Translation, interpreting and related technology -- Vocabulary

This document provides the vocabulary for translation, interpreting and related technology standards.

Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées -- Vocabulaire

Le présent document fournit le vocabulaire destiné aux normes relatives à la traduction, à l’interprétation et aux technologies apparentées.

Prevajanje, tolmačenje in sorodne tehnologije - Slovar

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Dec-2019
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
29-Jun-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 20539:2021
01-marec-2021
Prevajanje, tolmačenje in sorodne tehnologije - Slovar
Translation, interpreting and related technology -- Vocabulary
Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées -- Vocabulaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 20539:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
03.080.99 Druge storitve Other services
SIST ISO 20539:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20539
First edition
2019-12
Translation, interpreting and related
technology — Vocabulary
Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées —
Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 20539:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Key concepts ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Concepts common to translation and interpreting ................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Concepts relating to translation ............................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Concepts relating to interpreting ............................................................................................................................................ 5

3.5 Concepts relating to technology ............................................................................................................................................... 8

3.5.1 Concepts relating to translation technology ............................................................................................ 8

3.5.2 Concepts relating to interpreting technology ......................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
Introduction

This document is a compendium of vocabulary used in International Standards on translation,

interpreting and related technology. It was compiled with a view to coordinating usage of terms and

definitions in these standards in future. Some of the concepts in these domains are referred to in different

ways by practitioners. It is not expected that these differences will disappear in the short term; however,

it is likely that, in the long term, consistency in terms and definitions across the related ISO documents

will have a standardizing effect in practice. For example, “revision” is the preferred term in International

Standards on translation for the following concept: “examination of the entire target language content

against the source language content to ensure linguistic accuracy and faithfulness to the source language

content.” In practice, this concept is referred to interchangeably as “revision”, “editing”, “proofreading”

and “review”, yet these designate other concepts in the ISO documents for this domain.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20539:2019(E)
Translation, interpreting and related technology —
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document provides the vocabulary for translation, interpreting and related technology standards.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Key concepts
3.1.1
language
systematic use of sounds, characters, symbols or signs by which to communicate
3.1.2
content
information in any form
EXAMPLE Text, audio, video, etc.
3.1.3
source language

language (3.1.1) from which content (3.1.2) is translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9)

3.1.4
target language

language (3.1.1) into which content (3.1.2) is translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9)

3.1.5
source language content
content (3.1.2) to be translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9)
3.1.6
target language content

content (3.1.2) that has been translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9) from a source language (3.1.3)

3.1.7
translate

render source language content (3.1.5) into target language content (3.1.6) in written form or signed

language (3.2.3)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.1.8
translation

rendering source language content (3.1.5) into target language content (3.1.6) in written form or signed

language (3.2.3)
3.1.9
interpret

render spoken or signed information from a source language (3.1.3) to a target language (3.1.4) in

oral or signed form, conveying both the language register (3.2.1) and meaning of the source language

content (3.1.5)
3.1.10
interpreting
interpretation

rendering spoken or signed information from a source language (3.1.3) to a target language (3.1.4) in

oral or signed form, conveying both the language register (3.2.1) and meaning of the source language

content (3.1.5)
3.1.11
translator
person who translates (3.1.7)
3.1.12
interpreter
person who interprets (3.1.9)
3.2 Concepts common to translation and interpreting
3.2.1
language register

language (3.1.1) variety used for a particular purpose or in an event of language use, depending on the

type of situation, especially its degree of formality

Note 1 to entry: Individuals usually have more than one language register in their linguistic repertoire and can

vary their use of language register according to their perception of what is appropriate for different purposes or

domains (3.2.4).

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 20694:2018, 3.3, modified — the wording ‘An individual usually has’ has been changed

to ‘Individuals usually have’, and ‘verbal repertoire’ has been changed to ‘linguistic repertoire’.]

3.2.2
language proficiency
ability of a person to understand or communicate in a given language (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Language proficiency generally refers to speaking, listening, reading and writing skills.

