Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation sources

ISO 11451-2:2015 specifies a method for testing the immunity of passenger cars and commercial vehicles to electrical disturbances from off-vehicle radiation sources, regardless of the vehicle propulsion system (e.g. spark ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor). The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to narrowband electromagnetic fields.

Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d'essai d'un véhicule soumis à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d'énergie électromagnétique en bande étroite — Partie 2: Sources de rayonnement hors du véhicule

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Jun-2015
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
18-Jun-2021
Completion Date
18-Jun-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11451-2
Redline version
compares Fourth edition to
Third edition
Road vehicles — Vehicle test
methods for electrical disturbances
from narrowband radiated
electromagnetic energy —
Part 2:
Off-vehicle radiation sources
Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d’essai d’un véhicule soumis
à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d’énergie
électromagnétique en bande étroite —
Partie 2: Sources de rayonnement hors du véhicule
Reference number
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
IMPORTANT — PLEASE NOTE
This is a mark-up copy and uses the following colour coding:
Text example 1 — indicates added text (in green)
— indicates removed text (in red)
Text example 2
— indicates added graphic figure
— indicates removed graphic figure
1.x ... — Heading numbers containg modifications are highlighted in yellow in
the Table of Contents

All changes in this document have yet to reach concensus by vote and as such should only

be used internally for review purposes.
DISCLAIMER

This Redline version provides you with a quick and easy way to compare the main changes

between this edition of the standard and its previous edition. It doesn’t capture all single

changes such as punctuation but highlights the modifications providing customers with

the most valuable information. Therefore it is important to note that this Redline version is

not the official ISO standard and that the users must consult with the clean version of the

standard, which is the official standard, for implementation purposes.
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General test Test conditions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Test location .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Test apparatus instrumentation ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Field generating device .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Field probes ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.5 6.3 Stimulation and monitoring of the device under test (DUT) .......................................................................... 6

7 Stimulation and monitoring of vehicle .......................................................................................................................................... 7

8 7 Test set-up(see Figure 3).............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1 7.1 Vehicle placement ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2 7.2 Field generating device location (relative to vehicle and shielded enclosure) ............................... 8

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.2 7.2.1 ......................................................................................................................................................

Antenna constraints ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.3 7.2.2 ......................................................................................................................................................

TLS constraints .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.3 Vehicle test configurations ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.3.1 Vehicle not connected to the power grid .................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Vehicle in charging mode connected to the power grid ..............................................................10

7.3.3 Vehicle in charging mode through wireless power transmission (WPT) ....................18

9 8 Testing Test procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.1 Test conditions .....................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2 8.1 Test plan .....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.3 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.4 8.2 Field calibration Test method ..................................................................................................................................................22

9.4.1 General procedure .......................................................................................................................................................22

9.4.2 8.2.1 ......................................................................................................................................................

Reference point and reference line Field calibration .....................................................................23

9.5 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................30

9.6 8.3 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................30

Annex A (informative) Functional Function performance status classification (FPSC)  ................................31

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards areThe procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its

further maintenance are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval

criteria needed for the different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted

in accordance with the rules given ineditorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.

org/directives).

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO 11451-2 was prepared by Technical CommitteeThe committee responsible for this document is

ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 332, Electrical and electronic equipmentcomponents and

general system aspects.
Annex A of this part of ISO 11451 is for information only.
This thirdfourth edition cancels and replaces the secondthird edition
(ISO 11451-2:2001),ISO 11451-2:2005) which has been technically revised.

ISO 11451 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for

electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy:
— Part 1: General principles and terminology
— Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation sources
— Part 3: On-board transmitter simulation
— Part 4: Bulk current injection (BCI)
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical
disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic
energy —
Part 2:
Off-vehicle radiation sources
1 Scope

This part of ISO 11451 specifies a vehicle test method for determiningtesting the immunity of passenger

cars and commercial vehicles to electrical disturbances from off-vehicle radiation sources, regardless

of the vehicle propulsion system (e.g. spark- ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor). It can also be

readily applied to other types of vehicles.

