Information and documentation -- Performance indicators for national libraries

ISO/TR 28118:2009 establishes the performance indicators for national libraries. It is also applicable to libraries with regional tasks and without a defined population to be served, as many of their evaluation problems correspond to those of national libraries. The performance indicators are of special interest for comparison over time within the same library. Comparisons between libraries are possible, if differences in the tasks and constituencies of the libraries are taken into account. ISO/TR 28118:2009 does not include performance indicators for evaluating the outcomes or impact of library services either on individuals, on the communities that libraries serve, or on society at this time. Since this is an evolving area of performance measurement for libraries, such performance indicators can be added at a later date. ISO/TR 28118:2009 is not intended to exclude the use of any performance indicators which have not been specified herein.

Information et documentation -- Indicateurs de performance des bibliothèques nationales

Informatika in dokumentacija - Kazalniki uspešnosti nacionalnih knjižnic

To tehnično poročilo vzpostavlja kazalce uspešnosti za nacionalne knjižnice. Prav tako velja za knjižnice z regijskimi nalogami, ki nimajo določene populacije, da bi ji služile, saj veliko njihovih problemov ovrednotenja ustreza problemom nacionalnih knjižnic. Kazalniki uspešnosti so posebej zanimivi za primerjavo skozi čas v okviru iste knjižnice. Primerjave med knjižnicami so možne, če se razlike glede nalog in bralcev knjižnic upoštevajo. To tehnično poročilo ne vsebuje kazalnikov uspešnosti za ocenjevanje rezultatov ali posledic knjižničnih storitev za bodisi posameznike bodisi skupnosti, ki jim knjižnice služijo, ali za družbo v tem času. Ker je to razvijajoče se področje kazalnikov uspešnosti za knjižnice, se takšni kazalniki uspešnosti lahko dodajo kasneje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Mar-2009
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Mar-2009
Completion Date
01-Apr-2009

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 28118
First edition
2009-04-01
Information and documentation —
Performance indicators for national
libraries
Information et documentation — Indicateurs de performance des
bibliothèques nationales
Reference number
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
ISO 2009
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2009

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

3 Use of performance indicators ..........................................................................................................10

3.1 General considerations.......................................................................................................................10

3.2 Selection of performance indicators.................................................................................................11

3.3 Limitations of performance measurement .......................................................................................11

4 Descriptive framework........................................................................................................................12

4.1 Presentation of the performance indicators.....................................................................................12

4.2 Description of the performance indicators.......................................................................................12

5 List of performance indicators for national libraries.......................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Description of performance indicators ....................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Mission and main goals of national libraries...........................................................78

Annex C (informative) Collecting the national part of the Internet ..............................................................80

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................84

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 28118 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 8, Quality — Statistics and performance evaluation.
iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
Introduction

This Technical Report is concerned with the evaluation of the performance of national libraries.

For several years, national libraries have felt the need to get consensus on a common list of relevant

performance indicators for assessing the quality and performance of their services. Several groups, e.g. within

the IFLA Section of National Libraries and CENL (Conference of European National Libraries), have tried to

assess the present use of performance measurement in national libraries and discussed possible

performance indicators, preferably using performance indicators in existing handbooks and standards.

The second edition of ISO 11620 (see Reference [5] in the Bibliography) establishes a list of performance

indicators for libraries that include performance indicators for electronic library services. ISO 11620 aims at

comprising performance indicators for all types of libraries, but does not cover all tasks and services of every

type of library. This Technical Report establishes the list of performance indicators that are relevant to the

special tasks and services of national libraries.

National libraries have important tasks that differ from those of other libraries, such as the collection and

preservation of the national documentary heritage, the publication of a national bibliography and a leading role

in international cooperation. Therefore, it is important that performance indicators for national libraries

consider topics such as
⎯ the coverage of the national imprint (print and electronic),
⎯ the speed and comprehensiveness of the national bibliography,
⎯ the effort for preserving the national documentary heritage, and
⎯ the international engagement of the library.

National libraries are unique institutions in their countries, and their data are not easily comparable. The main

problems for measuring performance in national libraries are the following.

a) National libraries can have several functions (e.g. university and national library, parliamentary and

national library).
b) There can be more than one national library in one country.

c) National libraries have no specified clientele or primary user group like public or university libraries.

Therefore, output data cannot be set in comparison to “members of the population”.

d) Mission, tasks and functions of national libraries can differ between countries.