3.2.3
signed language

language (3.1.1) which uses a combination of hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands,

arms or body, and facial expressions
3.2.4
domain
sphere of knowledge or activity

Note 1 to entry: A domain can have its own culture, social context and linguistic characteristics.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.2.5
client
customer

person, or organization, who enters into a formal agreement for the provision of a service

Note 1 to entry: The formal agreement can, for example, take the form of a contract or an interdepartmental

service agreement between units of an organization.

Note 2 to entry: The client can be the end user (3.2.6), but this does not have to be the case.

3.2.6
end user
person or group of persons that ultimately uses the service delivered
3.2.7
authorization
third-party attestation of a person’s right to provide a specialized service

Note 1 to entry: Authorization for legal interpreters (3.4.20) and legal translators (3.3.22) is conferred by a

recognized authoritative body.

Note 2 to entry: In some countries, official authorization is referred to as accreditation, certification,

credentialing.
3.3 Concepts relating to translation
3.3.1
text
content (3.1.2) in written form
3.3.2
document
information and the medium on which it is contained

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.8.5, modified — the Example and the Notes to entry have been removed.]

3.3.3
translation output
result of translation (3.1.8)
3.3.4
translation service

production and delivery of target language content (3.1.6) according to client (3.2.5) specification

3.3.5
translation service provider
TSP
person or organization that performs translation service (3.3.4)
3.3.6
translation workflow
sequence of activities required to produce target language content (3.1.6)
3.3.7
review
monolingual editing

examination of the entire target language content (3.1.6) to ensure its domain (3.2.4) accuracy

3.3.8
reviewer
person who performs review (3.3.7)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.3.9
revision
bilingual editing

examination of the entire target language content (3.1.6) against the source language content (3.1.5) to

ensure linguistic accuracy and faithfulness to the source language content
3.3.10
reviser
person who performs revision (3.3.9)
3.3.11
check

translator’s (3.1.11) examination of target language content (3.1.6) upon completion of translation (3.1.8)

3.3.12
proofread

examine the final target language content (3.1.6) and apply corrections (3.3.15) before publication

3.3.13
proofreader
person who proofreads (3.3.12)
3.3.14
verification
action taken to determine whether specifications have been fulfilled
3.3.15
correction
action to eliminate an error

Note 1 to entry: In translation, corrections are made when errors are detected during a check (3.3.11), or when

errors are reported by a reviser (3.3.10), reviewer (3.3.8), proofreader (3.3.13) or client (3.2.5).

3.3.16
corrective action

action to eliminate the cause of a failure to comply with a requirement in the translation (3.1.8) process

(3.3.20), with a view to preventing recurrence
3.3.17
project management

planning, organizing, monitoring, controlling and reporting of all aspects of a project (3.3.19) to achieve

the project objectives

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.3.12, modified — the wording ‘and the motivation of all those involved in it’

has been deleted.]
3.3.18
project manager
person responsible for project management (3.3.17)
3.3.19
project

unique process (3.3.20), consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and

finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the

constraints of time, cost and resources
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.4.2, modified — the Notes to entry have been deleted.]
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20539:2021
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.3.20
process

set of interrelated and interacting activities performed in order to achieve an objective

3.3.21
product
result of a process (3.3.20)
3.3.22
legal translator

translator (3.1.11) who is qualified to provide translation services (3.3.4) related to the law

Note 1 to entry: Legal translators can be required to be authorized by law.
3.3.23
specialist field
area of expertise of a person
3.3.24
competence
ability to apply knowledge, experience and skills to achieve intended results
3.3.25
locale

geographic region in which people use specific linguistic, cultural and technical conventions

3.3.26
locale convention

accepted usage or standard practice in a locale (3.3.25), which is generally expected to apply

Note 1 to entry: This can include date or time formatting rules.
3.3.27
localization
adapting products (3.3.21) and services for distinct locales (3.3.25)
3.3.28
style guide
set of editing and formatting instructions
3.4 Concepts relating to interpreting
3.4.1
‘A’ language

primary language (3.1.1) or its strict equivalent of which the interpreter (3.1.12) has complete command

and into which the interpreter interprets (3.1.9) from all their other ‘A’ languages, ‘B’ languages (3.4.2)

or ‘C’ languages (3.4.3)
3.4.2
‘B’ language

language (3.1.1) in which the interpreter (3.1.12) is proficient, but which is not their primary language

or its strict equivalent

Note 1 to entry: An interpreter works into this language from one or more other languages.