The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to narrowband electromagnetic fields.

While this standard refers specifically to passenger cars and commercial vehicles, generalized as

“vehicle(s)”, it can readily be applied to other types of vehicles.

ISO 11451-1 specifies general test conditions, definitions, practical use, and basic principles of the

test procedure.

The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to narrowbandFunction performance status

classification guidelines for immunity to electromagnetic radiation from an off-vehicle radiation source

are given in Annex A electromagnetic fields.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documentsdocuments, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this

document and are indispensable for the application of this documentits application. For dated references,

only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11451-1:2001 , Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11451-1 apply.

4 General test Test conditions

The applicable frequency range of this test method is 0,01 MHz to 18 000 MHz. Testing over the full

frequency range could require different field-generating devices, but this does not imply that testing of

overlapping frequency ranges is required.

The user shall specify the test severity level or levels over the frequency range. Suggested test severity

levels are given in Annex A of this International Standard.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)

SeeStandard ISO 11451-1 for descriptions of, and requirementstest conditions are given in ISO 11451-1

for, the following standard test conditions, applicable to this part of the followingISO 11451:

— test temperature;
— supply voltage;
— modulation;
— dwell time;
— frequency step sizes;
— definition of test severity levels;
— test signal quality.
5 Test location
The test should be performed in an absorber-lined shielded enclosure.

The test should be performed inaim of using an absorber-lined shielded enclosure, the aim being is to

create an indoor electromagnetic compatibility testing facility that simulates open field testing.

The size, shape, and construction of the enclosure can vary considerably. Typically, the floor is not covered

with absorbing material, but such covering is allowed . Measurements in enclosures with or without

floor absorbers can lead to different results. The minimum size of the shielded enclosure is determined by

the size of the test region needed, the size of the field generation device or devices, the needed clearances

between these and the largest vehicle to be tested, and the characteristics of the absorbing material. To

create the test region, the absorber, field generation system and enclosure shape are selected such that

the amount of extraneous energy in the test region is reduced to below a minimum value that will give the

desired measurement accuracy. The design objective is to reduce the reflected energy in the test region

to −10 dB or less over the test frequency range [(not applicable to transmission line system (TLS) field

generation systems]). An example of a rectangular shielded enclosure is shown in Figure 1.

Alternatively, theThe test may alternatively be performed at an outdoor test site. The test facility shall

comply with (national) legal requirements regarding the emission of electromagnetic fields.

1) Measurements in enclosures with or without floor absorbers can lead to different results.

2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
a) Vertical polarization
a) Side view (vertical polarization)
b) Horizontal polarization
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
b) Top view (horizontal polarization)
Key
1 absorber-lined shielded enclosure
2 RF absorber material

3 vehicle dynamometer on turntable
antenna
5 amplifier room
6 control room
1 absorber-lined shielded enclosure 4 antenna
2 RF absorber material 5 amplifier room
3 vehicle dynamometer on turntable 6 control room

Turntable shown rotatable through ±180° with two pairs of variable wheelbase rollers to accommodate all

vehicle sizes and functions.
Figure 1 — Example of absorber-lined shielded enclosure
6 Test apparatus instrumentation

Testing consists of generating radiated electromagnetic fields using antenna sets with radio frequency

(RF) sources capable of producing the desired field strength over the range of test frequencies, for which

the following apparatus/instrumentation shall be used.
The following test instrumentation is used:
— Field generating device(s): e.g. antenna(s);
— Field probe(s);
— RF signal generator with internal or external modulation capability;
— High power amplifier(s);
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)

— Powermeter (or equivalent measuring instrument) to measure forward power and reflected power.

