Terminology work and terminology science -- Vocabulary

This document establishes basic terms and definitions for terminology work and terminology science. It does not include terms and definitions that are specific to computer applications in terminology work.

Travail terminologique et science de la terminologie -- Vocabulaire

Le présent document établit les termes et définitions de base du travail terminologique et de la science de la terminologie. Il n'inclut pas les termes et définitions propres aux applications informatiques du travail terminologique.

Terminološko delo in terminološka znanost - Slovar

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Sep-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
13-Aug-2019
Completion Date
24-Sep-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 1087:2021
01-marec-2021
Terminološko delo in terminološka znanost - Slovar
Terminology work and terminology science - Vocabulary
Travail terminologique et science de la terminologie - Vocabulaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 1087:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
01.040.01 Splošno. Terminologija. Generalities. Terminology.
Standardizacija. Standardization.
Dokumentacija (Slovarji) Documentation
(Vocabularies)
SIST ISO 1087:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 1087:2021
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SIST ISO 1087:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 1087
Second edition
2019-09
Terminology work and terminology
science — Vocabulary
Travail terminologique et science de la terminologie — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 1087:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST ISO 1087:2021
ISO 1087:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 1087:2021
ISO 1087:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Reality and language .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

3.4 Designations .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.5 Terminology work activities .....................................................................................................................................................13

3.6 Terminological data .........................................................................................................................................................................14

3.7 Terminology resources .................................................................................................................................................................15

3.8 Natural language processing ....................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Concept diagrams and concept models .............................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

Alphabetical Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................35

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and Terminology,

Subcommittee SC 1, Principles and methods.

This document cancels and replaces ISO 1087-1:2000, which has been technically revised.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— most of the terminological entries have been reviewed to reflect the current state of the art;

— some terminological entries from the former ISO 1087-2:2000 (withdrawn) have been incorporated.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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Introduction

The main purpose of this document is to provide a systematic description of the concepts related

to terminology work and terminology science and to clarify the use of the terms in this field. This

document is addressed to anyone involved in terminology work. In particular, its target group comprises

standardizers, terminologists, other individuals involved in terminology work, terminology users

as well as researchers and professionals dealing with terminology science and/or natural language

processing.

The terminological entries in this document are listed in a systematic order under a number of general

headings.

The layout follows the directions given in ISO 10241-1. Thus, the elements of an entry appear in the

following order:
— entry number
— preferred term(s)
— admitted term(s)
— abbreviated form(s)
— definition
— example(s)
— note(s)

The terminological entries hereunder have been formatted according to ISO 10241-1, which stipulates

the current ISO rules for the presentation of terminology standards. Specifically, in the examples and

notes in this document, terms (including appellations) and proper names are indicated by double

quotation marks, whereas objects, concepts, properties, characteristics, and types of characteristics

are indicated by single quotation marks. This markup is intended to facilitate the distinction between

references to the three terminological levels and other text throughout this document.

This new revision of ISO 1087 has been prepared in accordance with the principles and methods of

terminology work described in ISO 704:2009.
The alphabetical index includes preferred and admitted terms.

Annex A gives concept diagrams and concept models that illustrate the relations between concepts

described in the various entries of Clause 3.

It should be noted that most examples are specific to the English language in the English version and to

the French language in the French version.
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SIST ISO 1087:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 1087:2019(E)
Terminology work and terminology science — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes basic terms and definitions for terminology work and terminology science. It

does not include terms and definitions that are specific to computer applications in terminology work.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Reality and language
3.1.1
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. ‘engine’, ‘sheet of paper’, ‘diamond’), immaterial (e.g. ‘conversion

ratio’, ‘project plan’) or imagined (e.g. ‘unicorn’, ‘scientific hypothesis’).
3.1.2
extension
set of all of the objects (3.1.1) to which a concept (3.2.7) corresponds
3.1.3
property
feature of an object (3.1.1)
EXAMPLE 1 ‘Being made of wood’ as a property of a given ‘table’.
EXAMPLE 2 ‘Belonging to person A’ as a property of a given ‘pet’.

EXAMPLE 3 ‘Having been formulated by Einstein’ as a property of the equation ‘E = mc .

EXAMPLE 4 ‘Being compassionate’ as a property of a given ‘person’.
EXAMPLE 5 ‘Having a given cable’ as a property of a given ‘computer mouse’.
Note 1 to entry: One or more objects can have the same property.
3.1.4
domain
subject field
field of special knowledge

Note 1 to entry: The borderlines and the granularity of a domain are determined from a purpose-related point of

view. If a domain is subdivided, the result is again a domain.
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[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.1, modified — Note 1 to entry and Note 3 to entry have been merged;

Note 2 to entry and Note 4 to entry have been omitted.]
3.1.5
subject
area of interest or expertise
3.1.6
language
system of sounds, characters, symbols (3.4.5) used for communication

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.1, modified — The wording “or signs” has been deleted.]

3.1.7
natural language

language (3.1.6) that is or was in active use in a community of people, and the rules of which are mainly

deduced from usage
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.5.2, modified — Note 1 to entry not included.]
3.1.8
general language

natural language (3.1.7) characterized by the use of linguistic means of expression independent of any

specific domain (3.1.4)
3.1.9
special language
language for special purposes
language for specific purposes
LSP

natural language (3.1.7) used in communication between experts in a domain (3.1.4) and characterized

by the use of specific linguistic means of expression

Note 1 to entry: The specific linguistic means of expression always include domain-specific terminology (3.1.11)

and phraseology and also can cover stylistic or syntactic features.
3.1.10
formal language
language (3.1.6) whose rules are explicitly established before its use
EXAMPLE Web Ontology Language (OWL).

Note 1 to entry: The purpose of formal language is to assure exact communication of information.

[SOURCE: ISO 24156-1:2014, 3.6]
3.1.11
terminology

set of designations (3.4.1) and concepts (3.2.7) belonging to one domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

3.1.12
terminology science
terminology studies

science studying terminologies (3.1.11), aspects of terminology work (3.5.1), the resulting terminology

resources (3.7.1), and terminological data (3.6.1)
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3.2 Concepts
3.2.1
characteristic
abstraction of a property (3.1.3)

EXAMPLE ‘Having a cable for connecting with a computer’ as a characteristic of the concept ‘cord mouse’.

Note 1 to entry: Characteristics are used for describing concepts (3.2.7).
3.2.2
type of characteristic

category of characteristics (3.2.1) that are grouped for the purposes of terminological analysis

EXAMPLE 1 For the concept (3.2.7) ‘safety sign’ according to ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.12, ‘geometric shape’ is a type

of characteristic. It includes characteristics (3.2.1) such as ‘circle’ and ‘square’.

EXAMPLE 2 For the concept (3.2.7) ‘computer mouse’, ‘computer connection’ is a type of characteristic. It

includes characteristics (3.2.1) such as ‘having a cable’ and ‘using wireless technology’.