3.4.3
‘C’ language

language (3.1.1) from which the interpreter (3.1.12) interprets (3.1.9) into their ‘A’ languages (3.4.1) or ‘B’

languages (3.4.2)
Note 1 to entry: An interpreter can have more than o
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20539
First edition
2019-12
Translation, interpreting and related
technology — Vocabulary
Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées —
Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 20539:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Key concepts ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Concepts common to translation and interpreting ................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Concepts relating to translation ............................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Concepts relating to interpreting ............................................................................................................................................ 5

3.5 Concepts relating to technology ............................................................................................................................................... 8

3.5.1 Concepts relating to translation technology ............................................................................................ 8

3.5.2 Concepts relating to interpreting technology ......................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
Introduction

This document is a compendium of vocabulary used in International Standards on translation,

interpreting and related technology. It was compiled with a view to coordinating usage of terms and

definitions in these standards in future. Some of the concepts in these domains are referred to in different

ways by practitioners. It is not expected that these differences will disappear in the short term; however,

it is likely that, in the long term, consistency in terms and definitions across the related ISO documents

will have a standardizing effect in practice. For example, “revision” is the preferred term in International

Standards on translation for the following concept: “examination of the entire target language content

against the source language content to ensure linguistic accuracy and faithfulness to the source language

content.” In practice, this concept is referred to interchangeably as “revision”, “editing”, “proofreading”

and “review”, yet these designate other concepts in the ISO documents for this domain.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20539:2019(E)
Translation, interpreting and related technology —
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document provides the vocabulary for translation, interpreting and related technology standards.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Key concepts
3.1.1
language
systematic use of sounds, characters, symbols or signs by which to communicate
3.1.2
content
information in any form
EXAMPLE Text, audio, video, etc.
3.1.3
source language

language (3.1.1) from which content (3.1.2) is translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9)

3.1.4
target language

language (3.1.1) into which content (3.1.2) is translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9)

3.1.5
source language content
content (3.1.2) to be translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9)
3.1.6
target language content

content (3.1.2) that has been translated (3.1.7) or interpreted (3.1.9) from a source language (3.1.3)

3.1.7
translate

render source language content (3.1.5) into target language content (3.1.6) in written form or signed

language (3.2.3)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.1.8
translation

rendering source language content (3.1.5) into target language content (3.1.6) in written form or signed

language (3.2.3)
3.1.9
interpret

render spoken or signed information from a source language (3.1.3) to a target language (3.1.4) in

oral or signed form, conveying both the language register (3.2.1) and meaning of the source language

content (3.1.5)
3.1.10
interpreting
interpretation

rendering spoken or signed information from a source language (3.1.3) to a target language (3.1.4) in

oral or signed form, conveying both the language register (3.2.1) and meaning of the source language

content (3.1.5)
3.1.11
translator
person who translates (3.1.7)
3.1.12
interpreter
person who interprets (3.1.9)
3.2 Concepts common to translation and interpreting
3.2.1
language register

language (3.1.1) variety used for a particular purpose or in an event of language use, depending on the

type of situation, especially its degree of formality

Note 1 to entry: Individuals usually have more than one language register in their linguistic repertoire and can

vary their use of language register according to their perception of what is appropriate for different purposes or

domains (3.2.4).

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 20694:2018, 3.3, modified — the wording ‘An individual usually has’ has been changed

to ‘Individuals usually have’, and ‘verbal repertoire’ has been changed to ‘linguistic repertoire’.]

3.2.2
language proficiency
ability of a person to understand or communicate in a given language (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Language proficiency generally refers to speaking, listening, reading and writing skills.

3.2.3
signed language

language (3.1.1) which uses a combination of hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands,

arms or body, and facial expressions
3.2.4
domain
sphere of knowledge or activity

Note 1 to entry: A domain can have its own culture, social context and linguistic characteristics.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.2.5
client
customer

person, or organization, who enters into a formal agreement for the provision of a service

Note 1 to entry: The formal agreement can, for example, take the form of a contract or an interdepartmental

service agreement between units of an organization.