This Technical Report selects performance indicators from ISO 11620 that are appropriate to the tasks of

national libraries or can be adapted to such tasks. Additionally, it presents new performance indicators that

have been used or tested by a national library and that cover the topics not considered in ISO 11620.

This Technical Report provides standardized terminology and definitions for data to be used in the

performance indicators. Furthermore, this Technical Report contains concise descriptions of the performance

indicators, of the collection and the analysis of data needed, and of examples where the performance

indicators have been used.

Annex B describes all efforts of assessing the quality and performance of an institution by starting with the

statement of the general mission and tasks established for their national library.

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)

Some national libraries have started creating collections based on national elements found on the Internet. As

it is too early to describe performance indicators for this activity, a short overview of methods and quality

issues is given in Annex C.
Texts in this Technical Report are partly based on ISO 11620.

Throughout this Technical Report, the names of performance indicators are printed with the first letter of

significant words capitalized, e.g. Percentage of the Collection in Stable Condition. This helps to distinguish

these names from supporting text.
vi © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
Information and documentation — Performance indicators for
national libraries
1 Scope

This Technical Report establishes the performance indicators for national libraries. It is also applicable to

libraries with regional tasks and without a defined population to be served, as many of their evaluation

problems correspond to those of national libraries.

The performance indicators are of special interest for comparison over time within the same library.

Comparisons between libraries are possible, if differences in the tasks and constituencies of the libraries are

taken into account.

This Technical Report does not include performance indicators for evaluating the outcomes or impact of

library services either on individuals, on the communities that libraries serve, or on society at this time. Since

this is an evolving area of performance measurement for libraries, such performance indicators can be added

at a later date.

This Technical Report is not intended to exclude the use of any performance indicators which have not been

specified herein.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
accessibility
ease of reaching and using a service or facility
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.1]
2.2
active user

registered user who has visited or made use of library facilities or services during the reporting period

NOTE This can include the use of electronic library services within or outside the library.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.2]
2.3
book
non-serial printed document in codex form
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.5]
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
2.4
capital expenditure
expenditure which results in the acquisition of, or addition to, fixed assets

NOTE 1 This includes expenditure on building sites, new buildings and extensions, furnishings and equipment for new

and expanded buildings, computer systems (hardware and software), etc. When applicable, local and national

sales/purchase taxes [e.g. Value Added Tax (VAT)] are included.
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.5.1.
2.5
closed stacks
stacks normally not accessible to users
2.6
conservation
intervention techniques applied to prevent, arrest or delay deterioration
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.1.03]
2.7
content downloaded

content unit that is successfully requested from a database, electronic serial or digital document

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.3]
2.8
content unit

computer-processed uniquely identifiable textual or audiovisual piece of published work that may be original or

a digest of other published work

NOTE 1 Adapted from the definition of “item” in COUNTER code of practice, Release 2:2004.

NOTE 2 Descriptive records are excluded.

NOTE 3 PDF, Postscript, HTML and other formats of the same content unit will be counted as separate items.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.9]
2.9
cultural event

event with cultural, literary, educational, or scholarly intent, e.g. exhibitions, author visits, literary discussions,

workshops, etc.

NOTE 1 Only events arranged by the library are included. Events inside the library premises organized by institutions

outside the library are excluded.
NOTE 2 User training lessons organized by the library are excluded.
2.10
database

collection of electronically stored descriptive records or content units (including facts, full texts, pictures, and

sound) with a common user interface and software for the retrieval and manipulation of the data

NOTE 1 The units or records are usually collected with a particular intent and are related to a defined topic. A database

can be issued on CD-ROM, diskette, or other direct-access method, or as a computer file accessed via dial-up methods or

via the Internet.

NOTE 2 Licensed databases are counted separately even if access to several licensed database products is effected

through the same interface.
2 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)

NOTE 3 A common interface providing access to a packet of serials or digital documents, usually offered by a

publisher or vendor, is also to be counted as database. Additionally, the single serials or digital documents should be

counted as serials or digital documents.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.10]
2.11
digital document

information unit with a defined content that has been digitized by the library or acquired in digital form as part

of the library collection

NOTE 1 This includes eBooks, electronic patents, networked audiovisual documents and other digital documents, e.g.

reports, cartographic and music documents, preprints, etc. Databases and electronic serials are excluded.

