/coordination-centre-of-radioactivity/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available. . Another tool is the package ?metRology'[32] which is available for programming in R. It contains the two R functions ?uncert' and ?uncertMC' which perform the GUM conform uncertainty propagation, either analytically or by the Monte Carlo method, respectively. Covariances/correlations of input quantities are included. Applying these two functions within iterations for decision threshold and the detection limit calculations simplifies the programming effort significantly. It is also possible to implement this part of ISO 11929 in a spreadsheet containing a Monte Carlo add-in or into other commercial mathematics software.

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The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in this document, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 3-1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. This document covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A, the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered in Annex B. ISO 11929-2 extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements. ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of the ISO 11929 series, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. Information on the statistical roots of ISO 11929 and on its current development may be found elsewhere[33][34]. The ISO 11929 series also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[1], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[6], ISO 28218[7], and ISO 11665[8]. NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 11929-1 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[31][32] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/de/fi/arbeitsbereiche/meeresumwelt/leitstelle-umweltradioaktivitaet-in-fisch/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available.

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The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in this document, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A of ISO 11929-1:2019, the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters, are covered in Annex B of ISO 11929-1:2019. ISO 11929-2 extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements. This document deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of the ISO 11929 series, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. ISO 11929 Standard also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[7], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[1], ISO 28218[8], and ISO 11665[6]. NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 11929- 1 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[35][36] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/en/fi/fields-of-activity/marine-environment/coordination-centre-of-radioactivity/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available.

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This document specifies additional procedures and data for the calibration of dosemeters and doserate meters used for individual and area monitoring in radiation protection. The general procedure for the calibration and the determination of the response of radiation protection dose(rate)meters is described in ISO 29661 and is followed as far as possible. For this purpose, the photon reference radiation fields with mean energies between 8 keV and 9 MeV, as specified in ISO 4037-1, are used. In Annex D some additional information on reference conditions, required standard test conditions and effects associated with electron ranges are given. For individual monitoring, both whole body and extremity dosemeters are covered and for area monitoring, both portable and installed dose(rate)meters are covered. Charged particle equilibrium is needed for the reference fields although this is not always established in the workplace fields for which the dosemeter should be calibrated. This is especially true at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV, 0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths. This document also deals with the determination of the response as a function of photon energy and angle of radiation incidence. Such measurements can represent part of a type test in the course of which the effect of further influence quantities on the response is examined. This document is only applicable for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h. This document does not cover the in-situ calibration of fixed installed area dosemeters. The procedures to be followed for the different types of dosemeters are described. Recommendations are given on the phantom to be used and on the conversion coefficients to be applied. Recommended conversion coefficients are only given for matched reference radiation fields, which are specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Clauses 4 to 6. ISO 4037‑1:2019, Annexes A and B, both informative, include fluorescent radiations, the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, for which detailed published information is not available. ISO 4037-1:2019, Annex C, gives additional X radiation fields, which are specified by the quality index. For all these radiation qualities, conversion coefficients are given in Annexes A to C, but only as a rough estimate as the overall uncertainty of these conversion coefficients in practical reference radiation fields is not known. NOTE The term dosemeter is used as a generic term denoting any dose or doserate meter for individual or area monitoring.

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This document specifies the procedures for the dosimetry of X and gamma reference radiation for the calibration of radiation protection instruments over the energy range from approximately 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and from 4 MeV to 9 MeV and for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h. The considered measuring quantities are the air kerma free-in-air, Ka, and the phantom related operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)[2], H*(10), Hp(10), H'(3), Hp(3), H'(0,07) and Hp(0,07), together with the respective dose rates. The methods of production are given in ISO 4037-1. This document can also be used for the radiation qualities specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Annexes A, B and C, but this does not mean that a calibration certificate for radiation qualities described in these annexes is in conformity with the requirements of ISO 4037. The requirements and methods given in this document are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2) of the dose(rate) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference fields. To achieve this, two production methods of the reference fields are proposed in ISO 4037-1. The first is to produce "matched reference fields", which follow the requirements so closely that recommended conversion coefficients can be used. The existence of only a small difference in the spectral distribution of the "matched reference field" compared to the nominal reference field is validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in this document. For matched reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037-3 only for specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used. The second method is to produce "characterized reference fields". Either this is done by determining the conversion coefficients using spectrometry, or the required value is measured directly using secondary standard dosimeters. This method applies to any radiation quality, for any measuring quantity and, if applicable, for any phantom and angle of radiation incidence. The conversion coefficients can be determined for any distance, provided the air kerma rate is not below 1 µGy/h. Both methods require charged particle equilibrium for the reference field. However this is not always established in the workplace field for which the dosemeter shall be calibrated. This is especially true at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV, 0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths. This document is not applicable for the dosimetry of pulsed reference fields.