Note 2 to entry: The client can be the end user (3.2.6), but this does not have to be the case.

3.2.6
end user
person or group of persons that ultimately uses the service delivered
3.2.7
authorization
third-party attestation of a person’s right to provide a specialized service

Note 1 to entry: Authorization for legal interpreters (3.4.20) and legal translators (3.3.22) is conferred by a

recognized authoritative body.

Note 2 to entry: In some countries, official authorization is referred to as accreditation, certification,

credentialing.
3.3 Concepts relating to translation
3.3.1
text
content (3.1.2) in written form
3.3.2
document
information and the medium on which it is contained

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.8.5, modified — the Example and the Notes to entry have been removed.]

3.3.3
translation output
result of translation (3.1.8)
3.3.4
translation service

production and delivery of target language content (3.1.6) according to client (3.2.5) specification

3.3.5
translation service provider
TSP
person or organization that performs translation service (3.3.4)
3.3.6
translation workflow
sequence of activities required to produce target language content (3.1.6)
3.3.7
review
monolingual editing

examination of the entire target language content (3.1.6) to ensure its domain (3.2.4) accuracy

3.3.8
reviewer
person who performs review (3.3.7)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.3.9
revision
bilingual editing

examination of the entire target language content (3.1.6) against the source language content (3.1.5) to

ensure linguistic accuracy and faithfulness to the source language content
3.3.10
reviser
person who performs revision (3.3.9)
3.3.11
check

translator’s (3.1.11) examination of target language content (3.1.6) upon completion of translation (3.1.8)

3.3.12
proofread

examine the final target language content (3.1.6) and apply corrections (3.3.15) before publication

3.3.13
proofreader
person who proofreads (3.3.12)
3.3.14
verification
action taken to determine whether specifications have been fulfilled
3.3.15
correction
action to eliminate an error

Note 1 to entry: In translation, corrections are made when errors are detected during a check (3.3.11), or when

errors are reported by a reviser (3.3.10), reviewer (3.3.8), proofreader (3.3.13) or client (3.2.5).

3.3.16
corrective action

action to eliminate the cause of a failure to comply with a requirement in the translation (3.1.8) process

(3.3.20), with a view to preventing recurrence
3.3.17
project management

planning, organizing, monitoring, controlling and reporting of all aspects of a project (3.3.19) to achieve

the project objectives

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.3.12, modified — the wording ‘and the motivation of all those involved in it’

has been deleted.]
3.3.18
project manager
person responsible for project management (3.3.17)
3.3.19
project

unique process (3.3.20), consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and

finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the

constraints of time, cost and resources
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.4.2, modified — the Notes to entry have been deleted.]
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.3.20
process

set of interrelated and interacting activities performed in order to achieve an objective

3.3.21
product
result of a process (3.3.20)
3.3.22
legal translator

translator (3.1.11) who is qualified to provide translation services (3.3.4) related to the law

Note 1 to entry: Legal translators can be required to be authorized by law.
3.3.23
specialist field
area of expertise of a person
3.3.24
competence
ability to apply knowledge, experience and skills to achieve intended results
3.3.25
locale

geographic region in which people use specific linguistic, cultural and technical conventions

3.3.26
locale convention

accepted usage or standard practice in a locale (3.3.25), which is generally expected to apply

Note 1 to entry: This can include date or time formatting rules.
3.3.27
localization
adapting products (3.3.21) and services for distinct locales (3.3.25)
3.3.28
style guide
set of editing and formatting instructions
3.4 Concepts relating to interpreting
3.4.1
‘A’ language

primary language (3.1.1) or its strict equivalent of which the interpreter (3.1.12) has complete command

and into which the interpreter interprets (3.1.9) from all their other ‘A’ languages, ‘B’ languages (3.4.2)

or ‘C’ languages (3.4.3)
3.4.2
‘B’ language

language (3.1.1) in which the interpreter (3.1.12) is proficient, but which is not their primary language

or its strict equivalent

Note 1 to entry: An interpreter works into this language from one or more other languages.