NOTE 2 Items incorporated in databases are excluded.
NOTE 3 A digital document can be structured into one or more files.
NOTE 4 A digital document consists of one or more content units.
NOTE 5 Adapted from ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.12.
2.12
document

recorded information or material object, which can be treated as a unit in a documentation process

[ISO 5127:2001, definition 1.2.02]
NOTE Documents can differ in their physical form and characteristics.
2.13
document processing

everything done to a document after it is acquired by a library, before it is placed on the shelves or, in the case

of an electronic document, on the server, including acquisition, descriptive cataloguing, subject indexing, if

applicable binding, physical processing, and shelving
2.14
document retrieval
process of recovering specific documents from a store
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 1.2.06]
2.15
download

successful request of a descriptive record or content unit, e.g. for displaying, printing, saving, or emailing

NOTE For web server logs, successful requests are those with specific return codes, as defined by NCSA (National

Center for Supercomputing Applications).
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.4]
2.16
effectiveness
measure of the degree to which given objectives are achieved

NOTE An activity is effective if it maximizes the results it was established to produce.

[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.14]
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
2.17
efficiency
measure of the utilization of resources to realize a given objective

NOTE An activity is efficient if it minimizes the use of resources, or produces better performance with the same

resources.
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.15]
2.18
electronic resource
all resources in electronic form in the library collection
NOTE 1 See also ISO 2789:2006, A.2.3.

NOTE 2 Electronic resources include databases, electronic serials, digital documents, and computer files. Free Internet

resources which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database are excluded.

2.19
electronic service

electronic library service, which is either supplied from local servers or accessible via networks

NOTE Electronic library services include the online catalogue, the library website, the electronic collection, electronic

document delivery (mediated), electronic reference service, user training on electronic services and Internet access

offered via the library.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.6]
2.20
evaluation

process of estimating the effectiveness, efficiency, utility and relevance of a service or facility

[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.17]
2.21
full-time equivalent
FTE

a measurement equal to one staff member working a full-time work schedule for one year

EXAMPLE If out of three persons employed as librarians, one works quarter-time, one works half-time, and one

works full-time, then the FTE of these three persons would be 0,25 + 0,5 + 1,0 = 1,75 librarians (FTE).

NOTE Not all libraries may use the same number of hours per year to determine an FTE. Thus, any comparative

measures between libraries may need to consider any differences in hours.
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.21]
2.22
goal
desired state of affairs to be achieved by the implementation of agreed policies
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.22]
2.23
home page

page which serves as the visual unit that is displayed when accessing the library’s website

NOTE 1 The home page may appear after the redirection through an entry page.
NOTE 2 See ISO 2789:2006, A.5.3.4.
4 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
2.24
income generated

income generated by library operations and from fees, charges, subscriptions and donations that is available

to the library for expenditure
NOTE See ISO 2789:2006, 6.5.3.
2.25
indicator

expression (which may be numeric, symbolic or verbal) used to characterize activities (events, objects,

persons) both in quantitative and qualitative terms in order to assess the value of the activities characterized,

and the associated method
NOTE Adapted from ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.23.
2.26
information request
reference enquiry

information contact that involves the knowledge or use of one or more information sources (such as printed

and non-printed materials, machine-readable databases, the library's own and other institutions' catalogues)

by library staff
NOTE 1 Adapted from ANSI/NISO Z39.7-2004.

NOTE 2 The information request can also involve recommendations, interpretation, or instruction in the use of such

sources.
NOTE 3 One information request may address several questions.

NOTE 4 The request can be delivered personally or by means of telephone, regular mail, fax or electronic media (via

email, the library website or other networked communications mechanisms).

NOTE 5 It is essential that libraries do not include directional and administrative enquiries, e.g. for locating staff or

facilities, regarding opening times or about handling equipment such as reader printers or computer terminals.

NOTE 6 Enquiries are also excluded, if asked for the purpose of locating items of stock that have already been

identified bibliographically.
NOTE 7 Adapted from ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.9.
2.27
in-house use
documents taken by a user from open access stock for use on the premises

NOTE In-house use includes browsing at the shelves in the sense of a short investigation of the contents, but

excludes looking at the titles only for selecting material.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.10]
2.28
ILL
interlibrary lending

loan of a document in its physical form or delivery of a document, or part of it, in copied form, from one library

to another which is not under the same administration

NOTE Mediated transmission of documents in electronic form is counted as electronic document delivery.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.11]
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
2.29
library collection
all documents provided by a library for its users

NOTE 1 Comprises documents held locally and remote resources for which permanent or temporary access rights

have been acquired.

NOTE 2 Access rights can be acquired by the library itself, by a consortium and/or through external funding.

NOTE 3 Acquisition is to be understood as deliberately selecting a document, securing access rights and including it in

the online catalogue or other databases of the library. Interlibrary lending and document delivery are excluded.

