Ships and marine technology -- Bioassay methods for screening anti-fouling paints

This document specifies general requirements and common specifications for preparing and aging panels coated with anti-fouling paint to perform laboratory bioassay screening tests against specified organisms. Such tests are given in the other parts of the ISO 21716 series, with which this document is intended to be used. This document is applicable to all anti-fouling paints that prevent or deter the attachment and growth of sessile organisms on a surface through chemical or biological means. It is not applicable to the following: — coatings that deter or prevent fouling solely by physical means such as biocide-free foul release paints; — anti-fouling methods used for controlling harmful marine organisms and pathogenic organisms in ships' ballast water and sediments according to IMO International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004[7].

Titre manque

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Nov-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
27-Oct-2020
Completion Date
27-Oct-2020
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 21716-1:2020 - Ships and marine technology -- Bioassay methods for screening anti-fouling paints
English language
9 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/PRF 21716-1:Version 13-okt-2020 - Ships and marine technology -- Bioassay methods for screening anti-fouling paints
English language
9 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21716-1
First edition
2020-11
Ships and marine technology —
Bioassay methods for screening anti-
fouling paints —
Part 1:
General requirements
Reference number
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Preparation of the test panels ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Test procedure — General ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Selection of a material for substrates .................................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Application of an anti-fouling paint ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Aging of the test panels .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Inspecting and pre-treating of the panels ....................................................................................................................... 4

5 Experimental system ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Water flow-through equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 5

Annex A (informative) Aging methods — Examples ............................................................................................................................. 6

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology,

Subcommittee SC 2, Marine environment protection, in collaboration with Technical Committee

ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes.

A list of all parts in the ISO 21716 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Anti-fouling paints that contain biocides are widely used to prevent fouling of ship hulls by marine

organisms. Effective anti-fouling technologies are critical to maintaining the fuel consumption

efficiency of ships, minimizing the release of greenhouse gases and other hazardous air pollutants,

and also for minimizing the possible translocation of aquatic species through maritime trade. The

evaluation of anti-fouling paints is generally undertaken by adopting a tiered approach, whereby paint

manufacturers use a battery of laboratory, raft, patch tests and full vessel trials. Raft, patch tests and

full vessel trials are generally conducted over extended periods of time and are predominantly relied

upon for the prediction of coating performance when used commercially on in-service ships.

The results of raft, patch test and full vessel trials (field testing) can be used as part of the regulatory

process for pesticidal or biocidal products in certain countries in order to demonstrate the efficacy

of an anti-fouling paint. Laboratory testing alone is recognized as being unable to predict in-service

performance of efficacy. For example, guidance published by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) on

the assessment and evaluation of efficacy for anti-fouling products states clearly that laboratory testing

of individual anti-fouling paints is not undertaken as it is not considered to be a realistic evaluation

of the product; field testing, which permits anti-fouling products to be tested under similar operating

conditions and stresses as those encountered when the anti-fouling products are in service is routinely

undertaken instead (see Reference [6]).

Whilst laboratory tests are unable to reliably predict in-service coating performance, they have merit

in the screening of experimental coatings for further evaluation during the research and development

process.

Reproducible objective data obtained by following standardized screening methods, independent of

the test location or the season, can be a useful tool to support the selection of anti-fouling paints for

higher tier testing, e.g. raft or ship tests. ISO 21716 provides a compilation and description of in vitro

bioassay methods intended to aid the process of screening anti-fouling paints prior to higher tier raft

or ship tests. Toxicological screening methods included in each part of ISO 21716 can be used for such

purposes as early decision-making in research and product development, rapid feedback on potential

toxicological concerns, or for the preliminary assessment of anti-fouling paints. For instance, ISO 21716

provides information on methods that can be used to screen anti-fouling paints in order to determine

whether to continue development of an experimental paint and/or a product that contains a particular

ingredient, or to determine whether to take on the cost of performing the remaining tiers within a

complete tiered-testing strategy.

