Plastics — Environmental aspects — General guidelines for their inclusion in standards

ISO 17422:2002 provides a structure for inclusion of environmental aspects in standards for plastics products. It proposes an approach which is directed at minimizing any adverse environmental impact without detracting from the primary purpose of ensuring adequate fitness for use of the products under consideration. The guidance provided by this International Standard is intended primarily for use by standards writers. Over and above its primary purpose, however, the standard provides guidance of value to those involved in design work and other activities where environmental aspects of plastics are being considered. NOTE This International Standard is intended to promote the following practices: the use of techniques for identifying and assessing the environmental impact of technical provisions in standards, and for minimizing their adverse effects; the adoption of good practices such as: procedures for pollution avoidance, material and energy conservation in the light of the intended use (and foreseeable misuse) of the product, safe use of hazardous substances, avoidance of technically unjustifiable restrictive practices, promotion of performance criteria rather than exclusion clauses such as are based, for example, only on chemical composition criteria; the adoption of a balanced approach in standards development to issues such as environmental impact, product function and performance, health and safety, and other regulatory requirements; the regular review and revision of existing standards in the light of technical innovations, permitting improvement in the environmental impact of products and processes; the application of life cycle analytical approaches wherever applicable and technically justifiable.

Matières plastiques — Aspects liés à l'environnement — Lignes directrices générales pour leur prise en compte dans les normes

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
09-Oct-2002
Withdrawal Date
09-Oct-2002
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
10-Jul-2018
Completion Date
10-Jul-2018
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17422
First edition
2002-09-15
Plastics — Environmental aspects —
General guidelines for their inclusion in
standards
Matières plastiques — Aspects liés à l'environnement — Lignes directrices
générales pour leur prise en compte dans les normes
Reference number
ISO 17422:2002(E)
ISO 2002
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17422:2002(E)
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ii © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17422:2002(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .................................................................................................................................................................... iv

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references.................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Inclusion of environmental aspects in standards ..................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Test method standards................................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Product standards......................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (informative) Scope and limitations of life cycle analysis ...................................................................... 6

Bibliography.............................................................................................................................................................. 11

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17422:2002(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted

by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International

Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 17422 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics.
Annex A of this International Standard is for information only.
iv © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17422:2002(E)
Plastics — Environmental aspects — General guidelines for their
inclusion in standards
1 Scope

This International Standard provides a structure for inclusion of environmental aspects in standards for plastics

products. It proposes an approach which is directed at minimizing any adverse environmental impact without

detracting from the primary purpose of ensuring adequate fitness for use of the products under consideration.

The guidance provided by this International Standard is intended primarily for use by standards writers. Over and

above its primary purpose, however, the standard provides guidance of value to those involved in design work and

other activities where environmental aspects of plastics are being considered.
NOTE This International Standard is intended to promote the following practices:

a) the use of techniques for identifying and assessing the environmental impact of technical provisions in standards, and for

minimizing their adverse effects;
b) the adoption of good practices such as:
1) procedures for pollution avoidance,

2) material and energy conservation in the light of the intended use (and foreseeable misuse) of the product,

3) safe use of hazardous substances,
4) avoidance of technically unjustifiable restrictive practices,

5) promotion of performance criteria rather than exclusion clauses such as are based, for example, only on chemical

composition criteria;

c) the adoption of a balanced approach in standards development to issues such as environmental impact, product function

and performance, health and safety, and other regulatory requirements;

d) the regular review and revision of existing standards in the light of technical innovations, permitting improvement in the

environmental impact of products and processes;

e) the application of life cycle analytical approaches wherever applicable and technically justifiable.

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 17422:2002(E)
2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 472:1999, Plastics — Vocabulary

ISO Guide 64:1997, Guide for the inclusion of environmental aspects in product standards

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
design

a creative activity that, based on expressed or implied needs, existing means and technological possibilities, results

in the definition of technical solutions for a product that can be commercially manufactured or fabricated into

prototypes
[FD X 30-310:1998]
3.2
eco-profile

partial life cycle inventory analysis beginning at the raw-material extraction phase and ending at the point where the

plastics product (see 3.8) is ready for transfer to the next operator in the supply chain (so called cradle-to-gate

analysis)
3.3
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s activities, products or services that can interact with the environment

[ISO 14001:1996]
3.4
environmental impact

any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s

activities, products or services
[ISO 14001:1996]
3.5
environmental provision

normative element of a standard that specifies measures for minimizing adverse environmental impact of a test

method, material or product
3.6
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation of natural

resources to the final disposal
[ISO 14040:1997]
2 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17422:2002(E)
3.7
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product system

throughout its life cycle
[ISO 14040:1997]
3.8
plastics product

any material or combination of materials, semi-finished or finished product that is within the scope of ISO/TC 61

3.9
product standard

a standard that specifies requirements to be fulfilled by a product or group of products

4 Inclusion of environmental aspects in standards
4.1 General

In the preparation of International Standards, close co-ordination within and among sub-committees and working

groups responsible for different plastics products or processes is necessary in order to create a coherent approach

to the incorporation of environmental provisions. Appropriate co-ordination will ensure that such activity on

environmental provisions will neither retard nor inhibit the normal standards development process.