NOTE 4 Does not include links to Internet resources for which the library has not secured access rights by legal

agreements (e.g. legal deposit right), license or other contractual and/or cooperative agreement. Free Internet resources

which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database need to be counted separately.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.22]
2.30
library employee
person who works for a library in return for payment
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.6.1]
2.31
library website

unique domain on the Internet consisting of a collection of web pages that is published by a library to provide

access to the library’s services and resources

NOTE 1 The pages of a website are usually interconnected by the use of hypertext links.

NOTE 2 Excludes documents that fit the definitions of electronic collection and free Internet resources that can be

linked from the library website.

NOTE 3 Excludes web services in the library’s domain that are operated on behalf of other organizations.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.13]
2.32
loan

direct lending or delivery transaction of an item in non-electronic form (e.g. book), of an electronic document

on a physical carrier (e.g. CD-ROM) or other device (e.g. eBook reader), or transmission of an electronic

document to one user for a limited time period (e.g. eBook)

NOTE 1 Loans include user-initiated renewals as well as registered loans within the library (on-site loans). Renewals

need to be counted separately.

NOTE 2 Loans include copied documents supplied in place of original documents (including fax) and printouts of

electronic documents made by library staff for the user.
NOTE 3 Loans of documents in physical form to distance users are included here.

NOTE 4 Mediated electronic transmission of documents is counted as electronic document delivery if their use is

permitted for unlimited time. This includes transmissions to members of the population to be served.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.14]
6 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
2.33
mass conservation

simultaneous treatment of a large number of documents by automated conservation techniques

[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.7.36]
2.34
mission

statement approved by the authorities formulating the organization's goals and its choices in services and

product development
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.28]
2.35
national bibliography

bibliography in which documents published in a single country are recorded and described

NOTE In some countries, the national bibliography also covers foreign publications relative to the country and also

the works by their nationals which are published abroad.
[ISO 9707:2008, definition 2.21]
2.36
national collection

the national library’s collection of the national imprint and the national documentary heritage in the form of

manuscripts, archival materials, cartographic material, printed music documents, pictures, photographs and

audiovisual documents in conventional or electronic format
NOTE Websites can be part of the national collection.
2.37
national imprint
all documents in all formats published in a country
NOTE Includes commercial and non-commercial publications.
2.38
national library

library that is responsible for acquiring and conserving copies of all relevant documents in the country in which

the library is located; it can function as a legal deposit library
NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 5127:2001, definition 3.2.02.

NOTE 2 A national library will also normally perform some or all of the following functions: produce the national

bibliography; hold and keep up-to-date a large and representative collection of foreign literature including documents

about the country; act as a national bibliographic information centre; compile union catalogues; supervise the

administration of other libraries and/or promote collaboration; coordinate a research and development service, etc.

2.39
non-commercial publications

documents in print and electronic format published by non-profit institutions, such as reports, theses and

dissertations, conference proceedings etc., often not available through normal book trade channels

2.40
objective

specific target for an activity to be attained as a contribution to achieving the goal of an organization

[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.29]
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
2.41
online catalogue

database of bibliographical records describing the collection usually of one particular library or library system

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.15]
2.42
operating expenditure
ordinary expenditure
expenditure incurred in the running of a library

NOTE Money spent on staff and on resources that are used and replaced regularly. This includes expenditure on

employees, rent, acquisitions and licensing, binding, computer network (operations and maintenance), telecommunication,

building maintenance, repair or replacement of existing furnishings and equipment, etc. This can also be termed 'current'

or 'recurrent' expenditure. When applicable, local and national sales/purchase taxes [e.g. Value Added Tax (VAT)] are

included.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.5.3]
2.43
performance

effectiveness of the provision of services by the library and the efficiency of the allocation and use of

resources in providing services
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.30]
2.44
performance indicator

numerical, symbolic or verbal expression, derived from library statistics and data used to characterize the

performance of a library
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.31]
2.45
preservation

all measures taken including financial and strategic decisions, to maintain the integrity and extend the life of

documents or collections
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.1.01]
2.46
publication

document offered for general distribution and usually produced in multiple copies

[ISO 5127:2001, definition 2.1.11]
2.47
rare material

incunabula, books published before 1800, manuscripts (including fragments and rolls, autographs, music

manuscripts)

NOTE The definition excludes archives and records concerning private persons, institutions and organizations