3.2.3
essential characteristic

characteristic (3.2.1) of a concept (3.2.7) that is indispensable to understand that concept

3.2.4
non-essential characteristic

characteristic (3.2.1) of a concept (3.2.7) that is not indispensable to understand that concept

EXAMPLE For defining the concept (3.2.7) ‘traffic light’, the colour ‘red’, ‘green’ or ‘amber’ is an essential

characteristic (3.2.3), while for defining the concept ‘computer mouse’, the colour (e.g. ‘ivory’, ‘blue’ or ‘red’) is a

non-essential characteristic.
3.2.5
delimiting characteristic

essential characteristic (3.2.3) used for distinguishing a concept (3.2.7) from related concepts

EXAMPLE The delimiting characteristic ‘support for the back’ may be used for distinguishing the concepts

(3.2.7) ‘stool’ and ‘chair’.
3.2.6
intension
set of characteristics (3.2.1) that make up a concept (3.2.7)
3.2.7
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics (3.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages (3.1.7). They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

Note 2 to entry: This is the concept ‘concept’ as used and designated by the term “concept” in terminology work

(3.5.1). It is a very different concept from that designated by other domains such as industrial automation or

marketing.
3.2.8
individual concept
concept (3.2.7) that corresponds to a unique object (3.1.1)

EXAMPLE ‘Saturn’, ‘Eiffel Tower’, ‘Moon’, ‘serial number FRHR603928’, ‘2016 Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: Individual concepts are represented by proper names (3.4.4).
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3.2.9
general concept

concept (3.2.7) that corresponds to a potentially unlimited number of objects (3.1.1) which form a group

by reason of shared properties (3.1.3)
EXAMPLE ‘planet’, ‘tower’, ‘Nobel Prize in Physics’, ‘moon’.

Note 1 to entry: For a general concept it is essential that a number of corresponding objects greater than 1 can

be perceived or conceived of. For example ‘spaceship’ has been a general concept before such a material object

existed, at the time when there existed only 1 such object, and later, when there existed several such objects.

3.2.10
concept field

unstructured set of concepts (3.2.7) belonging to the same domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

3.2.11
concept relation
relation between concepts (3.2.7)
3.2.12
hierarchical relation
hierarchical concept relation
generic relation (3.2.13) or partitive relation (3.2.14)
3.2.13
generic relation
generic concept relation
genus-species relation

concept relation (3.2.11) between a generic concept (3.2.19) and a specific concept (3.2.20) where the

intension (3.2.6) of the specific concept (3.2.20) includes the intension of the generic concept (3.2.19)

plus at least one additional delimiting characteristic (3.2.5)

EXAMPLE A generic relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘word’ and ‘noun’, ‘vehicle’ and ‘car’, and

‘person’ and ‘child’.

Note 1 to entry: Outside the terminology community, “type-of relation” and “is-a relation” are also used instead

of “generic relation”.

Note 2 to entry: In a generic relation the subordinate concept (3.2.16) is a specific concept (3.2.20) and the

superordinate concept (3.2.15) is a generic concept (3.2.19).
3.2.14
partitive relation
partitive concept relation
part-whole relation
part-of relation

concept relation (3.2.11) between a comprehensive concept (3.2.21) and a partitive concept (3.2.22)

EXAMPLE A partitive relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘bicycle’ and ‘wheel’, ‘molecule’ and ‘atom’.

3.2.15
superordinate concept
broader concept
generic concept (3.2.19) or comprehensive concept (3.2.21)

EXAMPLE ‘furniture’ is a superordinate concept to ‘table’ and ‘chair’ in a generic relation (3.2.13); ‘tree’ is a

superordinate concept to ‘root’ or ‘branch’ in a partitive relation (3.2.14).
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3.2.16
subordinate concept
narrower concept
specific concept (3.2.20) or partitive concept (3.2.22)

EXAMPLE ‘table’ is a subordinate concept to ‘furniture’ in a generic relation (3.2.13); the concept ‘root’ is a

subordinate concept to ‘tree’ in a partitive relation (3.2.14).
3.2.17
criterion of subdivision
subdivision criterion

type of characteristic (3.2.2) according to which a superordinate concept (3.2.15) is divided into

subordinate concepts (3.2.16)

EXAMPLE 1 For the concept system (3.2.28) ‘safety sign’ according to ISO 3864-1:2011, 5, Table 1, the type of

characteristic (3.2.2) ‘geometric shape’ is used as a criterion of subdivision to divide the generic concept (3.2.19)

‘safety sign’ into specific concepts (3.2.20) such as ‘mandatory action sign’ and ‘safe condition sign’.

EXAMPLE 2 For the concept system (3.2.28) ‘computer mouse’ according to ISO 704:2009, 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4

the type of characteristic (3.2.2) ‘computer connection’ is used as a criterion of subdivision to divide the generic

concept (3.2.19) ‘computer mouse’ into specific concepts (3.2.20) such as ‘cord mouse’ and ‘cordless mouse’.

EXAMPLE 3 For the concept system (3.2.28) ‘computer’ the type of characteristic (3.2.2) ‘function’ is used as a

criterion of subdivision to divide the comprehensive concept (3.2.21) ‘computer’ into partitive concepts (3.2.22)

such as ‘main board’, ‘display adapter’, ‘power supply’, ‘storage device’ and ‘input device’.

3.2.18
coordinate concept

subordinate concept (3.2.16) resulting from the same criterion of subdivision (3.2.17) as another

subordinate concept (3.2.16)

EXAMPLE Applying ‘layer of clothing’ as a criterion of subdivision (3.2.17) to ‘clothing’ yields ‘outerwear’

and ‘underwear’ as specific concepts (3.2.20). These concepts are coordinate concepts in relation to their generic

concept (3.2.19) ‘clothing’.

Note 1 to entry: Coordinate concepts have the same immediate superordinate concept (3.2.15).

3.2.19
generic concept

concept (3.2.7) in a generic relation (3.2.13) that has the narrower intension (3.2.6)

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘electronic signature’, ‘signature’ is a generic concept.
3.2.20
specific concept

concept (3.2.7) in a generic relation (3.2.13) that has the broader intension (3.2.6)

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘signature’, ‘electronic signature’ is a specific concept.

3.2.21
comprehensive concept

concept (3.2.7) in a partitive relation (3.2.14) that is viewed as a whole consisting of various parts

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘pedal’, ‘bicycle’ is a comprehensive concept.

Note 1 to entry: A comprehensive concept is viewed as a whole consisting of parts, which are the corresponding

partitive concepts (3.2.22).
3.2.22
partitive concept

concept (3.2.7) in a partitive relation (3.2.14) that is viewed as a part of a whole

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘bicycle’, ‘pedal’ is a partitive concept.
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Note 1 to entry: The partitive concept is viewed as one of the parts constituting the whole of a comprehensive

concept (3.2.21).
3.2.23
associative relation
associative concept relation
pragmatic relation
non-hierarchical concept relation (3.2.11)

EXAMPLE An associative relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘education’ and ‘teaching’.

3.2.24
sequential relation

associative relation (3.2.23) by which concepts (3.2.7) can be ordered by a relevant ordering criterion

Note 1 to entry: Sequential relations are usually based on spatial relations (3.2.25), temporal relations (3.2.26) or

causal relations (3.2.27).
3.2.25
spatial relation

sequential relation (3.2.24) based on the criterion of relative location in space

EXAMPLE A spatial relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘floor’ and ‘ceiling’.

3.2.26
temporal relation

sequential relation (3.2.24) based on the criterion of following or preceding in time

EXAMPLE A temporal relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘production’ and ‘consumption’.

3.2.27
causal relation
cause-effect relation
sequential relation (3.2.24) based on the criterion of cause and its effect

EXAMPLE A causal relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘action’ and ‘reaction’, ‘nuclear explosion’

and ‘fallout’.
3.2.28
concept system
system of concepts

set of concepts (3.2.7) structured in one or more related domains (3.1.4) according to the concept

relations (3.2.11) among its concepts
3.2.29
concept diagram
graphic representation of a concept system (3.2.28)
3.2.30
concept model
concept diagram (3.2.29) formed by means of a formal language (3.1.10)
[SOURCE: ISO 24156-1:2014, 3.2]
3.3 Definitions
3.3.1
definition

representation of a concept (3.2.7) by an expression that describes it and differentiates it from related

concepts
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3.3.2
intensional definition

definition (3.3.1) that conveys the intension (3.2.6) of a concept (3.2.7) by stating the immediate generic

concept (3.2.19) and the delimiting characteristic(s) (3.2.5)

EXAMPLE 1 optical mouse: computer mouse in which movements are detected by light sensors.

