Intelligent transport systems -- Devices to aid reverse manoeuvres -- Extended-range backing aid systems (ERBA)

ISO 22840:2010 for extended-range backing aids (ERBA) addresses light-duty vehicles [e.g. passenger cars, pick-up trucks, light vans and sport utility vehicles (motorcycles excluded)] equipped with such ERBA systems. ISO 22840:2010 establishes minimum functionality requirements that the driver can expect of the system, such as the detection of and information on the presence of relevant obstacles within a defined detection range. ISO 22840:2010 also sets minimum requirements for failure indication as well as performance test procedures. ISO 22840:2010 includes rules for the general information strategy but does not restrict the kind of information or display system. ERBA systems are intended to provide backing aid functionality over an extended area located aft of the subject vehicle. ERBA systems are not intended for short-range detection of obstacles located immediately behind the vehicle. If a short-range detection system is needed, either in lieu of or in addition to an ERBA system, reference can be made to ISO 17386. ISO 22840:2010 does not include reversing aids and obstacle-detection devices for use on heavy commercial vehicles. Requirements for those systems are defined in ISO/TR 12155. ISO 22840:2010 does not include visibility-enhancement systems, such as video-camera aids that do not have distance ranging and warning capabilities. ERBA systems use object-detection devices (sensors) for detection and ranging in order to provide the driver with information based on the distance to obstacles. The sensing technology is not addressed; however, technology does affect the performance test procedures defined in ISO 22840:2010. The test objects are defined based on systems using ultrasonic and radar sensors, which are the most commonly used detection technology for long-range applications at the time of publication of ISO 22840:2010. ERBA systems are intended to supplement the interior and exterior rear view mirrors, not eliminate the requirement for such mirrors. Automatic actions (e.g. applying brakes to prevent a collision between the subject vehicle and the obstacle) are not addressed in ISO 22840:2010. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver. ERBA systems calculate a dynamic estimate of collision danger (e.g. perhaps using a time-to-collision algorithm) and warn the driver that immediate attention is required in order to avoid colliding with the detected obstacle. A dynamic warning is necessary for the higher vehicle speeds that occur in backing events where the relative closing velocities between the vehicle and the obstacle are greater as compared to low-speed situations, such as parking. The purpose of this dynamic warning is to deliver a more urgent warning to the driver in order for the driver to take timely action. Distance indications are optional, but if so included, it is recommended that reference be made to ISO 15008 for requirements.

Systèmes intelligents de transport -- Dispositifs d'aide aux manoeuvres de marche-arrière -- Système d'aide à la marche-arrière à gamme de distances étendue (ERBA)

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Publication Date
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22840
First edition
2010-04-15
Intelligent transport systems — Devices
to aid reverse manoeuvres — Extended-
range backing aid systems (ERBA)
Systèmes intelligents de transport — Dispositifs d'aide aux manœuvres
de marche-arrière — Système d'aide à la marche-arrière à gamme de
distances étendue (ERBA)
Reference number
ISO 22840:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22840:2010(E)
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ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22840:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................2

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..........................................................................................................4

5 Functional and performance requirements ........................................................................................5

5.1 Steering angle........................................................................................................................................5

5.2 Detection range .....................................................................................................................................5

5.3 Minimum performance requirements ..................................................................................................5

5.4 Detection latency...................................................................................................................................6

5.5 Driver interface and information strategy...........................................................................................7

5.6 System activation ..................................................................................................................................9

5.7 System deactivation..............................................................................................................................9

5.8 Operation with trailers ..........................................................................................................................9

5.9 Presence detection requirements........................................................................................................9

5.10 Dynamic detection requirements.......................................................................................................11

5.11 Self-test capabilities and failure indications ....................................................................................12

6 Requirements and tests for components .........................................................................................12

7 Test requirements ...............................................................................................................................12

7.1 Test objects..........................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Ambient conditions — General..........................................................................................................13

7.3 Response time for object detection ..................................................................................................13

7.4 Test requirements — Presence warning...........................................................................................14

7.5 Test requirements — Dynamic warning............................................................................................15

7.6 Detection acceptance criteria — Presence warning........................................................................17