(collections containing manuscripts, letters, notes, photos, and other material given by bequest to the library or purchased

as such by, or on behalf of, the library).
8 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
2.48
restoration

actions taken to return a document which has suffered deterioration or damage as closely as practicable to its

original state

NOTE In archival restoration, no attempt is made to recreate missing text, etc., and all restoration work is kept clearly

evident.
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.1.04]
2.49
seat

seat provided for users for reading or studying, whether with or without equipment

NOTE Includes seats in carrels, in seminar and study rooms and the audiovisual and children's departments of the

library. Excludes seats in halls, lecture and auditory theatres intended for audiences of special events. Also excludes floor

space on which users may sit and similar informal seating.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.4.5]
2.50
special grant
grant of a non-recurrent nature to fund (or partly fund) projects
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.5.4]
2.51
stable condition
suitability for use

NOTE Stable material may have some damage but can be used without immediate risk of further damage. Unstable

material will be further damaged if used.
2.52
storage

preservation measures for keeping documents under defined conditions and permitting their retrieval or that of

the information contained in them
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.1.08]
2.53
title

words at the head of a document thus identifying it and normally distinguishing it from others

[ISO 5127:2001, definition 4.2.
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP ISO/TR 28118:2010
01-maj-2010
Informatika in dokumentacija - Kazalniki uspešnosti nacionalnih knjižnic
Information and documentation - Performance indicators for national libraries

Information et documentation - Indicateurs de performance des bibliothèques nationales

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TR 28118:2009
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
SIST-TP ISO/TR 28118:2010 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 28118:2010
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 28118:2010
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 28118
First edition
2009-04-01
Information and documentation —
Performance indicators for national
libraries
Information et documentation — Indicateurs de performance des
bibliothèques nationales
Reference number
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
ISO 2009
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 28118:2010
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2009

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 28118:2010
ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

3 Use of performance indicators ..........................................................................................................10

3.1 General considerations.......................................................................................................................10

3.2 Selection of performance indicators.................................................................................................11

3.3 Limitations of performance measurement .......................................................................................11

4 Descriptive framework........................................................................................................................12

4.1 Presentation of the performance indicators.....................................................................................12

4.2 Description of the performance indicators.......................................................................................12

5 List of performance indicators for national libraries.......................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Description of performance indicators ....................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Mission and main goals of national libraries...........................................................78

Annex C (informative) Collecting the national part of the Internet ..............................................................80

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................84

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 28118 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 8, Quality — Statistics and performance evaluation.
iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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Introduction

This Technical Report is concerned with the evaluation of the performance of national libraries.

For several years, national libraries have felt the need to get consensus on a common list of relevant

performance indicators for assessing the quality and performance of their services. Several groups, e.g. within

the IFLA Section of National Libraries and CENL (Conference of European National Libraries), have tried to

assess the present use of performance measurement in national libraries and discussed possible

performance indicators, preferably using performance indicators in existing handbooks and standards.

The second edition of ISO 11620 (see Reference [5] in the Bibliography) establishes a list of performance

indicators for libraries that include performance indicators for electronic library services. ISO 11620 aims at

comprising performance indicators for all types of libraries, but does not cover all tasks and services of every

type of library. This Technical Report establishes the list of performance indicators that are relevant to the

special tasks and services of national libraries.

National libraries have important tasks that differ from those of other libraries, such as the collection and

preservation of the national documentary heritage, the publication of a national bibliography and a leading role

in international cooperation. Therefore, it is important that performance indicators for national libraries

consider topics such as
⎯ the coverage of the national imprint (print and electronic),
⎯ the speed and comprehensiveness of the national bibliography,
⎯ the effort for preserving the national documentary heritage, and
⎯ the international engagement of the library.

National libraries are unique institutions in their countries, and their data are not easily comparable. The main

problems for measuring performance in national libraries are the following.

a) National libraries can have several functions (e.g. university and national library, parliamentary and

national library).
b) There can be more than one national library in one country.

c) National libraries have no specified clientele or primary user group like public or university libraries.

Therefore, output data cannot be set in comparison to “members of the population”.

d) Mission, tasks and functions of national libraries can differ between countries.

This Technical Report selects performance indicators from ISO 11620 that are appropriate to the tasks of

national libraries or can be adapted to such tasks. Additionally, it presents new performance indicators that

have been used or tested by a national library and that cover the topics not considered in ISO 11620.

This Technical Report provides standardized terminology and definitions for data to be used in the

performance indicators. Furthermore, this Technical Report contains concise descriptions of the performance

indicators, of the collection and the analysis of data needed, and of examples where the performance

indicators have been used.