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This document specifies the characteristics and production methods of X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating protection-level dosemeters and doserate meters with respect to the phantom related operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)[5]. The lowest air kerma rate for which this standard is applicable is 1 µGy h?1. Below this air kerma rate the (natural) background radiation needs special consideration and this is not included in this document. For the radiation qualities specified in Clauses 4 to 6, sufficient published information is available to specify the requirements for all relevant parameters of the matched or characterized reference fields in order to achieve the targeted overall uncertainty (k = 2) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities. The X ray radiation fields described in the informative Annexes A to C are not designated as reference X-radiation fields. NOTE The first edition of ISO 4037-1, issued in 1996, included some additional radiation qualities for which such published information is not available. These are fluorescent radiations, the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, and the high energy photon radiations R-Ti and R-Ni, which have been removed from the main part of this document. The most widely used radiations, the fluorescent radiations and the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, are included nearly unchanged in the informative Annexes A and B. The informative Annex C gives additional X radiation fields, which are specified by the quality index. The methods for producing a group of reference radiations for a particular photon-energy range are described in Clauses 4 to 6, which define the characteristics of these radiations. The three groups of reference radiation are: a) in the energy range from about 8 keV to 330 keV, continuous filtered X radiation; b) in the energy range 600 keV to 1,3 MeV, gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides; c) in the energy range 4 MeV to 9 MeV, photon radiation produced by accelerators. The reference radiation field most suitable for the intended application can be selected from Table 1, which gives an overview of all reference radiation qualities specified in Clauses 4 to 6. It does not include the radiations specified in the Annexes A, B and C. The requirements and methods given in Clauses 4 to 6 are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2) of the dose(rate) value of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference fields. To achieve this, two production methods are proposed: The first one is to produce "matched reference fields", whose properties are sufficiently well-characterized so as to allow the use of the conversion coefficients recommended in ISO 4037-3. The existence of only a small difference in the spectral distribution of the "matched reference field" compared to the nominal reference field is validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in ISO 4037‑2. For matched reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037‑3 only for specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used. If both values are very similar, e.g., differ only by 2 % or less, then a linear interpolation may be used. The second method is to produce "characterized reference fields". Either this is done by determining the conversion coefficients using spectrometry, or the required value is measured directly using secondary standard dosimeters. This method applies to any radiation quality, for any measuring quantity and, if applicable, for any phantom and angle of radiation incidence. In addition, the requirements on the parameters specifying the reference radiations depend on the definition depth in the phantom, i.e., 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm, therefore, the requirements a

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This document gives guidelines on additional aspects of the characterization of low energy photon radiations and on the procedures for calibration and determination of the response of area and personal dose(rate)meters as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence. This document concentrates on the accurate determination of conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(10), H*(10), Hp(3) and H'(3) and for the spectra of low energy photon radiations. As an alternative to the use of conversion coefficients the direct calibration in terms of these quantities by means of appropriate reference instruments is described.

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This document specifies the method intended for assessing the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials such as bitumen or polymeric membranes, coatings or paints, as well as assumptions and boundary conditions which will be met during the test. The test method described in this document allows to estimate the radon diffusion coefficient in the range of 10-5 m2/s to 10-12 m2/s[8][9] with an associated uncertainty from 10 % to 40 %.

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This document specifies the requirements applicable to the design and use of airborne confinement systems that ensure safety and radioprotection functions in nuclear worksites and in nuclear installations under decommissioning to protect from radioactive contamination produced: aerosol or gas. The purpose of confinement systems is to protect the workers, members of the public and environment against the spread of radioactive contamination resulting from operations in nuclear worksites and from nuclear installations under decommissioning. The confinement of nuclear worksites and of nuclear installations under decommissioning is characterized by the temporary and evolving (dynamic) nature of the operations to be performed. These operations often take place in area not specifically designed for this purpose. This document applies to maintenance or upgrades at worksites which fit the above definition. NOTE The requirements for the design and use of ventilation and confinement systems and for liquid confinement in nuclear reactors or in nuclear installations other than nuclear worksites and nuclear installations under decommissioning are developed in other ISO standards.

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This document establishes a method for radioactivity measurement and determination of the storage periods of the radioactive wastes produced as a result of the medical application of radioisotopes based on counting measurements using a detector and decay correction of the initial activity concentration of the radioisotopes contained in the waste stream. It provides a set of controls and measurements for the self-clearance of the radioactive wastes by which the medical facility can be assured of meeting the clearance level. This document can also be used by testing laboratories or radioactive waste disposal operators. This document can also be useful for the guidance of the regulatory body. NOTE Due to the nature of the tests outlined, this document cannot be applied to pure beta emitting nuclides nor to alpha emitting nuclides with low energy gamma rays.