7.7 Detection acceptance criteria — Dynamic warning.........................................................................19

Annex A (normative) Examples.......................................................................................................................20

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 22840:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 22840 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22840:2010(E)
Introduction

Extended-range backing aids (ERBA) are detection devices with non-contact sensors that assist the driver

during low- to mid-speed backing manoeuvring. These systems detect and warn the driver of objects in the

pathway of the vehicle. In comparison to low-speed-only devices whose main purpose is assisting in parking

manoeuvres (e.g. ISO 17386), the purpose of the ERBA is to assist in higher-speed backing manoeuvres

associated with traversing longer distances.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22840:2010(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Devices to aid reverse
manoeuvres — Extended-range backing aid systems (ERBA)
1 Scope

This International Standard for extended-range backing aids (ERBA) addresses light-duty vehicles

[e.g. passenger cars, pick-up trucks, light vans and sport utility vehicles (motorcycles excluded)] equipped with

such ERBA systems. This International Standard establishes minimum functionality requirements that the

driver can expect of the system, such as the detection of and information on the presence of relevant

obstacles within a defined detection range. This International Standard also sets minimum requirements for

failure indication as well as performance test procedures. This International Standard includes rules for the

general information strategy but does not restrict the kind of information or display system.

ERBA systems are intended to provide backing aid functionality over an extended area located aft of the

subject vehicle. ERBA systems are not intended for short-range detection of obstacles located immediately

behind the vehicle. If a short-range detection system is needed, either in lieu of or in addition to an ERBA

system, reference can be made to ISO 17386.

This International Standard does not include reversing aids and obstacle-detection devices for use on heavy

commercial vehicles. Requirements for those systems are defined in ISO/TR 12155. This International

Standard does not include visibility-enhancement systems, such as video-camera aids that do not have

distance ranging and warning capabilities.

ERBA systems use object-detection devices (sensors) for detection and ranging in order to provide the driver

with information based on the distance to obstacles. The sensing technology is not addressed; however,

technology does affect the performance test procedures defined in this International Standard. The test

objects are defined based on systems using ultrasonic and radar sensors, which are the most commonly used

detection technology for long-range applications at the time of publication of this International Standard.

ERBA systems are intended to supplement the interior and exterior rear view mirrors, not eliminate the

requirement for such mirrors. Automatic actions (e.g. applying brakes to prevent a collision between the

subject vehicle and the obstacle) are not addressed in this International Standard. Responsibility for the safe

operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.

ERBA systems calculate a dynamic estimate of collision danger [e.g. perhaps using a time-to-collision, (TTC)

algorithm] and warn the driver that immediate attention is required in order to avoid colliding with the detected

obstacle. A dynamic warning is necessary for the higher vehicle speeds that occur in backing events where

the relative closing velocities between the vehicle and the obstacle are greater as compared to low-speed

situations, such as parking. The purpose of this dynamic warning is to deliver a more urgent warning to the

driver in order for the driver to take timely action. Distance indications are optional, but if so included, it is

recommended that reference be made to ISO 15008 for requirements.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 22840:2010(E)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15006, Road vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of transport information and control systems —

Specifications and compliance procedures for in-vehicle auditory presentation

ISO 15008, Road vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of transport information and control systems —

Specifications and test procedures for in-vehicle visual presentation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
extended-range backing aid (ERBA) system

system capable of warning a driver of the presence of obstacles in an area behind the vehicle and issuing a

warning to indicate immediate driver action is required
3.2
system activation

process of transitioning the system's operation from a quiescent mode to an active mode

NOTE In an active mode, the system is monitoring the zone of regard. It is evaluating the objects detected and is

generating the appropriate indications and/or warnings to the driver.
3.3
audible information and warning

acoustical indication or signal used to convey information to the driver about obstacles in the zone of regard

NOTE For examples, see Annex A.
3.4
visual information and warning

optical indication or signal used to convey information to the driver about obstacles in the zone of regard

NOTE For examples, see Annex A.
3.5
tactile information and warning

physical stimulus used to convey information to the driver about obstacles in the zone of regard

NOTE For examples, see Annex A.
3.6
zone of regard

specific area behind the vehicle that is monitored by the ERBA system as defined in this International

Standard
3.7
sensor

component that detects the obstacle(s) in the zone of regard, independent of the technology used

2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22840:2010(E)
3.8
test object
standard test target used for testing a system

NOTE The test object is comprised of a specific material, geometry and surface for standardized testing of obstacles

within the system's zone of regard. It is expected that the test object yield comparable results for different sensor types.