6.1 Field generating device
The field generating device can be an antenna or a TLS.

Field generating deviceThe construction and, which may be an antenna or antennas, or a TLS, and whose

construction and orientation orientation of any field generating device shall be such that the generated

field can be polarized in the mode specified in the test plan (see 9.28.1). An example of a parallel-plate

TLS is shown in Figure 2. Multiple antennas, amplifiers and directional couplers could be necessary to

cover the complete frequency range.

See Figure 2 for an example of a parallel-plate TLS. Multiple antennas, amplifiers and directional couplers

could be necessary to cover the complete frequency range.
a) Side view
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
b) Top view
Key
1 shielded enclosure (absorbers permitted) 6 coaxial cable
2 conductive plate or set of wires 7 load
3 non-metallic supports 8 conductive wires
4 shielded enclosure floor 9 signal source feed connection

5 signal source feed line (coaxial cable) 10 turntable (not required for this test)

Figure 2 — Example of parallel-plate TLS
6.2 Field probes

field probe(s)Field probes, which shall be electrically small in relation to the wavelength and isotropic.

The communication lines from the probes shall be fibre optic links.
The communication lines from the probes shall be fibre-optic links.
6.3 RF signal generator, with internal or external modulation capability.
6.4 High power amplifier(s).
6.5 6.3 Stimulation and monitoring of the device under test (DUT)

The vehicle shall be operated as required in the test plan by using actuators which have a minimum effect

on the electromagnetic characteristics, e.g. plastic blocks on the push-buttons, pneumatic actuators

with plastic tubes.

PowermeterConnections (or equivalent measuring instrument), for measuring forward and reflected

powerto equipment monitoring electromagnetic interference reactions of the vehicle may be

accomplished by using fibre-optics, or high resistance leads. Other type of leads can be used but require

extreme care to minimize interactions. The orientation, length, and location of such leads shall be

carefully documented to ensure repeatability of test results.
6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
Key
1 shielded enclosure (absorbers permitted)
2 conductive plate or set of wires
3 non-metallic supports
4 shielded enclosure floor
5 signal source feed line (coaxial cable)
6 coaxial cable
7 load
8 conductive wires
9 signal source feed connection
10 turntable (not required for this test)
Figure 2 — Example of parallel-plate TLS

Any electrical connection of monitoring equipment to the vehicle can cause malfunctions of the vehicle.

Extreme care shall be taken to avoid such an effect.
7 Stimulation and monitoring of vehicle

WARNING — — Any electrical connection of monitoring equipment to the vehicle could cause

malfunctions of the vehicle. Extreme care shall be taken to avoid such an effect.

The vehicle (the device under test or DUT) shall be operated as required in the test plan by using

actuators which have a minimum effect on the electromagnetic characteristics, e.g. plastic blocks on the

push-buttons, pneumatic actuators with plastic tubes.

Connections to equipment monitoring electromagnetic interference reactions of the vehicle may

be accomplished by using fibre-optics or high-resistance leads. Other type of leads may be used but

require extreme care to minimize interactions. The orientation, length and location of such leads shall

be carefully documented to ensure repeatability of test results.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
8 7 Test set-up(see Figure 3)
Three test setups are described:
— one for all types of vehicles when they are not connected to the power mains;

— one for vehicles in charging mode connected to the power grid (with or without communication);

— one for vehicles in charging mode through wireless power transmission (WPT).
8.1 7.1 Vehicle placement

The vehicle shall be placed in the test region. The test region can contain a vehicle dynamometer, or

turntable or both these (see Figure 1).

8.2 7.2 Field generating device location (relative to vehicle and shielded enclosure)

8.2.1 General

The position or positions of the vehicle relative to the antenna or TLS shall be specified in the test

plan (see 9.2).

The radiating elements of the field-generating device shall be no closer than 0,5 m to any absorbing

material and no closer than 1,5 m to the wall of the shielded enclosure.

The position or positions of the vehicle relative to the antenna or TLS shall be specified in the test

plan (see 8.1).