Annex B describes all efforts of assessing the quality and performance of an institution by starting with the

statement of the general mission and tasks established for their national library.

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Some national libraries have started creating collections based on national elements found on the Internet. As

it is too early to describe performance indicators for this activity, a short overview of methods and quality

issues is given in Annex C.
Texts in this Technical Report are partly based on ISO 11620.

Throughout this Technical Report, the names of performance indicators are printed with the first letter of

significant words capitalized, e.g. Percentage of the Collection in Stable Condition. This helps to distinguish

these names from supporting text.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 28118:2009(E)
Information and documentation — Performance indicators for
national libraries
1 Scope

This Technical Report establishes the performance indicators for national libraries. It is also applicable to

libraries with regional tasks and without a defined population to be served, as many of their evaluation

problems correspond to those of national libraries.

The performance indicators are of special interest for comparison over time within the same library.

Comparisons between libraries are possible, if differences in the tasks and constituencies of the libraries are

taken into account.

This Technical Report does not include performance indicators for evaluating the outcomes or impact of

library services either on individuals, on the communities that libraries serve, or on society at this time. Since

this is an evolving area of performance measurement for libraries, such performance indicators can be added

at a later date.

This Technical Report is not intended to exclude the use of any performance indicators which have not been

specified herein.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
accessibility
ease of reaching and using a service or facility
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.1]
2.2
active user

registered user who has visited or made use of library facilities or services during the reporting period

NOTE This can include the use of electronic library services within or outside the library.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.2]
2.3
book
non-serial printed document in codex form
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.5]
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2.4
capital expenditure
expenditure which results in the acquisition of, or addition to, fixed assets

NOTE 1 This includes expenditure on building sites, new buildings and extensions, furnishings and equipment for new

and expanded buildings, computer systems (hardware and software), etc. When applicable, local and national

sales/purchase taxes [e.g. Value Added Tax (VAT)] are included.
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.5.1.
2.5
closed stacks
stacks normally not accessible to users
2.6
conservation
intervention techniques applied to prevent, arrest or delay deterioration
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.1.03]
2.7
content downloaded

content unit that is successfully requested from a database, electronic serial or digital document

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.3]
2.8
content unit

computer-processed uniquely identifiable textual or audiovisual piece of published work that may be original or

a digest of other published work

NOTE 1 Adapted from the definition of “item” in COUNTER code of practice, Release 2:2004.

NOTE 2 Descriptive records are excluded.

NOTE 3 PDF, Postscript, HTML and other formats of the same content unit will be counted as separate items.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.9]
2.9
cultural event

event with cultural, literary, educational, or scholarly intent, e.g. exhibitions, author visits, literary discussions,

workshops, etc.

NOTE 1 Only events arranged by the library are included. Events inside the library premises organized by institutions

outside the library are excluded.
NOTE 2 User training lessons organized by the library are excluded.
2.10
database

collection of electronically stored descriptive records or content units (including facts, full texts, pictures, and

sound) with a common user interface and software for the retrieval and manipulation of the data

NOTE 1 The units or records are usually collected with a particular intent and are related to a defined topic. A database

can be issued on CD-ROM, diskette, or other direct-access method, or as a computer file accessed via dial-up methods or

via the Internet.

NOTE 2 Licensed databases are counted separately even if access to several licensed database products is effected

through the same interface.
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NOTE 3 A common interface providing access to a packet of serials or digital documents, usually offered by a

publisher or vendor, is also to be counted as database. Additionally, the single serials or digital documents should be

counted as serials or digital documents.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.10]
2.11
digital document

information unit with a defined content that has been digitized by the library or acquired in digital form as part

of the library collection

NOTE 1 This includes eBooks, electronic patents, networked audiovisual documents and other digital documents, e.g.

reports, cartographic and music documents, preprints, etc. Databases and electronic serials are excluded.

NOTE 2 Items incorporated in databases are excluded.
NOTE 3 A digital document can be structured into one or more files.
NOTE 4 A digital document consists of one or more content units.
NOTE 5 Adapted from ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.12.
2.12
document

recorded information or material object, which can be treated as a unit in a documentation process

[ISO 5127:2001, definition 1.2.02]
NOTE Documents can differ in their physical form and characteristics.
2.13
document processing

everything done to a document after it is acquired by a library, before it is placed on the shelves or, in the case

of an electronic document, on the server, including acquisition, descriptive cataloguing, subject indexing, if

applicable binding, physical processing, and shelving
2.14
document retrieval
process of recovering specific documents from a store
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 1.2.06]
2.15
download

successful request of a descriptive record or content unit, e.g. for displaying, printing, saving, or emailing

NOTE For web server logs, successful requests are those with specific return codes, as defined by NCSA (National

Center for Supercomputing Applications).
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.4]
2.16
effectiveness
measure of the degree to which given objectives are achieved

NOTE An activity is effective if it maximizes the results it was established to produce.