3.4.3
‘C’ language

language (3.1.1) from which the interpreter (3.1.12) interprets (3.1.9) into their ‘A’ languages (3.4.1) or ‘B’

languages (3.4.2)
Note 1 to entry: An interpreter can have more than one ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’ language.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 20539:2019(E)
3.4.4
spoken language
language (3.1.1) expressed orally
3.4.5
spoken language interpreting
interpreting (3.1.10) between two spoken languages (3.4.4)
3.4.6
signed language interpreting

interpreting (3.1.10) between two signed languages (3.2.3) or between a signed language and a spoken

language (3.4.4)
3.4.7
communic
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 20539
Première édition
2019-12
Traduction, interprétation et
technologies apparentées —
Vocabulaire
Translation, interpreting and related technology — Vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO 20539:2019(F)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2019

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publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20539:2019(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Concepts clés ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Concepts communs à la traduction et à l’interprétation .................................................................................... 2

3.3 Concepts liés à la traduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Concepts liés à l’interprétation ................................................................................................................................................. 5

3.5 Concepts liés à la technologie .................................................................................................................................................... 8

3.5.1 Concepts liés à la technologie de traduction ........................................................................................... 8

3.5.2 Concepts liés à la technologie d’interprétation ..................................................................................10

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Index alphabétique............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 20539:2019(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le Comité technique ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie, sous-

comité SC 5, Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20539:2019(F)
Introduction

Le présent document est un recueil de vocabulaire utilisé dans les Normes internationales relatives à

la traduction, à l’interprétation et aux technologies apparentées. Il a été réalisé en vue de coordonner

l’usage des termes et définitions dans ces normes à l’avenir. Certains des concepts dans ces domaines

ont des significations différentes pour les professionnels. Il n’est pas attendu que ces différences

disparaissent à court terme, mais il est probable qu’à long terme la cohérence des termes et définitions

dans les documents ISO connexes aura un effet normalisateur dans la pratique. Par exemple, «révision»

est le terme privilégié dans les Normes internationales relatives à la traduction pour faire référence au

concept suivant: «examen de l’ensemble du contenu dans la langue cible par rapport au contenu dans la

langue source pour s’assurer de la précision linguistique et de la fidélité par rapport au contenu dans la

langue source». Dans la pratique, ce concept fait référence de manière interchangeable à la «révision»,

à l’«édition», à la «correction d’épreuves» et à la «relecture», qui désignent pourtant d’autres concepts

dans les documents ISO dans ce domaine.
© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 20539:2019(F)
Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées —
Vocabulaire
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit le vocabulaire destiné aux normes relatives à la traduction, à

l’interprétation et aux technologies apparentées.
2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Concepts clés
3.1.1
langue

utilisation systématique de sons, caractères, symboles ou signes pour communiquer

3.1.2
contenu
information sous quelque forme que ce soit
EXEMPLE Texte, audio, vidéo, etc.
3.1.3
langue source

langue (3.1.1) à partir de laquelle du contenu (3.1.2) est traduit (3.1.7) ou interprété (3.1.9)

3.1.4
langue cible

langue (3.1.1) dans laquelle du contenu (3.1.2) est traduit (3.1.7) ou interprété (3.1.9)

3.1.5
contenu dans la langue source
contenu (3.1.2) à traduire (3.1.7) ou à interpréter (3.1.9)
3.1.6
contenu dans la langue cible

contenu (3.1.2) qui a été traduit (3.1.7) ou interprété (3.1.9) à partir d’une langue source (3.1.3)

3.1.7
traduire

restituer un contenu dans la langue source (3.1.5) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6) sous forme