The radiating elements of the field-generating device shall be no closer than 0,5 m to any absorbing

material and no closer than 1,5 m to the wall of the shielded enclosure.
8.2.2 7.2.1 Antenna constraints

No part of the radiating antenna shall be closer than 0,5 m to the outer body surface of the vehicle.

The phase centre of the antenna shall be separated by at least 2 m horizontally from the reference point.

No part of an antenna’santenna’s radiating elements shall be closer than 0,25 m to the floor.

There shall be no absorber material in the direct path between the transmitting antenna and the DUT.

8.2.3 7.2.2 TLS constraints

No part of a TLS, with the exception of the ground plane, shall be closer than 0,5 m to any part of the

vehicle. The TLS radiating element or elements shall be separated by at least 1 m vertically from the

reference point (see 8.2.1.1).

The TLS radiating element or elements shall be separated by at least 1 m vertically from the reference

point (see 9.4.2).
The TLS shall extend centrally over at least 75 % of the length of the vehicle.

Particular care needs to be taken when testing heavy vehicles such as buses and large trucks. Under

certain conditions related to dimensions and frequency, it is possible that close to 100 % of the applied

power can be coupled to the vehicle by a directional coupler mechanism. Room resonances can also have

a significant effect on the field uniformity, amplitude and direction under the TLS.

8 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
Key
α tilt angle of antenna
1 absorber-lined shielded enclosure
2 RF signal generator
3 power amplifier
4 dual directional coupler
5 power meter
6 coaxial feedthrough
7 field generating device
8 vehicle reference point (see 9.4.2.2)
Figure 3 — Example of test set-up
7.3 Vehicle test configurations

The configuration of 7.3.1 is applicable to whatever the vehicle type (combustion engine, electric, or

hybrid propulsion).

The configuration of 7.3.2 is applicable only to the electric or hybrid/plugin propelled vehicles when

they are in charging mode and connected to the power grid.

The configuration of 7.3.3 is applicable only to the electric propelled vehicles when they are in charging

mode through wireless power transmission (WPT).
7.3.1 Vehicle not connected to the power grid
An example of a test set-up is shown in Figure 3.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
Dimensions in metres
Side view
Key
1 absorber-lined shielded enclosure
2 RF signal generator
3 power amplifier
4 dual directional coupler
5 power meter
6 coaxial feed through
7 field generating device
8 vehicle reference point (see 8.2.1.1.2)
α is the tilt angle of the antenna
Figure 3 — Example of test set-up
7.3.2 Vehicle in charging mode connected to the power grid

The various configurations (a.c. or d.c., with or without communication) are considered in this clause.

7.3.2.1 AC power charging without communication
7.3.2.1.1 Power mains

The power mains socket can be placed anywhere in the test location with the following conditions.

— It shall be placed on the ground plane.

— The length of the harness between the power mains socket and the AMN(s) shall be kept as

short as possible.
— The harness shall be placed as close as possible of the ground plane.
Care shall be taken to avoid disturbances to the off-board peripheral equipment.
7.3.2.1.2 Artificial mains network

Power mains shall be applied to the vehicle through 50 µH/50 Ω artificial mains networks (AMN(s)) as

defined in ISO 11451-1, Annex B.
10 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)

The AMN(s) shall be mounted directly on the ground plane. The grounding connection of the AMN(s)/

AMN(s) shall be bonded to the ground plane with a low inductivity connection.
The measuring port of each AMN shall be terminated with a 50 Ω load.

The AMN shall be placed in front, aligned and on the same side of the vehicle power charging plug.

7.3.2.1.3 Power charging cable

The power charging cable shall be placed in a straight line between the AMN(s) and the vehicle charging

plug and shall be routed perpendicularly to the vehicle longitudinal axis as shown in Figures 4 and 5.

The distance between the AMN(s) and the vehicle body should be 0,8 (+0,2/0) m.

If the length of the cable is longer than 1 m, the extraneous length shall be “Z-folded” in less than 0,5 m width.