See 7.1.
3.9
warning levels

intensity of the warnings conveyed to the driver about the threat of obstacles in the zone of regard

NOTE For examples, see Annex A.
3.10
closing speed

relative velocity between the subject vehicle and the detected obstacle, regardless of whether one or both

is/are stationary or moving
NOTE For examples, see Annex A.
3.11
distance indication

provides the driver information on the specific distance between the subject vehicle and the obstacle

3.12
presence warning

information provided to the driver on the presence of an obstacle in the zone of regard

NOTE The purposes of this warning are to

⎯ alert the driver of objects located in the zone of regard before releasing the brake and moving the subject vehicle;

⎯ alert the driver of objects located in the zone of regard that have not exceeded the threshold for a dynamic warning

(see 3.13).
3.13
dynamic warning

urgent indication to the driver of an imminent threat (collision) with an obstacle

NOTE For examples, see Annex A.
3.14
steering angle

angle between the straight-ahead position and the current position (heading) of the wheels relative to the

longitudinal axis of the vehicle
3.15
readiness-for-service indication

indication presented to the driver that the ERBA system has completed its state transition from OFF (or

standby) to ON and is now ready for operational use

NOTE The method of presentation of this indication may be visual or audible or any combination so desired by the

system designer.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 22840:2010(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
B backing area, edge
edge
B backing area, far
far
B backing area, middle
middle
B backing area, near
near
B backing area, out
out
B backing area, side
side
°C degrees Celsius
cm centimetre
dx change in x
dy change in y
e.g. exempli gratia (for example)
etc. et cetera (and the rest)
HMI human-machine interface
i.e. id est (that is)
m metre
max. maximum
ms millisecond
m/s metres per second
min. minimum
RCS radar cross-section
s second
∅ outside diameter
4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22840:2010(E)
5 Functional and performance requirements

IMPORTANT — The ERBA system as described in this International Standard is intended to detect

typical objects in the reversing path of a vehicle in order to help protect it from damage. It is not

intended to reliably detect pedestrians or animals. It is recommended that the vehicle operator's

handbook (owner's manual) include an advisory note that clearly indicates this limitation.

5.1 Steering angle

As a minimum requirement, the ERBA system shall support straight backing manoeuvres. The azimuth zone-

of-regard definition (3.6) in this International Standard relates to this primary-use case. See Figure 1.

ERBA systems may adapt to the steering angle for better detection of obstacles in the path of travel in curves;

however, this International Standard does not include performance requirements for systems that adapt to

steering angle. The requirements of this International Standard shall be fulfilled during backing events with the

steering in the neutral position.
5.2 Detection range

ERBA systems shall detect targets located in the 1,0 m to 5,0 m range located behind the vehicle's rear

bumper in a region called the zone of regard. See Figure 1.

ERBA systems may detect targets closer than 1,0 m, however, this International Standard does not include

performance requirements for this range.

NOTE It is proposed that systems that can detect targets closer than 1,0 m comply with ISO 17386.

5.3 Minimum performance requirements

The minimum performance requirements for an ERBA system shall be in accordance with Table 1.

The column labelled “Detection range” specifies a “Near (max.)” range of 1,0 m and a “Far (min.)” range of

5,0 m. These requirements require that the ERBA system begin detecting objects at a maximum of 1,0 m from

the host vehicle, and continue detecting targets to a minimum of 5,0 m from the vehicle. The vehicle's rear

bumper or fascia shall be used as the reference point for this measurement; see Figure 1.