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The quality of a supplier of a dosimetry service depends on both the characteristics of the approved (type‑tested) dosimetry system[1] and the training and experience of the staff, together with the calibration procedures and quality assurance programmes. This document specifies the criteria and the test procedures to be used for the periodic verification of the performance of dosimetry services supplying personal and/or area dosemeters. An area dosemeter can be a workplace dosemeter or an environmental dosemeter. The performance evaluation can be carried out as a part of the approval procedure for a dosimetry system or as an independent check to verify that a dosimetry service fulfils specified national or international type test performance requirements under representative exposure conditions that are expected or mimic workplace fields from the radiological activities being monitored. This document applies to personal and area dosemeters for the assessment of external photon radiation with a (fluence weighted) mean energy between 8 keV and 10 MeV, beta radiation with a (fluence weighted) mean energy between 60 keV and 1,2 MeV, and neutron radiation with a (fluence weighted) mean energy between 25,3 meV (i.e. thermal neutrons with a Maxwellian energy distribution with kT = 25,3 meV) and 200 MeV. It covers all types of personal and area dosemeters needing laboratory processing (e.g. thermoluminescent, optically stimulated luminescence, radiophotoluminescent, track detectors or photographic-film dosemeters) and involving continuous measurements or measurements repeated regularly at fixed time intervals (e.g. several weeks, one month). Active dosemeters (for dose measurement) may also be treated according to this document. Then, they should be treated as if they were passive (i.e. the dosimetry service reads their indicated values and reports them to the evaluation organization). [1] If this document is applied to a dosimetry system for which no approval (pattern or type test) has been provided, then in the following text approval or type test should be read as the technical data sheet provided by the manufacturer or as the data sheet required by the regulatory authority.

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ISO/TS 11665-13:2017 specifies the different methods intended for assessing the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials such as bitumen or polymeric membranes, coatings or paints, as well as assumptions and boundary conditions that shall be met during the test. ISO/TS 11665-13:2017 is not applicable for porous materials, where radon diffusion depends on porosity and moisture content.

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ISO 19581 specifies a screening test method to quantify rapidly the activity concentration of gamma-emitting radionuclides, such as 131I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs, in solid or liquid test samples using gamma-ray spectrometry with lower resolution scintillation detectors as compared with the HPGe detectors (see IEC 61563). This test method can be used for the measurement of any potentially contaminated environmental matrices (including soil), food and feed samples as well as industrial materials or products that have been properly conditioned. Sample preparation techniques used in the screening method are not specified in ISO 19581, since special sample preparation techniques other than simple machining (cutting, grinding, etc.) should not be required. Although the sampling procedure is of utmost importance in the case of the measurement of radioactivity in samples, it is out of scope of ISO 19581; other international standards for sampling procedures that can be used in combination with ISO 19581 are available (see References [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]). The test method applies to the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. Using sample sizes of 0,5 l to 1,0 l in a Marinelli beaker and a counting time of 5 min to 20 min, decision threshold of 10 Bq·kg−1 can be achievable using a commercially available scintillation spectrometer [e.g. thallium activated sodium iodine (NaI(Tl)) spectrometer 2" ϕ × 2" detector size, 7 % resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV, 30 mm lead shield thickness]. This test method also can be performed in a "makeshift" laboratory or even outside a testing laboratory on samples directly measured in the field where they were collected. During a nuclear or radiological emergency, this test method enables a rapid measurement of the sample activity concentration of potentially contaminated samples to check against operational intervention levels (OILs) set up by decision makers that would trigger a predetermined emergency response to reduce existing radiation risks[12]. Due to the uncertainty associated with the results obtained with this test method, test samples requiring more accurate test results can be measured using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors gamma-ray spectrometry in a testing laboratory, following appropriate preparation of the test samples[7][8]. ISO 19581 does not contain criteria to establish the activity concentration of OILs.