Any plan to prepare a new standard or to revise an existing standard with inclusion of environmental provisions

should define, as far as possible, both the purpose of the standard and its expected major users. This exercise will

help to determine how the standard is likely to be used, for example for quality control or for conformity

assessment, to identify the relevant environmental aspects and to assess the users’ level of expertise, needs and

expectations.

Standards should be drafted with a view to providing provisions which eliminate or reduce any identified

environmental hazards, and, where possible, these provisions should be expressed in terms of verifiable preventive

measures. Requirements for preventive measures should be expressed precisely, clearly and with technical

accuracy, and the requirements for verification should be clearly stated.

Whenever appropriate, the standard should state what environmentally relevant information has to be provided to

persons involved with the product or process.

NOTE Use should be made of terminology as defined by ISO 472. This International Standard additionally includes

environmental terms.
4.2 Test method standards
4.2.1 General

International standards for the testing of plastics products should also provide scope for application of

ISO Guide 64 by drawing attention to the importance of product sustainability issues such as resource conservation

and pollution prevention.

Where such issues are already being addressed (for example, within ISO/TC 61/SC 6, Ageing, chemical and

environmental resistance), this fact should be brought to the attention of the users of the standards by means of an

introductory statement within the text of the standard. Standards writers should take this into account whenever

existing standards are being revised or new ones are being prepared.

NOTE To avoid unnecessary proliferation of tests, standards writers should consider combining, or selecting between,

similar test methods that are used for measuring identical product properties.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 17422:2002(E)
4.2.2 Minimization of adverse environmental impact

When test method standards are being written or revised, their associated environmental impact should be

evaluated; test equipment and procedures should be reviewed to minimize adverse environmental impact. Such

reviews should not in any way compromise the fitness for purpose of the test apparatus or procedure. Once a new

test standard with reduced adverse environmental impact has been developed in replacement of an existing

procedure, it should be validated and, thereafter, the existing test standard withdrawn.

The following considerations apply:

a) Any substance specified in a standard that becomes the subject of well-founded environmental concern should

include the relevant clauses taken from the appropriate Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Whenever

possible, such a substance should be replaced by a substance with less adverse environmental impact.

b) Some test method standards may of necessity call for the use of substances that could represent an

environmental hazard. In such cases, the standard should include an introductory statement such as:

WARNING — Certain procedures specified in this International Standard may involve the use or

generation of substances, or the generation of waste, that could constitute a local environmental

hazard. Reference should be made to appropriate documentation on safe handling and disposal after

use.

This should be followed, at the appropriate place within the standard, by a specific warning statement such as:

WARNING — Attention is drawn to the potential local environmental hazard deriving from the specified

use of... [name of chemical].
4.2.3 Minimization of material and energy usage

The usage of materials and energy is affected by many factors such as the scale of the test, the specimen size and

the number of specimens, the required levels of reproducibility and repeatability, and the power specifications of

the test equipment.

Test method standards should be designed with a view to minimizing material and energy usage without

compromising the quality of the test result obtained through use of the standard.

Where appropriate, guidance should be given to the user of the standard on how to minimize the use of material

and energy.
4.3 Product standards
4.3.1 General

Writers of plastics product standards should incorporate a general introductory statement highlighting the fact that

ISO 17422 and ISO Guide 64 have been taken into account in the preparation of the standard. In addition,

ISO 17422 and ISO Guide 64 should be cited systematically as normative references within future plastics product

standards for the benefit of the users of such standards.
4.3.2 Product functionality

Designing a product made of, or incorporating, plastic should avoid over-simplification of material-selection criteria.

A balance should be maintained between the overriding functional requirements of the product and the potential

adverse environmental impacts that are to be determined in the context of the product/application system.

4 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17422:2002(E)
4.3.3 Environmental aspects in product standards

Optimization of an environmental approach in the development of plastics product standards will usually involve the

following stages:

a) the pre-selection of those materials ensuring appropriate technical and environmental performance as well as

regulatory compliance throughout the intended service life;

b) short-listing of functional materials that eliminate or minimize major adverse environmental impacts throughout

the product life cycle;
c) minimization of the quantities of materials used per unit produced;
d) ease of maintenance and cleaning where appropriate.

The environmental characteristics of the most appropriate material to use in a specific application can be

determined only by taking into consideration the complete life cycle. The scope and limitations of life cycle

assessment, the subject of the ISO 14040 series of standards, within the context of the present standard are

discussed in Annex A.

NOTE 1 The precision of measurement of material properties and characteristics may not always be absolute or correlate to

actual end-use performance requirements. Because of this, some degree of subjective assessment may be required in

comparing life cycle assessments of alternative designs or materials.

NOTE 2 A bibliography of standards and other references relevant to environmental aspects of design in plastics product

standards, including eco-profile data, is given in the bibliography.
4.3.4 Writers of standards

Writers of International Standards for plastics products should consider the potential environmental needs of the

users of these standards. In particular, due consideration should be given to the needs of standards writers and

specifiers developing environmental provisions for products incorporating or made from plastics; such products are

within the scope of other ISO and IEC Technical Committees, as well as within national and industrial technical

committees and organizations.
NOTE 1 Examples of such needs could be guidance on environmental impact
...

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