EXAMPLE 2 mechanical mouse: computer mouse in which movements are detected by rollers and a ball.

Note 1 to entry: Intensional definitions are preferable to other types of definitions (3.3.1) because they clearly

reveal the characteristics (3.2.1) of a concept (3.2.7) within a concept system (3.2.28): they should be used

whenever possible.
3.3.3
extensional definition

definition (3.3.1) that enumerates all the subordinate concepts (3.2.16) of a superordinate concept (3.2.15)

under one criterion of subdivision (3.2.17)
3.3.4
generic extensional definition

extensional definition (3.3.3) that enumerates all the specific concepts (3.2.20) of a generic concept

(3.2.19) under one criterion of subdivision (3.2.17) on the same hierarchical level

EXAMPLE Noble gas: helium, neon, argon, crypton, xenon or radon.

Note 1 to entry: A generic extensional definition is based on a generic relation (3.2.13), and the enumeration ends

with the operator “or”.
3.3.5
partitive extensional definition

extensional definition (3.3.3) that enumerates all the partitive concepts (3.2.22) of a comprehensive

concept (3.2.21) on the same hierarchical level

EXAMPLE Family 18 in the Periodic Table: helium, neon, argon, crypton, xenon and radon.

Note 1 to entry: A partitive extensional definition is based on a partitive relation (3.2.26), and the enumeration

ends with the operator “and”.
3.4 Designations
3.4.1
designation
designator

representation of a concept (3.2.7) by a sign which denotes it in a domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation can be a term (3.4.2) including appellations (3.4.3), a proper name (3.4.4), or a

symbol (3.4.5).

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.1.1.1, modified — Added “in a domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)” in the

definition; order and content of Notes to entry changed.]
3.4.2
term

designation (3.4.1) that represents a general concept (3.2.9) by linguistic means

EXAMPLE “laser printer”, “planet”, “pacemaker”, “chemical compound”, “¾ time”, “Influenza A virus”, “oil

painting”.
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
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3.4.3
appellation

term (3.4.2) that is applied to a group of objects (3.1.1) whose relevant properties (3.1.3) are identical

EXAMPLE “Nokia 7 Plus®” (mobile phone), “Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro” (software), “Road King®”

(motorcycle) .
3.4.4
proper name
designation (3.4.1) that represents an individual concept (3.2.8)

EXAMPLE “International Organization for Standardization”, “IBM ” , “British Isles”, “United Nations”.

3.4.5
symbol
designation (3.4.1) that represents a concept (3.2.7) by non-linguistic means

Note 1 to entry: There are several types of symbols such as graphical symbols (ISO 3864, all parts) and letter

symbols (ISO 80000, all parts).
3.4.6
simple term
term (3.4.2) that consists of a single word or lexical unit

EXAMPLE “sound”, “light”, “barrier”, “accessory”, “accessorize”, “virus”, “viral”.

Note 1 to entry: Simple terms include terms (3.4.2) coined by derivation (3.4.38).

3.4.7
single-word term
simple term (3.4.6) that consists of one word
EXAMPLE “cherry”, “ship”, “iron”, “barrier”.
3.4.8
compound term

single-word term (3.4.7) that can be split morphologically into separate components

EXAMPLE “steamship”, “blackbird”, “afterbirth”.

[SOURCE: ISO 25964-1:2011, 2.9, modified — Replaced Examples and deleted Note 1 to entry.]

3.4.9
complex term
term (3.4.2) that consists of more than one word or lexical unit
EXAMPLE “computer mouse”, “fault recognition circuit”.
3.4.10
multi-word term
complex term (3.4.9) that consists of more than one word

EXAMPLE “bird cherry”, “bulk carrier ship”, “steam and spray iron”, “vegetative noise barrier”.

Note 1 to entry: In particular languages (3.1.6) there may be a preference for spelling such terms as single words,

or even a rule so stating.

1) Nokia 7 Plus® is a trademark of Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro is a trademark of Adobe Systems,

Road King® is a trademark of Harley-Davidson. This information is given for the convenience of users of this

document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products named.

2) IBM® is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

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[SOURCE: ISO 25964-1:2011, 2.36, modified — Added “complex” before “term”, replaced EXAMPLES and

added Note 1 to entry.]
3.4.11
borrowed term

term (3.4.2) taken from another language (3.1.6) or from another domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

EXAMPLE 1 The term (3.4.2) “virus” was originally used in biology and later transferred to information

technology.

EXAMPLE 2 The English term (3.4.2) “internet” has been borrowed by many other languages.

3.4.12
new term
neonym
neoterm
terminological neologism
term (3.4.2) that is specifically coined for a given general concept (3.2.9)
EXAMPLE “smartwatch”.

Note 1 to entry: A new term may supersede an older term (3.4.2) or may designate a new concept (3.2.7).

3.4.13
blend
blended designation
designation (3.4.1) that is formed by clipping and combining two or more words
EXAMPLE “infotainment”, “cyberspace”, “quasar”.
3.4.14
abbreviation
abbreviated form

designation (3.4.1) that is formed by omitting parts from its full form and that represents the same

concept (3.2.7)
Note 1 to entry: Abbreviations
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 1087
Second edition
2019-09
Terminology work and terminology
science — Vocabulary
Travail terminologique et science de la terminologie — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 1087:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Reality and language .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

3.4 Designations .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.5 Terminology work activities .....................................................................................................................................................13

3.6 Terminological data .........................................................................................................................................................................14

3.7 Terminology resources .................................................................................................................................................................15

3.8 Natural language processing ....................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Concept diagrams and concept models .............................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

Alphabetical Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................35

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and Terminology,

Subcommittee SC 1, Principles and methods.

This document cancels and replaces ISO 1087-1:2000, which has been technically revised.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— most of the terminological entries have been reviewed to reflect the current state of the art;

— some terminological entries from the former ISO 1087-2:2000 (withdrawn) have been incorporated.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
Introduction

The main purpose of this document is to provide a systematic description of the concepts related

to terminology work and terminology science and to clarify the use of the terms in this field. This

document is addressed to anyone involved in terminology work. In particular, its target group comprises

standardizers, terminologists, other individuals involved in terminology work, terminology users

as well as researchers and professionals dealing with terminology science and/or natural language

processing.

The terminological entries in this document are listed in a systematic order under a number of general

headings.

The layout follows the directions given in ISO 10241-1. Thus, the elements of an entry appear in the

following order:
— entry number
— preferred term(s)
— admitted term(s)
— abbreviated form(s)
— definition
— example(s)
— note(s)

The terminological entries hereunder have been formatted according to ISO 10241-1, which stipulates

the current ISO rules for the presentation of terminology standards. Specifically, in the examples and

notes in this document, terms (including appellations) and proper names are indicated by double

quotation marks, whereas objects, concepts, properties, characteristics, and types of characteristics

are indicated by single quotation marks. This markup is intended to facilitate the distinction between

references to the three terminological levels and other text throughout this document.

This new revision of ISO 1087 has been prepared in accordance with the principles and methods of

terminology work described in ISO 704:2009.
The alphabetical index includes preferred and admitted terms.

Annex A gives concept diagrams and concept models that illustrate the relations between concepts

described in the various entries of Clause 3.