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ISO 19361:2017 applies to liquid scintillation counters and requires the preparation of a scintillation source obtained by mixing the test sample and a scintillation cocktail. The test sample can be liquid (aqueous or organic), or solid (particles or filter or planchet). ISO 19361:2017describes the conditions for measuring the activity of beta emitter radionuclides by liquid scintillation counting[14][15]. The choice of the test method using liquid scintillation counting involves the consideration of the potential presence of other beta emitter radionuclides in the test sample. In this case, a specific sample treatment by separation or extraction is implemented to isolate the radionuclide of interest in order to avoid any interference with other beta-, alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides during the counting phase. ISO 19361:2017 is applicable to all types of liquid samples having an activity concentration ranging from a few Bq·l−1 to 106 Bq·l−1. For a liquid test sample, it is possible to dilute liquid test samples in order to obtain a solution having an activity compatible with the measuring instrument. For solid samples, the activity of the prepared scintillation source shall be compatible with the measuring instrument. The measurement range is related to the test method used: nature of test portion, preparation of the scintillator - test portion mixture, measuring assembly as well as to the presence of the co-existing activities due to interfering radionuclides. Test portion preparations (such as distillation for 3H measurement, or benzene synthesis for 14C measurement, etc.) are outside the scope of this document and are described in specific test methods using liquid scintillation[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9].

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The scope of ISO 18417:2017 covers - iodine sorbents for nuclear power plants, nuclear facilities, research and other nuclear reactors, - iodine sorbents for laboratories, including nuclear medicine, and - iodine sorbents for sampling equipment on sample lines. ISO 18417:2017 applies to iodine sorbents manufacturers and operators in order to measure the actual performance of these sorbents and their sorption capacity for radioiodine. ISO 18417:2017 applies to granulated and crushed iodine sorbents based on activated charcoal (hereinafter referred to as "sorbents") used for trapping gaseous radioiodine and its compounds. This document establishes the method and conditions for defining sorption capacity index in a laboratory.

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ISO 16639:2017 provides guidelines and performance criteria for sampling airborne radioactive substances in the workplace. Emphasis is on health protection of workers in the indoor environment. ISO 16639:2017 provides best practices and performance-based criteria for the use of air sampling devices and systems, including retrospective samplers and continuous air monitors. Specifically, this document covers air sampling program objectives, design of air sampling and monitoring programs to meet program objectives, methods for air sampling and monitoring in the workplace, and quality assurance to ensure system performance toward protecting workers against unnecessary inhalation exposures. The primary purpose of the surveillance of airborne activity concentrations in the workplace is to evaluate and mitigate inhalation hazards to workers in facilities where these can become airborne. A comprehensive surveillance program can be used to - determine the effectiveness of administrative and engineering controls for confinement, - measure activity concentrations of radioactive substances, - alert workers to high activity concentrations in the air, - aid in estimating worker intakes when bioassay methods are unavailable, - determine signage or posting requirements for radiation protection, and - determine appropriate protective equipment and measures. Air sampling techniques consist of two general approaches. The first approach is retrospective sampling, in which the air is sampled, the collection medium is removed and taken to a radiation detector system and analysed for radioactive substance, and the concentration results made available at a later time. In this context, the measured air concentrations are evaluated retrospectively. The second approach is continuous real-time air monitoring so that workers can be warned that a significant release of airborne radioactivity may have just occurred. In implementing an effective air sampling program, it is important to achieve a balance between the two general approaches. The specific balance depends on hazard level of the work and the characteristics of each facility. A special component of the second approach which can apply, if properly implemented, is the preparation of continuous air monitoring instrumentation and protocols. This enables radiation protection monitoring of personnel that have been trained and fitted with personal protective equipment (PPE) that permit pre-planned, defined, extended stay time in elevated concentrations of airborne radioactive substances. Such approaches can occur either as part of a planned re-entry of a contaminated area following an accidental loss of containment for accident assessment and recovery, or part of a project which involves systematic or routine access to radioactive substances (e.g. preparing process material containing easily aerosolized components), or handling objects such as poorly characterized waste materials that may contain radioactive contaminants that could be aerosolized when handled during repackaging. In this special case, the role of continuous air monitoring is to provide an alert to health physics personnel that the air concentrations of concern have exceeded a threshold such that the planned level of protection afforded by PPE has been or could be exceeded. This level would typically be many 10's or 100's of times higher than the derived air concentration (DAC) established for unprotected workers. The monitoring alarm or alert would therefore be designed not to be confused with the normal monitoring alarm, and the action taken in response would be similarly targeted at the specific site and personnel involved. The air sampling strategy should be designed to minimize internal exposures and balanced with social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations that are associated with the use of the radioactive substance. A comprehensive air sampling strategy should also consider that the air sampl

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ISO 18310-1:2017 specifies suitable methods for the measurement of ambient dose equivalent rate at a distance from the patient treated with radioiodine to ablate the thyroid. For this purpose, direct measurement of the ambient dose equivalent rate due to the inpatients using an ionization chamber (or other suitable devices) may be employed. ISO 18310-1:2017 addresses the measurement methods, the calibration of ionization chamber and the uncertainty estimation for the measurement of the ambient dose equivalent rate of the patient treated with radioiodine to ablate the thyroid using the ionization chamber.

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    22 pages
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