écrite ou en langue des signes (3.2.3)
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ISO 20539:2019(F)
3.1.8
traduction

restitution d’un contenu dans la langue source (3.1.5) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6) sous

forme écrite ou en langue des signes (3.2.3)
3.1.9
interpréter

restituer des informations parlées ou signées d’une langue source (3.1.3) dans une langue cible (3.1.4)

sous forme orale ou signée, en transmettant à la fois le registre de langue (3.2.1) et la signification du

contenu dans la langue source (3.1.5)
3.1.10
interprétation

restitution d’informations parlées ou signées d’une langue source (3.1.3) dans une langue cible (3.1.4)

sous forme orale ou signée, en transmettant à la fois le registre de langue (3.2.1) et la signification du

contenu dans la langue source (3.1.5)
3.1.11
traducteur
personne qui traduit (3.1.7)
3.1.12
interprète
personne qui interprète (3.1.9)
3.2 Concepts communs à la traduction et à l’interprétation
3.2.1
registre de langue

variété d’une langue (3.1.1) utilisée dans un but particulier ou dans le cadre d’une utilisation particulière

de la langue en fonction du type de situation, notamment du degré de formalité

Note 1 à l'article: Les individus ont en général plusieurs registres de langue dans leur répertoire linguistique et

peuvent adapter le registre de langue qu’ils utilisent en fonction de leur perception de ce qui est approprié pour

différents objectifs ou dans différents domaines (3.2.4).

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 20694:2018, 3.3, modifiée — La formulation «Un individu a en général» est devenue

«Les individus ont en général» et «répertoire verbal» a été remplacé par «répertoire linguistique».]

3.2.2
compétence linguistique

aptitude d’une personne à comprendre ou à communiquer dans une langue (3.1.1) donnée

Note 1 à l'article: La compétence linguistique fait généralement référence aux compétences en communication

orale, en compréhension, en lecture et en écriture.
3.2.3
langue des signes

langue (3.1.1) qui utilise une combinaison de formes des mains, d’orientation et de mouvement des

mains, des bras ou du corps, et d’expressions faciales
3.2.4
domaine
sphère de connaissance ou d’activité

Note 1 à l'article: Un domaine peut avoir sa propre culture, son propre contexte social et ses propres

caractéristiques linguistiques.
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ISO 20539:2019(F)
3.2.5
client

personne ou organisation qui conclut un accord formel pour la prestation d’un service

Note 1 à l'article: L’accord formel peut, par exemple, prendre la forme d’un contrat ou d’un accord de service

interdépartemental entre les entités d’une organisation.

Note 2 à l'article: Le client peut être l’utilisateur final (3.2.6), mais cela n’est pas obligatoirement le cas.

3.2.6
utilisateur final
personne ou groupe de personnes qui au final bénéficie du service fourni
3.2.7
autorisation

attestation par une tierce partie du droit d’une personne à fournir un service spécialisé

Note 1 à l'article: L’autorisation pour des interprètes juridiques (3.4.20) et des traducteurs juridiques (3.3.22) est

conférée par un organisme compétent reconnu.

Note 2 à l'article: Dans certains pays, une autorisation officielle est appelée accréditation ou certification.

3.3 Concepts liés à la traduction
3.3.1
texte
contenu (3.1.2) sous forme écrite
3.3.2
document
support d’information et l’information qu’il contient

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.8.5, modifiée — L’exemple et les notes à l’article ont été supprimés.]

3.3.3
résultat de traduction
résultat d’une traduction (3.1.8)
3.3.4
service de traduction

production et livraison d’un contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6) selon les spécifications du client (3.2.5)

3.3.5
prestataire de services de traduction
PST
personne ou organisation qui fournit un service de traduction (3.3.4)
3.3.6
flux de traduction

séquence des activités requises pour produire un contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6)

3.3.7
relecture
édition unilingue

examen de l’ensemble du contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6) pour s’assurer de sa précision par rapport

au domaine (3.2.4)
3.3.8
relecteur
personne qui réalise une relecture (3.3.7)
© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 20539:2019(F)
3.3.9
révision
édition bilingue

examen de l’ensemble du contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6) par rapport au contenu dans la langue source

(3.1.5) pour s’assurer de la précision linguistique et de la fidélité par rapport au contenu dans la langue

source
3.3.10
réviseur
personne qui réalise une révision (3.3.9)
3.3.11
contrôle

examen par le traducteur (3.1.11) du contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6) après la réalisation de la

traduction (3.1.8)
3.3.12
correction d’épreuves

examen du contenu dans la langue cible (3.1.6) final et application des corrections (3.3.15) avant

publication
3.3.13
correcteur d’épreuves
personne qui réalise la correction d’épreuves (3.3.12)
3.3.14
vérification
action entreprise pour déterminer si les spécifications ont été remplies
3.3.15
correction
action consistant à éliminer une erreur