It should be noted that most examples are specific to the English language in the English version and to

the French language in the French version.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 1087:2019(E)
Terminology work and terminology science — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes basic terms and definitions for terminology work and terminology science. It

does not include terms and definitions that are specific to computer applications in terminology work.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Reality and language
3.1.1
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. ‘engine’, ‘sheet of paper’, ‘diamond’), immaterial (e.g. ‘conversion

ratio’, ‘project plan’) or imagined (e.g. ‘unicorn’, ‘scientific hypothesis’).
3.1.2
extension
set of all of the objects (3.1.1) to which a concept (3.2.7) corresponds
3.1.3
property
feature of an object (3.1.1)
EXAMPLE 1 ‘Being made of wood’ as a property of a given ‘table’.
EXAMPLE 2 ‘Belonging to person A’ as a property of a given ‘pet’.

EXAMPLE 3 ‘Having been formulated by Einstein’ as a property of the equation ‘E = mc .

EXAMPLE 4 ‘Being compassionate’ as a property of a given ‘person’.
EXAMPLE 5 ‘Having a given cable’ as a property of a given ‘computer mouse’.
Note 1 to entry: One or more objects can have the same property.
3.1.4
domain
subject field
field of special knowledge

Note 1 to entry: The borderlines and the granularity of a domain are determined from a purpose-related point of

view. If a domain is subdivided, the result is again a domain.
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ISO 1087:2019(E)

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.1, modified — Note 1 to entry and Note 3 to entry have been merged;

Note 2 to entry and Note 4 to entry have been omitted.]
3.1.5
subject
area of interest or expertise
3.1.6
language
system of sounds, characters, symbols (3.4.5) used for communication

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.1, modified — The wording “or signs” has been deleted.]

3.1.7
natural language

language (3.1.6) that is or was in active use in a community of people, and the rules of which are mainly

deduced from usage
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.5.2, modified — Note 1 to entry not included.]
3.1.8
general language

natural language (3.1.7) characterized by the use of linguistic means of expression independent of any

specific domain (3.1.4)
3.1.9
special language
language for special purposes
language for specific purposes
LSP

natural language (3.1.7) used in communication between experts in a domain (3.1.4) and characterized

by the use of specific linguistic means of expression

Note 1 to entry: The specific linguistic means of expression always include domain-specific terminology (3.1.11)

and phraseology and also can cover stylistic or syntactic features.
3.1.10
formal language
language (3.1.6) whose rules are explicitly established before its use
EXAMPLE Web Ontology Language (OWL).

Note 1 to entry: The purpose of formal language is to assure exact communication of information.

[SOURCE: ISO 24156-1:2014, 3.6]
3.1.11
terminology

set of designations (3.4.1) and concepts (3.2.7) belonging to one domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

3.1.12
terminology science
terminology studies

science studying terminologies (3.1.11), aspects of terminology work (3.5.1), the resulting terminology

resources (3.7.1), and terminological data (3.6.1)
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
3.2 Concepts
3.2.1
characteristic
abstraction of a property (3.1.3)

EXAMPLE ‘Having a cable for connecting with a computer’ as a characteristic of the concept ‘cord mouse’.

Note 1 to entry: Characteristics are used for describing concepts (3.2.7).
3.2.2
type of characteristic

category of characteristics (3.2.1) that are grouped for the purposes of terminological analysis

EXAMPLE 1 For the concept (3.2.7) ‘safety sign’ according to ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.12, ‘geometric shape’ is a type

of characteristic. It includes characteristics (3.2.1) such as ‘circle’ and ‘square’.

EXAMPLE 2 For the concept (3.2.7) ‘computer mouse’, ‘computer connection’ is a type of characteristic. It

includes characteristics (3.2.1) such as ‘having a cable’ and ‘using wireless technology’.

3.2.3
essential characteristic

characteristic (3.2.1) of a concept (3.2.7) that is indispensable to understand that concept

3.2.4
non-essential characteristic

characteristic (3.2.1) of a concept (3.2.7) that is not indispensable to understand that concept

EXAMPLE For defining the concept (3.2.7) ‘traffic light’, the colour ‘red’, ‘green’ or ‘amber’ is an essential

characteristic (3.2.3), while for defining the concept ‘computer mouse’, the colour (e.g. ‘ivory’, ‘blue’ or ‘red’) is a

non-essential characteristic.
3.2.5
delimiting characteristic

essential characteristic (3.2.3) used for distinguishing a concept (3.2.7) from related concepts

EXAMPLE The delimiting characteristic ‘support for the back’ may be used for distinguishing the concepts

(3.2.7) ‘stool’ and ‘chair’.
3.2.6
intension
set of characteristics (3.2.1) that make up a concept (3.2.7)
3.2.7
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics (3.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages (3.1.7). They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

Note 2 to entry: This is the concept ‘concept’ as used and designated by the term “concept” in terminology work

(3.5.1). It is a very different concept from that designated by other domains such as industrial automation or

marketing.
3.2.8
individual concept
concept (3.2.7) that corresponds to a unique object (3.1.1)

EXAMPLE ‘Saturn’, ‘Eiffel Tower’, ‘Moon’, ‘serial number FRHR603928’, ‘2016 Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: Individual concepts are represented by proper names (3.4.4).
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
3.2.9
general concept

concept (3.2.7) that corresponds to a potentially unlimited number of objects (3.1.1) which form a group

by reason of shared properties (3.1.3)
EXAMPLE ‘planet’, ‘tower’, ‘Nobel Prize in Physics’, ‘moon’.

Note 1 to entry: For a general concept it is essential that a number of corresponding objects greater than 1 can

be perceived or conceived of. For example ‘spaceship’ has been a general concept before such a material object

existed, at the time when there existed only 1 such object, and later, when there existed several such objects.

3.2.10
concept field

unstructured set of concepts (3.2.7) belonging to the same domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

3.2.11
concept relation
relation between concepts (3.2.7)
3.2.12
hierarchical relation
hierarchical concept relation
generic relation (3.2.13) or partitive relation (3.2.14)
3.2.13
generic relation
generic concept relation
genus-species relation

concept relation (3.2.11) between a generic concept (3.2.19) and a specific concept (3.2.20) where the

intension (3.2.6) of the specific concept (3.2.20) includes the intension of the generic concept (3.2.19)

plus at least one additional delimiting characteristic (3.2.5)

EXAMPLE A generic relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘word’ and ‘noun’, ‘vehicle’ and ‘car’, and

‘person’ and ‘child’.

Note 1 to entry: Outside the terminology community, “type-of relation” and “is-a relation” are also used instead

of “generic relation”.

Note 2 to entry: In a generic relation the subordinate concept (3.2.16) is a specific concept (3.2.20) and the

superordinate concept (3.2.15) is a generic concept (3.2.19).
3.2.14
partitive relation
partitive concept relation
part-whole relation
part-of relation

concept relation (3.2.11) between a comprehensive concept (3.2.21) and a partitive concept (3.2.22)

EXAMPLE A partitive relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘bicycle’ and ‘wheel’, ‘molecule’ and ‘atom’.

3.2.15
superordinate concept
broader concept
generic concept (3.2.19) or comprehensive concept (3.2.21)

EXAMPLE ‘furniture’ is a superordinate concept to ‘table’ and ‘chair’ in a generic relation (3.2.13); ‘tree’ is a

superordinate concept to ‘root’ or ‘branch’ in a partitive relation (3.2.14).
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
3.2.16
subordinate concept
narrower concept
specific concept (3.2.20) or partitive concept (3.2.22)

EXAMPLE ‘table’ is a subordinate concept to ‘furniture’ in a generic relation (3.2.13); the concept ‘root’ is a

subordinate concept to ‘tree’ in a partitive relation (3.2.14).
3.2.17
criterion of subdivision
subdivision criterion

type of characteristic (3.2.2) according to which a superordinate concept (3.2.15) is divided into

subordinate concepts (3.2.16)

EXAMPLE 1 For the concept system (3.2.28) ‘safety sign’ according to ISO 3864-1:2011, 5, Table 1, the type of

characteristic (3.2.2) ‘geometric shape’ is used as a criterion of subdivision to divide the generic concept (3.2.19)

‘safety sign’ into specific concepts (3.2.20) such as ‘mandatory action sign’ and ‘safe condition sign’.