The column labelled “Closing speed” specifies the minimum range of closing speeds over which the ERBA

shall detect objects. It is acceptable that the ERBA be capable of functioning at closing speeds greater than

3,0 m/s.
Table 1 ― Performance requirements
Detection Closing Detection Warning type Detection performance
range speed latency (using standard ISO target)
m m/s ms
Near Far Mean Max. Distance Presence Dynamic B B B B B
near edge far side out
indication warning warning % % % % %
max. min. min. min. min. max. max.
1,0 5,0 0,0 to 3,0 150 250 optional optional required 90 60 60 60 10
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 22840:2010(E)
Key
Detection areas min. 90 % B
near
A 1,0 m min. 60 % B
edge
B 0,25 m B
far
C detection range max. 60 % B
side
D bumper width max. 10 % B
out
□ 10 cm × 10 cm.
0,1 m to 0,25 m beyond.
Figure 1 — Azimuth zone of regard
5.4 Detection latency
5.4.1 Start-up detection latency
5.4.1.1 Detection latency is defined as the response time of the ERBA system.

NOTE In case other vehicle systems (such as a navigation display) are used to display ERBA information, the

appearance of the start-up screen on the display system is treated as the ERBA readiness-for-service indication.

5.4.1.2 For systems with no visual or audible readiness-for-service indication, the response time is

measured from the moment when the reverse lamps of the vehicle are lit after the ignition has been set to ON

to the moment when the ERBA system issues a warning for a pre-existing object located in the zone of regard.

The average response time shall not exceed 450 ms, with no single measurement value exceeding 550 ms.

This time includes typical manufacturer delays for reverse-gear activation to suppress unwanted flickering of

displays when the lever is shifted (e.g. from “neutral” to “park” via “reverse”, or from “park” to “drive” via

“reverse”).

5.4.1.3 For systems with only a visual readiness-for-service indication, the response time is measured

from the moment when the readiness-for-service indication is presented to the moment when the ERBA

system issues a warning for a pre-existing object located in the zone of regard. The average response time

shall not exceed 150 ms, with no single measurement value exceeding 250 ms.
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ISO 22840:2010(E)

5.4.1.4 For systems with only an audible readiness-for-service indication, the response time is measured

from the moment when the readiness-for-service indication ends to the moment when the ERBA system

issues a warning for a pre-existing object located in the zone of regard. The average response time shall not

exceed 500 ms. The increased response time allows for a period of silence between the audible sound of the

readiness-for-service tone and the audible sound of the ERBA warning tone.

5.4.1.5 For systems with both visual and audible readiness-for-service indications, the provisions of

5.4.1.4 shall apply.
5.4.2 Delay of indications and warnings

As long as the system is active, the time delay between the appearance of a relevant obstacle in the zone of

regard and the presentation of indications shall not exceed 150 ms on average, with no single measurement

value exceeding 250 ms.

Detection latency shall be proved using a suitable test procedure with accuracy better than one-tenth of the

measured time delay. The delay is calculated as the arithmetic mean of at least ten tests.

5.5 Driver interface and information strategy
5.5.1 General information presentation

The driver interface shall be capable of presenting at least audible information. Visual information may be

used as a supplement. A general information strategy should be the basis for the development of these types

of information components, as this makes the use in different vehicles easier and safer. However, a specific

information strategy cannot be established because, for example,
⎯ there are many different ways of codifying the information;

⎯ each car manufacturer wants flexibility to integrate the backing aid into its driver-information system such

that it is in harmony with the overall vehicle design.
5.5.2 Audible information
Audible information shall be presented in accordance with ISO 15006.
The following basic code is recommended for the audible-information channel.

a) Distance indications, if used, may be presented either audibly or visually. If presented, they shall be

codified into at least two zones (for example, near and far). These zones may be represented by different

repetition rates (or perhaps a variable frequency), with the basic rule that a high repetition rate or a

continuous sound or high frequency corresponds to short distances. If a different or an additional code is

used, it should not interfere with the basic rule. Synthesized or recorded voice messages may also be

used. In general, the warning of an obstacle shall be maintained as long as the obstacle is detected and

shall cease when the obstacle is no longer detected. The audible information may be automatically

switched off temporarily after a certain time (to be defined by the manufacturer). The system, however,

shall remain in the active state. As soon as the distance to the obstacle decreases, the audible signal

shall be switched on automatically again. In the case of an increasing distance to the obstacle, the

audible signal may remain switched off.

b) Presence warnings may be presented to the driver, either audibly or visually or both. They shall be

codified in a manner to clearly notify the driver of objects in the zone of regard. It is permissible to

combine presence warnings and distance indications. Synthesized or recorded voice messages may also

be used. In general, the warning of an obstacle shall be maintained as long as the obstacle is detected

and shall cease when the obstacle is no longer detected. The audible information may be automatically

switched off temporarily after a minimum of 1 s. The system, however, shall remain in the active state. As

soon as the distance to the obstacle decreases, the audible signal shall be switched on automatically

again. In the case of an increasing distance to the obstacle, the audible signal may remain switched off.