ISO 21716 provides screening bioassays related to certain common genera of fouling organisms, namely

barnacles, mussels and algae. These screening tests are relatively simple and rapid laboratory tests

that can be performed to provide an indication of the toxicity of a painted surface towards selected

test organisms. The screening tests described in each part of ISO 21716 can be used as part of a tiered

approach to predict the ability of an anti-fouling paint to prevent fouling on ships. Alternatively, to

prevent the translocation of invasive marine species by progressively involving subsequent semi-field

(e.g. raft panels) and field testing (e.g. ship trials). On their own, the screening tests described in each

part of ISO 21716 do not reliably predict the ability of an anti-fouling paint to prevent fouling on ships

or the translocation of invasive marine species.

ISO 21716 is not intended to provide a list of validated tests for testing the efficacy of anti-fouling

paints; this can be covered in regulations. It is not intended to provide a list of validated tests for this

purpose, nor for predicting the ability of a fouling control paint to prevent fouling on ships or to prevent

the translocation of invasive marine species.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Ships and marine technology — Bioassay methods for
screening anti-fouling paints —
Part 1:
General requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies general requirements and common specifications for preparing and aging

panels coated with anti-fouling paint to perform laboratory bioassay screening tests against specified

organisms. Such tests are given in the other parts of the ISO 21716 series, with which this document is

intended to be used.

This document is applicable to all anti-fouling paints that prevent or deter the attachment and growth

of sessile organisms on a surface through chemical or biological means.
It is not applicable to the following:

— coatings that deter or prevent fouling solely by physical means such as biocide-free foul release paints;

— anti-fouling methods used for controlling harmful marine organisms and pathogenic organisms in

ships' ballast water and sediments according to IMO International Convention for the Control and

[7]
Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 .
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2808, Paints and varnishes — Determination of film thickness
ISO 1513, Paints and varnishes — Examination and preparation of test samples

ISO 21716-2, Ships and marine technology — Bioassay methods for screening anti-fouling paints — Part 2:

Barnacles

ISO 21716-3, Ships and marine technology — Bioassay methods for screening anti-fouling paints —

Part 3: Mussels
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
3.1
aging

providing the test group (3.9) with a surface condition that is more representative of the expected in-

service surface condition of an anti-fouling paint (3.2) than a freshly applied paint surface by exposure

to dynamic and/or static immersion in natural seawater (3.8) or artificial seawater (3.3)

3.2
anti-fouling paint

paint containing biocides (3.4) specifically designed to prevent or deter the attachment and growth of

sessile organisms on a hull surface through chemical or biological means
3.3
artificial seawater
mixture of water and salts to mimic the properties of natural seawater

Note 1 to entry: Water prepared from the mixtures of salts described in ISO 15181-1, ISO 10253, ISO/TS 20787, or

ASTM D 1141-98, and water prepared from comme
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21716-1
First edition
Ships and marine technology —
Bioassay methods for screening anti-
fouling paints —
Part 1:
General requirements
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Preparation of the test panels ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Test procedure — General ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Selection of a material for substrates .................................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Application of an anti-fouling paint ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Aging of the test panels .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Inspecting and pre-treating of the panels ....................................................................................................................... 4

5 Experimental system ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Water flow-through equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 5

Annex A (informative) Aging methods — Examples ............................................................................................................................. 6

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology,

Subcommittee SC 2, Marine environment protection, in collaboration with Technical Committee

ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes.

A list of all parts in the ISO 21716 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Anti-fouling paints that contain biocides are widely used to prevent fouling of ship hulls by marine

organisms. Effective anti-fouling technologies are critical to maintaining the fuel consumption

efficiency of ships, minimizing the release of greenhouse gases and other hazardous air pollutants,

and also for minimizing the possible translocation of aquatic species through maritime trade. The

evaluation of anti-fouling paints is generally undertaken by adopting a tiered approach, whereby paint

manufacturers use a battery of laboratory, raft, patch tests and full vessel trials. Raft, patch tests and

full vessel trials are generally conducted over extended periods of time and are predominantly relied

upon for the prediction of coating performance when used commercially on in-service ships.