EXAMPLE 2 For the concept system (3.2.28) ‘computer mouse’ according to ISO 704:2009, 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4

the type of characteristic (3.2.2) ‘computer connection’ is used as a criterion of subdivision to divide the generic

concept (3.2.19) ‘computer mouse’ into specific concepts (3.2.20) such as ‘cord mouse’ and ‘cordless mouse’.

EXAMPLE 3 For the concept system (3.2.28) ‘computer’ the type of characteristic (3.2.2) ‘function’ is used as a

criterion of subdivision to divide the comprehensive concept (3.2.21) ‘computer’ into partitive concepts (3.2.22)

such as ‘main board’, ‘display adapter’, ‘power supply’, ‘storage device’ and ‘input device’.

3.2.18
coordinate concept

subordinate concept (3.2.16) resulting from the same criterion of subdivision (3.2.17) as another

subordinate concept (3.2.16)

EXAMPLE Applying ‘layer of clothing’ as a criterion of subdivision (3.2.17) to ‘clothing’ yields ‘outerwear’

and ‘underwear’ as specific concepts (3.2.20). These concepts are coordinate concepts in relation to their generic

concept (3.2.19) ‘clothing’.

Note 1 to entry: Coordinate concepts have the same immediate superordinate concept (3.2.15).

3.2.19
generic concept

concept (3.2.7) in a generic relation (3.2.13) that has the narrower intension (3.2.6)

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘electronic signature’, ‘signature’ is a generic concept.
3.2.20
specific concept

concept (3.2.7) in a generic relation (3.2.13) that has the broader intension (3.2.6)

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘signature’, ‘electronic signature’ is a specific concept.

3.2.21
comprehensive concept

concept (3.2.7) in a partitive relation (3.2.14) that is viewed as a whole consisting of various parts

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘pedal’, ‘bicycle’ is a comprehensive concept.

Note 1 to entry: A comprehensive concept is viewed as a whole consisting of parts, which are the corresponding

partitive concepts (3.2.22).
3.2.22
partitive concept

concept (3.2.7) in a partitive relation (3.2.14) that is viewed as a part of a whole

EXAMPLE In relation to ‘bicycle’, ‘pedal’ is a partitive concept.
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ISO 1087:2019(E)

Note 1 to entry: The partitive concept is viewed as one of the parts constituting the whole of a comprehensive

concept (3.2.21).
3.2.23
associative relation
associative concept relation
pragmatic relation
non-hierarchical concept relation (3.2.11)

EXAMPLE An associative relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘education’ and ‘teaching’.

3.2.24
sequential relation

associative relation (3.2.23) by which concepts (3.2.7) can be ordered by a relevant ordering criterion

Note 1 to entry: Sequential relations are usually based on spatial relations (3.2.25), temporal relations (3.2.26) or

causal relations (3.2.27).
3.2.25
spatial relation

sequential relation (3.2.24) based on the criterion of relative location in space

EXAMPLE A spatial relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘floor’ and ‘ceiling’.

3.2.26
temporal relation

sequential relation (3.2.24) based on the criterion of following or preceding in time

EXAMPLE A temporal relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘production’ and ‘consumption’.

3.2.27
causal relation
cause-effect relation
sequential relation (3.2.24) based on the criterion of cause and its effect

EXAMPLE A causal relation exists between the concepts (3.2.7) ‘action’ and ‘reaction’, ‘nuclear explosion’

and ‘fallout’.
3.2.28
concept system
system of concepts

set of concepts (3.2.7) structured in one or more related domains (3.1.4) according to the concept

relations (3.2.11) among its concepts
3.2.29
concept diagram
graphic representation of a concept system (3.2.28)
3.2.30
concept model
concept diagram (3.2.29) formed by means of a formal language (3.1.10)
[SOURCE: ISO 24156-1:2014, 3.2]
3.3 Definitions
3.3.1
definition

representation of a concept (3.2.7) by an expression that describes it and differentiates it from related

concepts
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
3.3.2
intensional definition

definition (3.3.1) that conveys the intension (3.2.6) of a concept (3.2.7) by stating the immediate generic

concept (3.2.19) and the delimiting characteristic(s) (3.2.5)

EXAMPLE 1 optical mouse: computer mouse in which movements are detected by light sensors.

EXAMPLE 2 mechanical mouse: computer mouse in which movements are detected by rollers and a ball.

Note 1 to entry: Intensional definitions are preferable to other types of definitions (3.3.1) because they clearly

reveal the characteristics (3.2.1) of a concept (3.2.7) within a concept system (3.2.28): they should be used

whenever possible.
3.3.3
extensional definition

definition (3.3.1) that enumerates all the subordinate concepts (3.2.16) of a superordinate concept (3.2.15)

under one criterion of subdivision (3.2.17)
3.3.4
generic extensional definition

extensional definition (3.3.3) that enumerates all the specific concepts (3.2.20) of a generic concept

(3.2.19) under one criterion of subdivision (3.2.17) on the same hierarchical level

EXAMPLE Noble gas: helium, neon, argon, crypton, xenon or radon.

Note 1 to entry: A generic extensional definition is based on a generic relation (3.2.13), and the enumeration ends

with the operator “or”.
3.3.5
partitive extensional definition

extensional definition (3.3.3) that enumerates all the partitive concepts (3.2.22) of a comprehensive

concept (3.2.21) on the same hierarchical level

EXAMPLE Family 18 in the Periodic Table: helium, neon, argon, crypton, xenon and radon.

Note 1 to entry: A partitive extensional definition is based on a partitive relation (3.2.26), and the enumeration

ends with the operator “and”.
3.4 Designations
3.4.1
designation
designator

representation of a concept (3.2.7) by a sign which denotes it in a domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation can be a term (3.4.2) including appellations (3.4.3), a proper name (3.4.4), or a

symbol (3.4.5).

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.1.1.1, modified — Added “in a domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)” in the

definition; order and content of Notes to entry changed.]
3.4.2
term

designation (3.4.1) that represents a general concept (3.2.9) by linguistic means

EXAMPLE “laser printer”, “planet”, “pacemaker”, “chemical compound”, “¾ time”, “Influenza A virus”, “oil

painting”.
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
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3.4.3
appellation

term (3.4.2) that is applied to a group of objects (3.1.1) whose relevant properties (3.1.3) are identical

EXAMPLE “Nokia 7 Plus®” (mobile phone), “Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro” (software), “Road King®”

(motorcycle) .
3.4.4
proper name
designation (3.4.1) that represents an individual concept (3.2.8)

EXAMPLE “International Organization for Standardization”, “IBM ” , “British Isles”, “United Nations”.

3.4.5
symbol
designation (3.4.1) that represents a concept (3.2.7) by non-linguistic means

Note 1 to entry: There are several types of symbols such as graphical symbols (ISO 3864, all parts) and letter

symbols (ISO 80000, all parts).
3.4.6
simple term
term (3.4.2) that consists of a single word or lexical unit

EXAMPLE “sound”, “light”, “barrier”, “accessory”, “accessorize”, “virus”, “viral”.