The charging cable at vehicle side shall hang vertically at a distance of 100 (+200/0) mm from the

vehicle body.

The whole cable shall be placed on a non-conductive, low relative permittivity (dielectric-constant)

material (ε ≤ 1,4), at (100 ± 25) mm above the ground plane.
Examples of test set-ups are shown in Figures 4 and 5.
Dimensions in metres
a) Front view
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 11
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
b) Top view
Key
1 vehicle under test
2 insulating support
3 charging cable
4 artificial mains network(s) grounded
5 power mains socket (see 7.3.2.1.1)
6 extraneous length Z-folded
7 charging cable plug

Figure 4 — Example of test setup for vehicle with plug located on vehicle side (a.c. power

charging without communication)
12 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
Dimensions in metres
a) Front view
b) Top view
Key
1 vehicle under test
2 insulating support
3 charging cable
4 artificial mains network(s) grounded
5 power mains socket (see 7.3.2.1.1)
6 extraneous length Z-folded
7 charging cable plug

Figure 5 — Example of test setup for vehicle with plug located front / rear of vehicle (a.c. power

charging without communication)
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 13
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:redline:2015(E)
7.3.2.2 AC or DC power charging with communication

This configuration concerns slow/fast charging mode for a.c. power and fast charging mode for d.c. power.

7.3.2.2.1 Charging station/Power mains

The charging station can be placed either in the test location or outside the test location.

NOTE 1 If the communication between the vehicle and the charging station could be simulated, the charging

station can be replaced by the supply from power mains.

In both cases, duplicated power mains and communication lines socket(s) shall be placed in the test

location with the following conditions.
— It shall be placed on the ground plane.

— The length of the harness between the power mains / communication lines socket and the

HV-AN/AMN/AAN shall be kept as short as possible.

— The harness between the power mains / communication lines socket and the HV-AN/AMN/AAN

shall be placed as close as possible of the ground plane.
NOTE 2 The power mains and communication lines socket(s) are to be filtered.

If the charging station is placed inside the test location then harness between charging station and the

power mains / communication lines socket shall be placed with the following conditions:

— The harness at charging station side shall hang vertically down to the gr
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11451-2
Fourth edition
2015-06-01
Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods
for electrical disturbances from
narrowband radiated electromagnetic
energy —
Part 2:
Off-vehicle radiation sources
Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d’essai d’un véhicule soumis
à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d’énergie
électromagnétique en bande étroite —
Partie 2: Sources de rayonnement hors du véhicule
Reference number
ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Test location .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Test instrumentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Field generating device .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Field probes ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Stimulation and monitoring of the device under test (DUT) .......................................................................... 5

7 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Vehicle placement ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.2 Field generating device location (relative to vehicle and shielded enclosure) ............................... 6

7.2.1 Antenna constraints ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2.2 TLS constraints .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.3 Vehicle test configurations ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.3.1 Vehicle not connected to the power grid .................................................................................................... 6

7.3.2 Vehicle in charging mode connected to the power grid ................................................................. 7

7.3.3 Vehicle in charging mode through wireless power transmission (WPT) ....................15

8 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 Test plan .....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.1 Field calibration .............................................................................................................................................................18

8.3 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex A (informative) Function performance status classification .................................................................................25

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 32, Electrical

and electronic components and general system aspects.
Annex A of this part of ISO 11451 is for information only.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 11451-2:2005) which has been technically

revised.

ISO 11451 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for

electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy:
— Part 1: General principles and terminology
— Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation sources
— Part 3: On-board transmitter simulation
— Part 4: Bulk current injection (BCI)
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical
disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic
energy —
Part 2:
Off-vehicle radiation sources
1 Scope

This part of ISO 11451 specifies a method for testing the immunity of passenger cars and commercial

vehicles to electrical disturbances from off-vehicle radiation sources, regardless of the vehicle propulsion

system (e.g. spark ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor).

The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to narrowband electromagnetic fields.