[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.14]
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2.17
efficiency
measure of the utilization of resources to realize a given objective

NOTE An activity is efficient if it minimizes the use of resources, or produces better performance with the same

resources.
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.15]
2.18
electronic resource
all resources in electronic form in the library collection
NOTE 1 See also ISO 2789:2006, A.2.3.

NOTE 2 Electronic resources include databases, electronic serials, digital documents, and computer files. Free Internet

resources which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database are excluded.

2.19
electronic service

electronic library service, which is either supplied from local servers or accessible via networks

NOTE Electronic library services include the online catalogue, the library website, the electronic collection, electronic

document delivery (mediated), electronic reference service, user training on electronic services and Internet access

offered via the library.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.6]
2.20
evaluation

process of estimating the effectiveness, efficiency, utility and relevance of a service or facility

[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.17]
2.21
full-time equivalent
FTE

a measurement equal to one staff member working a full-time work schedule for one year

EXAMPLE If out of three persons employed as librarians, one works quarter-time, one works half-time, and one

works full-time, then the FTE of these three persons would be 0,25 + 0,5 + 1,0 = 1,75 librarians (FTE).

NOTE Not all libraries may use the same number of hours per year to determine an FTE. Thus, any comparative

measures between libraries may need to consider any differences in hours.
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.21]
2.22
goal
desired state of affairs to be achieved by the implementation of agreed policies
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.22]
2.23
home page

page which serves as the visual unit that is displayed when accessing the library’s website

NOTE 1 The home page may appear after the redirection through an entry page.
NOTE 2 See ISO 2789:2006, A.5.3.4.
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2.24
income generated

income generated by library operations and from fees, charges, subscriptions and donations that is available

to the library for expenditure
NOTE See ISO 2789:2006, 6.5.3.
2.25
indicator

expression (which may be numeric, symbolic or verbal) used to characterize activities (events, objects,

persons) both in quantitative and qualitative terms in order to assess the value of the activities characterized,

and the associated method
NOTE Adapted from ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.23.
2.26
information request
reference enquiry

information contact that involves the knowledge or use of one or more information sources (such as printed

and non-printed materials, machine-readable databases, the library's own and other institutions' catalogues)

by library staff
NOTE 1 Adapted from ANSI/NISO Z39.7-2004.

NOTE 2 The information request can also involve recommendations, interpretation, or instruction in the use of such

sources.
NOTE 3 One information request may address several questions.

NOTE 4 The request can be delivered personally or by means of telephone, regular mail, fax or electronic media (via

email, the library website or other networked communications mechanisms).

NOTE 5 It is essential that libraries do not include directional and administrative enquiries, e.g. for locating staff or

facilities, regarding opening times or about handling equipment such as reader printers or computer terminals.

NOTE 6 Enquiries are also excluded, if asked for the purpose of locating items of stock that have already been

identified bibliographically.
NOTE 7 Adapted from ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.9.
2.27
in-house use
documents taken by a user from open access stock for use on the premises

NOTE In-house use includes browsing at the shelves in the sense of a short investigation of the contents, but

excludes looking at the titles only for selecting material.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.10]
2.28
ILL
interlibrary lending

loan of a document in its physical form or delivery of a document, or part of it, in copied form, from one library

to another which is not under the same administration

NOTE Mediated transmission of documents in electronic form is counted as electronic document delivery.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.11]
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2.29
library collection
all documents provided by a library for its users

NOTE 1 Comprises documents held locally and remote resources for which permanent or temporary access rights

have been acquired.

NOTE 2 Access rights can be acquired by the library itself, by a consortium and/or through external funding.

NOTE 3 Acquisition is to be understood as deliberately selecting a document, securing access rights and including it in

the online catalogue or other databases of the library. Interlibrary lending and document delivery are excluded.

NOTE 4 Does not include links to Internet resources for which the library has not secured access rights by legal

agreements (e.g. legal deposit right), license or other contractual and/or cooperative agreement. Free Internet resources

which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database need to be counted separately.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.2.22]
2.30
library employee
person who works for a library in return for payment
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.6.1]
2.31
library website

unique domain on the Internet consisting of a collection of web pages that is published by a library to provide

access to the library’s services and resources

NOTE 1 The pages of a website are usually interconnected by the use of hypertext links.