Note 1 to entry: Simple terms include terms (3.4.2) coined by derivation (3.4.38).

3.4.7
single-word term
simple term (3.4.6) that consists of one word
EXAMPLE “cherry”, “ship”, “iron”, “barrier”.
3.4.8
compound term

single-word term (3.4.7) that can be split morphologically into separate components

EXAMPLE “steamship”, “blackbird”, “afterbirth”.

[SOURCE: ISO 25964-1:2011, 2.9, modified — Replaced Examples and deleted Note 1 to entry.]

3.4.9
complex term
term (3.4.2) that consists of more than one word or lexical unit
EXAMPLE “computer mouse”, “fault recognition circuit”.
3.4.10
multi-word term
complex term (3.4.9) that consists of more than one word

EXAMPLE “bird cherry”, “bulk carrier ship”, “steam and spray iron”, “vegetative noise barrier”.

Note 1 to entry: In particular languages (3.1.6) there may be a preference for spelling such terms as single words,

or even a rule so stating.

1) Nokia 7 Plus® is a trademark of Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro is a trademark of Adobe Systems,

Road King® is a trademark of Harley-Davidson. This information is given for the convenience of users of this

document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products named.

2) IBM® is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

8 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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[SOURCE: ISO 25964-1:2011, 2.36, modified — Added “complex” before “term”, replaced EXAMPLES and

added Note 1 to entry.]
3.4.11
borrowed term

term (3.4.2) taken from another language (3.1.6) or from another domain (3.1.4) or subject (3.1.5)

EXAMPLE 1 The term (3.4.2) “virus” was originally used in biology and later transferred to information

technology.

EXAMPLE 2 The English term (3.4.2) “internet” has been borrowed by many other languages.

3.4.12
new term
neonym
neoterm
terminological neologism
term (3.4.2) that is specifically coined for a given general concept (3.2.9)
EXAMPLE “smartwatch”.

Note 1 to entry: A new term may supersede an older term (3.4.2) or may designate a new concept (3.2.7).

3.4.13
blend
blended designation
designation (3.4.1) that is formed by clipping and combining two or more words
EXAMPLE “infotainment”, “cyberspace”, “quasar”.
3.4.14
abbreviation
abbreviated form

designation (3.4.1) that is formed by omitting parts from its full form and that represents the same

concept (3.2.7)

Note 1 to entry: Abbreviations can be created by removing individual words, or can be acronyms (3.4.15),

initialisms (3.4.16), or clipped terms (3.4.17).
3.4.15
acronym

abbreviation (3.4.14) that is made up of the initial letters of the components of the full form of a term

(3.4.2) or proper name (3.4.4) or from syllables of the full form and that is pronounced syllabically

EXAMPLE “laser”, “ISO”, “GATT”, “UNESCO”, “UNICEF”.
3.4.16
initialism

abbreviation (3.4.14) that is made up of the initial letters of the components of the full form of a term

(3.4.2) or proper name (3.4.4) or from syllables of the full form and that is pronounced letter by letter

EXAMPLE “UN”, “ASTM”, “IEC”, “US”, “EU”, “DNA”.
3.4.17
clipped term
abbreviation (3.4.14) that is made up of a truncated term (3.4.2)
EXAMPLE “vet school” (veterinarian school).
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ISO 1087:2019(E)
3.4.18
acceptability rating

rating that allows for designations (3.4.1) to be placed in order of preference as a guide to users

Note 1 to entry: The following ratings are common: preferred term (3.4.19), admitted t

...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 1087
Deuxième édition
2019-09
Travail terminologique et science de la
terminologie — Vocabulaire
Terminology work and terminology science — Vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO 1087:2019(F)
ISO 2019
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
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ii © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Réalité et langage .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Définitions ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.4 Désignations .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.5 Activités du travail terminologique ....................................................................................................................................13

3.6 Données terminologiques ..........................................................................................................................................................14

3.7 Ressources terminologiques ....................................................................................................................................................16

3.8 Traitement des langues ................................................................................................................................................................17

Annexe A (informative) Schémas et modèles conceptuels .........................................................................................................19

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

Index alphabétique............................................................................................................................................................................................................35

© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie, sous-

comité SC 1, Principes et méthodes.

Le présent document annule et remplace l’ISO 1087-1:2000, qui a fait l’objet d’une révision technique.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— la plupart des articles terminologiques ont été revus pour refléter l’état actuel des connaissances;

— certains articles terminologiques issus de l’ancienne ISO 1087-2:2000 (annulée) ont été incorporés.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/fr/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
Introduction

L’objectif essentiel du présent document est de fournir une description systématique des concepts liés

au travail terminologique et à la science de la terminologie et de clarifier l’usage des termes dans ce

domaine. Le présent document s’adresse à toute personne concernée par des travaux de terminologie.

Son groupe cible comprend notamment les normalisateurs, les terminologues, d’autres personnes

concernées par des travaux de terminologie, les utilisateurs de terminologie ainsi que les chercheurs et

professionnels de la science de la terminologie et/ou du traitement des langues.

Les articles terminologiques du présent document sont répertoriés dans un ordre systématique sous un

certain nombre de rubriques générales.

La structure est établie conformément à l’ISO 10241-1. Les éléments de chaque article sont affichés dans

l’ordre suivant:
— le numéro d’article;
— le(s) terme(s) privilégié(s);
— le(s) terme(s) toléré(s);
— la (les) forme(s) abrégée(s);
— une définition;
— un (des) exemple(s);
— une (des) note(s).

Les articles terminologiques suivants ont été formatés conformément à l’ISO 10241-1, qui définit les

règles courantes de l’ISO pour la présentation des normes de terminologie. En particulier, dans les

exemples et les notes du présent document, les termes (y compris les appellations) et les noms propres

sont indiqués par des guillemets doubles, tandis que les objets, concepts, propriétés, caractéristiques et

types de caractéristiques sont indiqués par des guillemets simples. Ce balisage a pour but de faciliter la

distinction entre les références aux trois niveaux terminologiques et le reste du texte tout au long de ce

document.

Cette nouvelle révision de l’ISO 1087 a été élaborée selon les principes et les méthodes de travail

terminologique décrits dans l’ISO 704:2009.
L’index alphabétique reprend les termes privilégiés et les termes tolérés.

L’Annexe A présente des schémas et des modèles conceptuels qui illustrent les relations entre les

concepts décrits dans les différents articles de l’Article 3.

Il convient de noter que la plupart des exemples sont propres à la langue française dans la version

française, et propres à la langue anglaise dans la version anglaise.
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 1087:2019(F)
Travail terminologique et science de la terminologie —
Vocabulaire
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document établit les termes et définitions de base du travail terminologique et de la science

de la terminologie. Il n’inclut pas les termes et définitions propres aux applications informatiques du

travail terminologique.
2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https: //www .iso .org/obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Réalité et langage
3.1.1
objet
tout ce qui peut être perçu ou conçu

Note 1 à l'article: Les objets peuvent être matériels (par exemple ‹moteur›, ‹feuille de papier›, ‹diamant›),

immatériels (par exemple ‹rapport de conversion›, ‹plan de projet›) ou imaginaires (par exemple ‹licorne›,

‹hypothèse scientifique›).
3.1.2
extension
ensemble de tous les objets (3.1.1) auxquels correspond un concept (3.2.7)
3.1.3
propriété
particularité d’un objet (3.1.1)
EXEMPLE 1 ‹Être en bois› comme propriété d’une ‹table› donnée.

EXEMPLE 2 ‹Appartenir à la personne A› comme propriété d’un ‹animal domestique› donné.