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 22840:2010(E)

c) Dynamic warnings shall be presented audibly and may be presented visually. They shall be codified in a

manner to cause the driver to focus immediately on the warning. These warnings shall be unique from

distance indications and presence warnings and should be of a nature to prompt the driver to take

immediate action. Synthesized or recorded voice messages may also be used.

d) System enabled/disabled status indications and/or the indication of failure/disturbance may be presented

audibly and visually, and shall be clearly distinguishable from the other signals. Synthesized or recorded

voice messages may also be used. In general, the status indication may be automatically switched off

temporarily after a certain time (to be defined by the manufacturer). The system, however, shall remain in

the active state.

e) A manufacturer may permit the driver to manually select temporary suppression of the audible warnings.

In this case, the audible warnings shall remain suppressed until the driver switches it on again; however,

audible warnings shall be automatically reinstated when the system is enabled the next time; see 5.6.

f) This International Standard does not establish an exact algorithm for use for state transitions between the

audible-alert types (distance, presence and dynamic). However, a general rule for transitions is that they

should be designed to provide smooth and intuitive changes between the audible states. Hysteresis is

recommended to reduce “flickering” (oscillations) between the alert types. This is especially important for

the dynamic-warning alert.

g) In the case where presence warnings are not presented over the entire 5 m range of the system or are

presented for less than 3 s, a special diagnostic mode shall be made available for the purposes of

compliance testing. While in the diagnostic mode, the system shall issue presence warnings over the full

5 m range of the system. Warnings shall be presented for a minimum of 3 s (uninterrupted). It is intended

that this mode be available only to the service technician for the purpose of confirming that the system

meets the detection requirements of this International Standard; it is not intended that this mode be

available to the driver of the vehicle. No specific requirements on how this mode is entered or exited are

imposed or implied.
5.5.3 Visual information
The visual information shall be presented in accordance with ISO 15008.
The following basic code is recommended for the visual-information channel.

a) Visual information shall be codified into at least two levels, represented by multiple colours: for example,

red for level 1 (imminent collision level) and yellow or green for level 2 (attention level). If a different or an

additional advisory level is used, it should not interfere with the basic rule. The two levels may be

subdivided by using more than one display element with the same colour, e.g. a bar graph with three red

and three yellow or green bars, allowing for six sublevels. If a monochromatic element is used instead of

multiple colours, the two levels may be represented by a combination of continuous and flashing

illumination or a display consisting of incremental bars.

b) The display should be located so as to minimize the likelihood of inducing drivers to change their direction

of vision. For example, it is recommended to place the display in the rear part of the passenger

compartment, because this allows drivers to watch the display while simultaneously looking through the

rear mirror or over their shoulder directly through the rear window.

c) It is recommended to indicate the activation/deactivation and malfunction of the system by a tell-tale or a

symbol in all active displays of the system. Reference should be made to ISO 2575 for the recommended

symbols.
5.5.4 Combination of visual and audible information

A combination of visual and audible information may be used to improve the driver interface or to reduce the

possibility of annoying the driver and passengers, taking into account the specific advantages of both

information types.
8 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22840:2010(E)

If the intensity of the audible information presentation can be reduced by the driver, e.g. from a menu of the

onboard human-machine interface (HMI) system, there should be a note in the user manual or a message in

the dialog about the HMI system stating that the warnings might not be perceived in time if the volume is set

too low.

Visual warnings should be maintained under conditions when the audible warnings may have been

suppressed. This measure helps to remind the driver that objects are in the zone of regard and differentiate

this situation from a “no target” condition.
5.6 System activation
The system is activated (enabled) a
...

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