While this standard refers specifically to passenger cars and commercial vehicles, generalized as

“vehicle(s)”, it can readily be applied to other types of vehicles.

ISO 11451-1 specifies general test conditions, definitions, practical use, and basic principles of the test

procedure.

Function performance status classification guidelines for immunity to electromagnetic radiation from

an off-vehicle radiation source are given in Annex A.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11451-1, Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11451-1 apply.

4 Test conditions

The applicable frequency range of this test method is 0,01 MHz to 18 000 MHz. Testing over the full

frequency range could require different field-generating devices, but this does not imply that testing of

overlapping frequency ranges is required.

The user shall specify the test severity level or levels over the frequency range. Suggested test severity

levels are given in Annex A of this International Standard.
Standard test conditions are given in ISO 11451-1 for the following:
— test temperature;
— supply voltage;
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ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
— modulation;
— dwell time;
— frequency step sizes;
— definition of test severity levels;
— test signal quality.
5 Test location
The test should be performed in an absorber-lined shielded enclosure.

The aim of using an absorber-lined shielded enclosure is to create an indoor electromagnetic compatibility

testing facility that simulates open field testing.

The size, shape, and construction of the enclosure can vary considerably. Typically, the floor is not

covered with absorbing material, but such covering is allowed. Measurements in enclosures with or

without floor absorbers can lead to different results. The minimum size of the shielded enclosure is

determined by the size of the test region needed, the size of the field generation device or devices, the

needed clearances between these and the largest vehicle to be tested, and the characteristics of the

absorbing material. To create the test region, the absorber, field generation system and enclosure shape

are selected such that the amount of extraneous energy in the test region is reduced to below a minimum

value that will give the desired measurement accuracy. The design objective is to reduce the reflected

energy in the test region to −10 dB or less over the test frequency range (not applicable to transmission

line system (TLS) field generation systems). An example of a rectangular shielded enclosure is shown

in Figure 1.

The test may alternatively be performed at an outdoor test site. The test facility shall comply with

(national) legal requirements regarding the emission of electromagnetic fields.
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ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
a) Side view (vertical polarization)
b) Top view (horizontal polarization)
Key
1 absorber-lined shielded enclosure 4 antenna
2 RF absorber material 5 amplifier room
3 vehicle dynamometer on turntable 6 control room

Turntable shown rotatable through ±180° with two pairs of variable wheelbase rollers to accommodate all

vehicle sizes and functions.
Figure 1 — Example of absorber-lined shielded enclosure
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ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
6 Test instrumentation

Testing consists of generating radiated electromagnetic fields using antenna sets with radio frequency

(RF) sources capable of producing the desired field strength over the range of test frequencies.

The following test instrumentation is used:
— Field generating device(s): e.g. antenna(s);
— Field probe(s);
— RF signal generator with internal or external modulation capability;
— High power amplifier(s);

— Powermeter (or equivalent measuring instrument) to measure forward power and reflected power.

6.1 Field generating device
The field generating device can be an antenna or a TLS.

The construction and orientation of any field generating device shall be such that the generated field

can be polarized in the mode specified in the test plan (see 8.1). An example of a parallel-plate TLS is

shown in Figure 2. Multiple antennas, amplifiers and directional couplers could be necessary to cover

the complete frequency range.
a) Side view
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ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
b) Top view
Key
1 shielded enclosure (absorbers permitted) 6 coaxial cable
2 conductive plate or set of wires 7 load
3 non-metallic supports 8 conductive wires
4 shielded enclosure floor 9 signal source feed connection

5 signal source feed line (coaxial cable) 10 turntable (not required for this test)

Figure 2 — Example of parallel-plate TLS
6.2 Field probes

Field probes shall be electrically small in relation to the wavelength and isotropic. The communication

lines from the probes shall be fibre optic links.
6.3 Stimulation and monitoring of the device under test (DUT)

The vehicle shall be operated as required in the test plan by using actuators which have a minimum effect

on the electromagnetic characteristics, e.g. plastic blocks on the push-buttons, pneumatic actuators

with plastic tubes.