EXEMPLE 3 ‹Avoir été formulé par Einstein› comme propriété de l’équation ‹E = mc ›.

EXEMPLE 4 ‹Être compatissant› comme propriété d’une ‹personne› donnée.

EXEMPLE 5 ‹Avoir un câble donné› comme propriété d’une ‹souris d’ordinateur› donnée.

Note 1 à l'article: Un ou plusieurs objets peuvent avoir la même propriété.
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.1.4
domaine
branche spécialisée de la connaissance

Note 1 à l'article: Les limites et la granularité d’un domaine sont déterminées selon un point de vue particulier lié

à l’objectif visé. Si un domaine est subdivisé, le résultat est de nouveau un domaine.

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.1, modifiée — Note 1 à l'article et Note 3 à l'article fusionnées; Note 2 à

l’article et Note 4 à l'article omises.]
3.1.5
sujet
domaine d’intérêt ou d’expertise
3.1.6
langage
système de sons, caractères, symboles (3.4.5) permettant de communiquer

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.1, modifiée — Le terme «langue» a été remplacé par «langage» et les

mots «ou signes» ont été supprimés.]
3.1.7
langue

langage (3.1.6) qui est ou a été utilisée activement dans une communauté de personnes, et dont les

règles sont principalement déduites de l’usage

[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.5.2, modifiée — Le terme «langue naturelle» a été remplacé par «langue»

et la Note 1 à l’article omise.]
3.1.8
langue générale

langue (3.1.7) caractérisée par l’utilisation de moyens d’expression linguistiques indépendants de tout

domaine (3.1.4) spécifique
3.1.9
langue de spécialité

langue (3.1.7) utilisée dans la communication entre experts dans un domaine (3.1.4) et caractérisée par

l’utilisation de moyens d’expression linguistiques particuliers

Note 1 à l'article: Les moyens d’expression linguistiques particuliers englobent toujours une terminologie (3.1.11)

et une phraséologie propres au domaine et peuvent également présenter des traits stylistiques ou syntaxiques.

3.1.10
langage formel

langage (3.1.6) dont les règles sont établies de manière explicite avant son utilisation

EXEMPLE Langage ontologique de la toile (OWL).

Note 1 à l'article: Le but du langage formel est d’assurer la communication exacte des informations.

[SOURCE: ISO 24156-1:2014, 3.6]
3.1.11
terminologie

ensemble des désignations (3.4.1) et des concepts (3.2.7) appartenant à un domaine (3.1.4) ou à un

sujet (3.1.5)
3.1.12
science de la terminologie
science terminologique

science étudiant les terminologies (3.1.11), les aspects du travail terminologique (3.5.1), et les ressources

terminologiques (3.7.1) et données terminologiques (3.6.1) qui en découlent
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.2 Concepts
3.2.1
caractéristique
abstraction d’une propriété (3.1.3)

EXEMPLE ‹Avoir un câble pour la connexion à un ordinateur› comme caractéristique du concept ‹souris

avec fil›.
Note 1 à l'article: Les caractéristiques servent à décrire les concepts (3.2.7).
3.2.2
type de caractéristique

catégorie de caractéristiques (3.2.1) qui sont regroupées à des fins d’analyse terminologique

EXEMPLE 1 Pour le concept (3.2.7) ‹signal de sécurité› conformément à l’ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.12, la ‹forme

géométrique› est un type de caractéristique. Elle inclut des caractéristiques (3.2.1) telles que ‹cercle› et ‹carré›.

EXEMPLE 2 Pour le concept (3.2.7) ‹souris d’ordinateur›, la ‹connexion à l’ordinateur› est un type de

caractéristique. Elle inclut des caractéristiques (3.2.1) telles que ‹avoir un câble› et ‹utiliser la technologie sans fil›.

3.2.3
caractéristique essentielle

caractéristique (3.2.1) d’un concept (3.2.7) qui est indispensable pour comprendre ce concept

3.2.4
caractéristique non essentielle

caractéristique (3.2.1) d’un concept (3.2.7) qui n’est pas indispensable pour comprendre ce concept

EXEMPLE Pour définir le concept (3.2.7) ‹feu tricolore›, la couleur ‹rouge›, ‹vert› ou ‹orange› est une

caractéristique essentielle (3.2.3), tandis que pour définir le concept ‹souris d’ordinateur›, la couleur (par exemple

‹ivoire›, ‹bleu› ou ‹rouge›) est une caractéristique non essentielle.
3.2.5
caractéristique distinctive

caractéristique essentielle (3.2.3) utilisée pour distinguer un concept (3.2.7) d’autres concepts associés

EXEMPLE La caractéristique distinctive ‹dossier› peut être utilisée pour distinguer les concepts (3.2.7)

‹tabouret› et ‹chaise›.
3.2.6
intension
ensemble des caractéristiques (3.2.1) constituant un concept (3.2.7)
3.2.7
concept

unité de connaissance créée par une combinaison unique de caractéristiques (3.2.1)

Note 1 à l'article: Les concepts ne sont pas nécessairement liés à des langues (3.1.7) particulières. Ils sont

cependant soumis à l’influence du contexte socioculturel qui conduit souvent à des catégorisations différentes.

Note 2 à l'article: Il s’agit du concept ‹concept› tel qu’il est utilisé et désigné par le terme «concept» dans le

cadre du travail terminologique (3.5.1). Il est très différent du concept désigné par d’autres domaines tels que

l’automatisation industrielle ou le marketing.
3.2.8
concept individuel
concept (3.2.7) qui correspond à un objet (3.1.1) unique

EXEMPLE ‹Saturne›, ‹la tour Eiffel›, ‹la Lune›, ‹numéro de série FRHR603928›, ‹Prix Nobel de physique 2016›.

Note 1 à l'article: Les concepts individuels sont représentés par des noms propres (3.4.4).

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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.2.9
concept général

concept (3.2.7) qui correspond à un nombre potentiellement illimité d’objets (3.1.1) qui forment un

groupe en raison de propriétés (3.1.3) partagées
EXEMPLE ‹planète›, ‹tour›, ‹Prix Nobel de physique›, ‹lune›.

Note 1 à l'article: Pour un concept général, il est essentiel qu’un nombre d’objets correspondants supérieur à

1 puisse être perçu ou imaginé. Par exemple, ‹vaisseau spatial› a été un concept général avant qu’un tel objet

matériel n’existe, au moment où un seul objet de ce type existait, et ultérieurement, lorsque plusieurs objets de ce

type ont existé.
3.2.10
champ conceptuel

ensemble non structuré de concepts (3.2.7) appartenant au même domaine (3.1.4) ou sujet (3.1.5)

3.2.11
relation conceptuelle
relation entre concepts (3.2.7)
3.2.12
relation hiérarchique
relation hiérarchique entre concepts
relation générique (3.2.13) ou relation partitive (3.2.14)
3.2.13
relation générique
relation générique entre concepts
relation genre-espèce

relation conceptuelle (3.2.11) entre un concept générique (3.2.19) et un concept spécifique (3.2.20) où

l’intension (3.2.6) du concept spécifique (3.2.20) inclut l’intension du concept générique (3.2.19) plus au

moins une caractéristique distinctive (3.2.5) supplémentaire

EXEMPLE Une relation générique existe entre les concepts (3.2.7) ‹mot› et ‹nom›, ‹véhicule› et ‹voiture›, et

‹personne› et ‹enfant›.

Note 1 à l'article: En dehors du milieu de la terminologie, les termes «relation type de» et «relation est un» sont

également utilisés à la place de «relation générique».