Note 1 à l'article: En traduction, des corrections sont faites lorsque des erreurs sont détectées au cours d’un

contrôle (3.3.11) ou lorsque des erreurs sont signalées par un réviseur (3.3.10), un relecteur (3.3.8), un correcteur

d’épreuves (3.3.13) ou le client (3.2.5).
3.3.16
action corrective

action consistant à éliminer la cause du non-respect d’une exigence au cours du processus (3.3.20) de

traduction (3.1.8), en vue d’empêcher sa récurrence
3.3.17
gestion de projet

planification, organisation, surveillance, contrôle et compte rendu de tous les aspects d’un projet

(3.3.19) pour atteindre les objectifs du projet

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.3.12, modifiée — La formulation «et de la motivation des personnes

impliquées» a été supprimée.]
3.3.18
chef de projet
PM (de l’anglais Project Manager)
personne responsable de la gestion de projet (3.3.17)
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ISO 20539:2019(F)
3.3.19
projet

processus (3.3.20) unique qui consiste en un ensemble d’activités coordonnées et maîtrisées comportant

des dates de début et de fin, entrepris dans le but d’atteindre un objectif conforme à des exigences

spécifiques, incluant les contraintes de délais, de coûts et de ressources

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.4.2, modifiée — Les notes à l’article ont été supprimées.]

3.3.20
processus

ensemble d’activités interdépendantes et imbriquées réalisées afin d’atteindre un objectif

3.3.21
produit
résultat d’un processus (3.3.20)
3.3.22
traducteur juridique

traducteur (3.1.11) qui est qualifié pour fournir des services de traduction (3.3.4) liés au droit

Note 1 à l'article: Les traducteurs juridiques peuvent devoir être habilités par la loi.

3.3.23
domaine de spécialisation
domaine d’expertise d’une personne
3.3.24
compétence

aptitude à utiliser ses connaissances, son expérience et ses compétences pour atteindre des résultats

prévus
3.3.25
lieu

zone géographique dans laquelle les personnes utilisent des conventions linguistiques, culturelles et

techniques spécifiques
3.3.26
convention locale

usage accepté ou pratique courante dans un lieu (3.3.25), que l’on est généralement tenu d’appliquer

Note 1 à l'article: Cela peut inclure les règles de formatage de la date ou de l’heure.

3.3.27
localisation
adaptation des produits (3.3.21) et services à des lieux (3.3.25) distincts
3.3.28
guide de style
ensemble des instructions d’édition et de formatage
3.4 Concepts liés à l’interprétation
3.4.1
langue «A»

langue (3.1.1) maternelle ou son strict équivalent, entièrement maîtrisée par l’interprète (3.1.12) ou

dans laquelle l’interprète interprète (3.1.9) à partir de toutes ses autres langues «A», langues «B» (3.4.2)

ou langues «C» (3.4.3)
© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO 20539:2019(F)
3.4.2
langue «B»

langue (3.1.1) maîtrisée par l’interprète (3.1.12) mais qui n’est pas sa langue maternelle ou son strict

équivalent

Note 1 à l'article: Un interprète travaille dans cette langue à partir d’une ou plusieurs autres langues.

3.4.3
langue «C»

langue (3.1.1) à partir de laquelle l’interprète (3.1.12) interprète (3.1.9) dans ses langues «A» (3.4.1) ou

langues «B» (3.4.2)
Note 1 à l'article: Un interprète peut avoir plusieurs langues «A», «B» ou «C».
3.4.4
langue orale
langue (3.1.1) exprimée oralement
3.4.5
interprétation en langue orale
interprétation (3.1.10) entre deux langues orales (3.4.4)
3.4.6
interprétation en langue des signes

interprétation (3.1.10) entre deux langues des signes (3.2.3) ou entre une langue des signes et une langue

orale (3.4.4)
3.4.7
contex
...

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