Connections to equipment monitoring electromagnetic interference reactions of the vehicle may be

accomplished by using fibre-optics, or high resistance leads. Other type of leads can be used but require

extreme care to minimize interactions. The orientation, length, and location of such leads shall be

carefully documented to ensure repeatability of test results.

Any electrical connection of monitoring equipment to the vehicle can cause malfunctions of the vehicle.

Extreme care shall be taken to avoid such an effect.
7 Test set-up
Three test setups are described:
— one for all types of vehicles when they are not connected to the power mains;
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ISO 11451-2:2015(E)

— one for vehicles in charging mode connected to the power grid (with or without communication);

— one for vehicles in charging mode through wireless power transmission (WPT).
7.1 Vehicle placement

The vehicle shall be placed in the test region. The test region can contain a vehicle dynamometer or

turntable or both (see Figure 1).

7.2 Field generating device location (relative to vehicle and shielded enclosure)

The position or positions of the vehicle relative to the antenna or TLS shall be specified in the test plan

(see 8.1).

The radiating elements of the field-generating device shall be no closer than 0,5 m to any absorbing

material and no closer than 1,5 m to the wall of the shielded enclosure.
7.2.1 Antenna constraints

No part of the radiating antenna shall be closer than 0,5 m to the outer body surface of the vehicle.

The phase centre of the antenna shall be separated by at least 2 m horizontally from the reference point.

No part of an antenna’s radiating elements shall be closer than 0,25 m to the floor.

There shall be no absorber material in the direct path between the transmitting antenna and the DUT.

7.2.2 TLS constraints

No part of a TLS, with the exception of the ground plane, shall be closer than 0,5 m to any part of the

vehicle. The TLS radiating element or elements shall be separated by at least 1 m vertically from the

reference point (see 8.2.1.1).
The TLS shall extend centrally over at least 75 % of the length of the vehicle.

Particular care needs to be taken when testing heavy vehicles such as buses and large trucks. Under

certain conditions related to dimensions and frequency, it is possible that close to 100 % of the applied

power can be coupled to the vehicle by a directional coupler mechanism. Room resonances can also have

a significant effect on the field uniformity, amplitude and direction under the TLS.

7.3 Vehicle test configurations

The configuration of 7.3.1 is applicable to whatever the vehicle type (combustion engine, electric, or

hybrid propulsion).

The configuration of 7.3.2 is applicable only to the electric or hybrid/plugin propelled vehicles when

they are in charging mode and connected to the power grid.

The configuration of 7.3.3 is applicable only to the electric propelled vehicles when they are in charging

mode through wireless power transmission (WPT).
7.3.1 Vehicle not connected to the power grid
An example of a test set-up is shown in Figure 3.
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ISO 11451-2:2015(E)
Dimensions in metres
Side view
Key
1 absorber-lined shielded enclosure
2 RF signal generator
3 power amplifier
4 dual directional coupler
5 power meter
6 coaxial feed through
7 field generating device
8 vehicle reference point (see 8.2.1.1.2)
α is the tilt angle of the antenna
Figure 3 — Example of test set-up
7.3.2 Vehicle in charging mode connected to the power grid

The various configurations (a.c. or d.c., with or without communication) are considered in this clause.

7.3.2.1 AC power charging without communication
7.3.2.1.1 Power mains

The power mains socket can be placed anywhere in the test location with the following conditions.

— It shall be placed on the ground plane.

— The length of the harness between the power mains socket and the AMN(s) shall be kept as short as

possible.
— The harness shall be placed as close as possible of the ground plane.
Care shall be taken to avoid disturbances to the off-board peripheral equipment.
7.3.2.1.2 Artificial mains network

Power mains shall be applied to the vehicle through 50 µH/50 Ω artificial mains networks (AMN(s)) as

defined in ISO 11451-1, Annex B.
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