NOTE 2 Excludes documents that fit the definitions of electronic collection and free Internet resources that can be

linked from the library website.

NOTE 3 Excludes web services in the library’s domain that are operated on behalf of other organizations.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.13]
2.32
loan

direct lending or delivery transaction of an item in non-electronic form (e.g. book), of an electronic document

on a physical carrier (e.g. CD-ROM) or other device (e.g. eBook reader), or transmission of an electronic

document to one user for a limited time period (e.g. eBook)

NOTE 1 Loans include user-initiated renewals as well as registered loans within the library (on-site loans). Renewals

need to be counted separately.

NOTE 2 Loans include copied documents supplied in place of original documents (including fax) and printouts of

electronic documents made by library staff for the user.
NOTE 3 Loans of documents in physical form to distance users are included here.

NOTE 4 Mediated electronic transmission of documents is counted as electronic document delivery if their use is

permitted for unlimited time. This includes transmissions to members of the population to be served.

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.14]
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2.33
mass conservation

simultaneous treatment of a large number of documents by automated conservation techniques

[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.7.36]
2.34
mission

statement approved by the authorities formulating the organization's goals and its choices in services and

product development
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.28]
2.35
national bibliography

bibliography in which documents published in a single country are recorded and described

NOTE In some countries, the national bibliography also covers foreign publications relative to the country and also

the works by their nationals which are published abroad.
[ISO 9707:2008, definition 2.21]
2.36
national collection

the national library’s collection of the national imprint and the national documentary heritage in the form of

manuscripts, archival materials, cartographic material, printed music documents, pictures, photographs and

audiovisual documents in conventional or electronic format
NOTE Websites can be part of the national collection.
2.37
national imprint
all documents in all formats published in a country
NOTE Includes commercial and non-commercial publications.
2.38
national library

library that is responsible for acquiring and conserving copies of all relevant documents in the country in which

the library is located; it can function as a legal deposit library
NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 5127:2001, definition 3.2.02.

NOTE 2 A national library will also normally perform some or all of the following functions: produce the national

bibliography; hold and keep up-to-date a large and representative collection of foreign literature including documents

about the country; act as a national bibliographic information centre; compile union catalogues; supervise the

administration of other libraries and/or promote collaboration; coordinate a research and development service, etc.

2.39
non-commercial publications

documents in print and electronic format published by non-profit institutions, such as reports, theses and

dissertations, conference proceedings etc., often not available through normal book trade channels

2.40
objective

specific target for an activity to be attained as a contribution to achieving the goal of an organization

[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.29]
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2.41
online catalogue

database of bibliographical records describing the collection usually of one particular library or library system

[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.3.15]
2.42
operating expenditure
ordinary expenditure
expenditure incurred in the running of a library

NOTE Money spent on staff and on resources that are used and replaced regularly. This includes expenditure on

employees, rent, acquisitions and licensing, binding, computer network (operations and maintenance), telecommunication,

building maintenance, repair or replacement of existing furnishings and equipment, etc. This can also be termed 'current'

or 'recurrent' expenditure. When applicable, local and national sales/purchase taxes [e.g. Value Added Tax (VAT)] are

included.
[ISO 2789:2006, definition 3.5.3]
2.43
performance

effectiveness of the provision of services by the library and the efficiency of the allocation and use of

resources in providing services
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.30]
2.44
performance indicator

numerical, symbolic or verbal expression, derived from library statistics and data used to characterize the

performance of a library
[ISO 11620:2008, definition 2.31]
2.45
preservation

all measures taken including financial and strategic decisions, to maintain the integrity and extend the life of

documents or collections
[ISO 5127:2001, definition 6.1.01]
2.46
publication

document offered for general distribution and usually produced in multiple copies

[ISO 5127:2001, definition 2.1.11]
2.47
rare material

incunabula, books published before 1800, manuscripts (including fragments and rolls, autographs, music

manuscripts)

NOTE The definition excludes archives and records concerning private persons, institutions and organizations

(collections containing manuscripts, letters, notes, photos, and other material given by bequest to the library or purchased

as such by, or on behalf of, the library).
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2.48
restoration

actions taken to return a document which has suffered deterioration or damage as closely as practicable to its

original state

NOTE In archival restoration, no attempt is made to recreate missing text, etc., and all restoration work is kept clearly

evident.
[ISO 5127:2001,
...

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