The results of raft, patch test and full vessel trials (field testing) can be used as part of the regulatory

process for pesticidal or biocidal products in certain countries in order to demonstrate the efficacy

of an anti-fouling paint. Laboratory testing alone is recognized as being unable to predict in-service

performance of efficacy. For example, guidance published by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) on

the assessment and evaluation of efficacy for anti-fouling products states clearly that laboratory testing

of individual anti-fouling paints is not undertaken as it is not considered to be a realistic evaluation

of the product; field testing, which permits anti-fouling products to be tested under similar operating

conditions and stresses as those encountered when the anti-fouling products are in service is routinely

undertaken instead (see Reference [6]).

Whilst laboratory tests are unable to reliably predict in-service coating performance, they have merit

in the screening of experimental coatings for further evaluation during the research and development

process.

Reproducible objective data obtained by following standardized screening methods, independent of

the test location or the season, can be a useful tool to support the selection of anti-fouling paints for

higher tier testing, e.g. raft or ship tests. ISO 21716 provides a compilation and description of in vitro

bioassay methods intended to aid the process of screening anti-fouling paints prior to higher tier raft

or ship tests. Toxicological screening methods included in each part of ISO 21716 can be used for such

purposes as early decision-making in research and product development, rapid feedback on potential

toxicological concerns, or for the preliminary assessment of anti-fouling paints. For instance, ISO 21716

provides information on methods that can be used to screen anti-fouling paints in order to determine

whether to continue development of an experimental paint and/or a product that contains a particular

ingredient, or to determine whether to take on the cost of performing the remaining tiers within a

complete tiered-testing strategy.

ISO 21716 provides screening bioassays related to certain common genera of fouling organisms, namely

barnacles, mussels and algae. These screening tests are relatively simple and rapid laboratory tests

that can be performed to provide an indication of the toxicity of a painted surface towards selected

test organisms. The screening tests described in each part of ISO 21716 can be used as part of a tiered

approach to predict the ability of an anti-fouling coating to prevent fouling on ships. Alternatively, to

prevent the translocation of invasive marine species by progressively involving subsequent semi-field

(e.g. raft panels) and field testing (e.g. ship trials). On their own, the screening tests described in each

part of ISO 21716 do not reliably predict the ability of an anti-fouling coating to prevent fouling on ships

or the translocation of invasive marine species.

ISO 21716 is not intended to provide a list of validated tests for testing the efficacy of anti-fouling; this

can be covered in regulations. It is not intended to provide a list of validated tests for this purpose,

nor for predicting the ability of a fouling control paint to prevent fouling on ships or to prevent the

translocation of invasive marine species.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
Ships and marine technology — Bioassay methods for
screening anti-fouling paints —
Part 1:
General requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies general requirements and common specifications for preparing and aging

panels coated with anti-fouling paint to perform laboratory bioassay screening tests against specified

organisms. Such tests are given in the other parts of the ISO 21716 series, with which this document is

intended to be used.

This document is applicable to all anti-fouling paints that prevent or deter the attachment and growth

of sessile organisms on a surface through chemical or biological means.
It is not applicable to the following:

— coatings that deter or prevent fouling solely by physical means such as biocide-free foul release paints;

— anti-fouling methods used for controlling harmful marine organisms and pathogenic organisms in

ships' ballast water and sediments according to IMO International Convention for the Control and

[7]
Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 .
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2808, Paints and varnishes — Determination of film thickness
ISO 1513, Paints and varnishes — Examination and preparation of test samples

ISO 21716-2, Ships and marine technology — Bioassay methods for screening anti-fouling paints — Part 2:

Barnacles

ISO 21716-3, Ships and marine technology — Bioassay methods for screening anti-fouling paints —

Part 3: Mussels
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 21716-1:2020(E)
3.1
aging

providing the test group (3.9) with a surface condition that is more representative of the expected in-

service surface condition of an anti-fouling paint (3.2) than a freshly applied paint surface by exposure

to dynamic and/or static immersion in natural seawater (3.8) or artificial seawater (3.3)

3.2
anti-fouling paint

paint containing biocides (3.4) specifically designed to prevent or deter the attachment and growth of

sessile organisms on a hull surface through chemical or biological means
3.3
artificial seawater
mixture of water and salts to mimic the properties of natural seawater

Note 1 to entry: Water prepared from the mixtures of salts described in ISO 15181-1, ISO 10253, ISO/TS 20787, or

ASTM D 1141-98, and water prepared from commercially available pro
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.