Note 2 à l'article: Dans une relation générique, le concept subordonné (3.2.16) est un concept spécifique (3.2.20) et

le concept superordonné (3.2.15) est un concept générique (3.2.19).
3.2.14
relation partitive
relation partitive entre concepts
relation partie-tout
relation partie de

relation conceptuelle (3.2.11) entre un concept intégrant (3.2.21) et un concept partitif (3.2.22)

EXEMPLE Une relation partitive existe entre les concepts (3.2.7) ‹bicyclette› et ‹roue›, ‹molécule› et ‹atome›.

3.2.15
concept superordonné
concept générique (3.2.19) ou concept intégrant (3.2.21)

EXEMPLE ‹mobilier› est un concept superordonné par rapport à ‹table› et ‹chaise› dans une relation

générique (3.2.13); ‹arbre› est un concept superordonné par rapport à ‹racine› ou ‹branche› dans une relation

partitive (3.2.14).
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.2.16
concept subordonné
concept spécifique (3.2.20) ou concept partitif (3.2.22)

EXEMPLE ‹table› est un concept subordonné par rapport à ‹mobilier› dans une relation générique (3.2.13); le

concept ‹racine› est un concept subordonné par rapport à ‹arbre› dans une relation partitive (3.2.14).

3.2.17
critère de subdivision

type de caractéristique (3.2.2) selon lequel un concept superordonné (3.2.15) est divisé en concepts

subordonnés (3.2.16)

EXEMPLE 1 Pour le système de concepts (3.2.28) ‹signal de sécurité› selon l’ISO 3864-1:2011, Article 5,

Tableau 1, le type de caractéristique (3.2.2) ‹forme géométrique› est utilisé comme critère de subdivision

pour diviser le concept générique (3.2.19) ‹signal de sécurité› en concepts spécifiques (3.2.20) tels que ‹signal

d’obligation› et ‹signal de conditions de sécurité›.

EXEMPLE 2 Pour le système de concepts (3.2.28) ‹souris d’ordinateur› selon l’ISO 704:2009, 5.5.2.2.1,

Exemple 4, le type de caractéristique (3.2.2) ‹connexion à l’ordinateur› est utilisé comme critère de subdivision

pour diviser le concept générique (3.2.19) ‹souris d’ordinateur› en concepts spécifiques (3.2.20) tels que ‹souris

avec fil› et ‹souris sans fil›.

EXEMPLE 3 Pour le système de concepts (3.2.28) ‹ordinateur›, le type de caractéristique (3.2.2) ‹fonction› est

utilisé comme critère de subdivision pour diviser le concept intégrant (3.2.21) ‹ordinateur› en concepts partitifs

(3.2.22) tels que ‹carte mère›, ‹adaptateur d’affichage›, ‹alimentation›, ‹périphérique de stockage› et ‹périphérique

d’entrée›.
3.2.18
concept coordonné

concept subordonné (3.2.16) résultant du même critère de subdivision (3.2.17) qu’un autre concept

subordonné (3.2.16)

EXEMPLE Appliquer ‹couche de vêtement› comme critère de subdivision (3.2.17) à ‹vêtements› donne

‹vêtement de dessus› et ‹sous-vêtement› comme concepts spécifiques (3.2.20). Ces concepts sont des concepts

coordonnés par rapport à leur concept générique (3.2.19) ‹vêtements›.

Note 1 à l'article: Des concepts coordonnés ont le même concept superordonné (3.2.15) immédiat.

3.2.19
concept générique

concept (3.2.7) dans une relation générique (3.2.13) dont l’intension (3.2.6) est la plus restreinte

EXEMPLE Par rapport à ‹signature électronique›, ‹signature› est un concept générique.

3.2.20
concept spécifique

concept (3.2.7) dans une relation générique (3.2.13) dont l’intension (3.2.6) est la plus générale

EXEMPLE Par rapport à ‹signature›, ‹signature électronique› est un concept spécifique.

3.2.21
concept intégrant

concept (3.2.7) dans une relation partitive (3.2.14) qui est considéré comme un tout constitué de

différentes parties
EXEMPLE Par rapport à ‹pédale›, ‹bicyclette› est un concept intégrant.

Note 1 à l'article: Un concept intégrant est considéré comme un tout constitué de parties qui sont les concepts

partitifs (3.2.22) correspondants.
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.2.22
concept partitif

concept (3.2.7) dans une relation partitive (3.2.14) qui est considéré comme une partie d’un tout

EXEMPLE Par rapport à ‹bicyclette›, ‹pédale› est un concept partitif.

Note 1 à l'article: Le concept partitif est considéré comme l’une des parties constituant le tout d’un concept

intégrant (3.2.21).
3.2.23
relation associative
relation associative entre concepts
relation pragmatique
relation conceptuelle (3.2.11) non hiérarchique

EXEMPLE Une relation associative existe entre les concepts (3.2.7) ‹éducation› et ‹enseignement›.

3.2.24
relation séquentielle

relation associative (3.2.23) par laquelle des concepts (3.2.7) peuvent être ordonnés selon un critère donné

Note 1 à l'article: Les relations séquentielles sont généralement fondées sur des relations spatiales (3.2.25), des

relations temporelles (3.2.26) ou des relations causales (3.2.27).
3.2.25
relation spatiale

relation séquentielle (3.2.24) fondée sur le critère de position relative dans l’espace

EXEMPLE Une relation spatiale existe entre les concepts (3.2.7) ‹plancher› et ‹plafond›.

3.2.26
relation temporelle

relation séquentielle (3.2.24) fondée sur le critère de postériorité ou d'antériorité dans le temps

EXEMPLE Une relation temporelle existe entre les concepts (3.2.7) ‹production› et ‹consommation›.

3.2.27
relation causale
relation de cause à effet
relation séquentielle (3.2.24) fondée sur le critère de cause et son effet

EXEMPLE Une relation causale existe entre les concepts (3.2.7) ‹action› et ‹réaction›, ‹explosion nucléaire› et

‹retombées›.
3.2.28
système de concepts

ensemble de concepts (3.2.7) structuré dans un ou plusieurs domaines (3.1.4) connexes selon les

relations conceptuelles (3.2.11) qui unissent ses concepts
3.2.29
schéma conceptuel
représentation graphique d’un système de concepts (3.2.28)
3.2.30
modèle conceptuel
schéma conceptuel (3.2.29) formé au moyen d’un langage formel (3.1.10)
[SOURCE: ISO 24156-1:2014, 3.2]
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.3 Définitions
3.3.1
définition

représentation d’un concept (3.2.7) par une expression qui le décrit et le différencie des concepts

associés
3.3.2
définition par intension

définition (3.3.1) qui véhicule l’intension (3.2.6) d’un concept (3.2.7) en indiquant le concept générique

(3.2.19) immédiat et la ou les caractéristiques distinctives (3.2.5)

EXEMPLE 1 souris optique: souris d’ordinateur dont les mouvements sont détectés par des capteurs de

lumière.

EXEMPLE 2 souris mécanique: souris d’ordinateur dont les mouvements sont détectés par des rouleaux et

une boule.

Note 1 à l'article: Les définitions par intension sont préférables à d’autres types de définitions (3.3.1) car elles

révèlent clairement les caractéristiques (3.2.1) d’un concept (3.2.7) dans un système de concepts (3.2.28): il

convient de les utiliser chaque fois que possible.
3.3.3
définition par extension

définition (3.3.1) qui énumère tous les concepts subordonnés (3.2.16) d’un concept superordonné (3.2.15)

selon un critère de subdivision (3.2.17)
3.3.4
définition par extension générique

définition par extension (3.3.3) qui énumère tous les concepts spécifiques (3.2.20) d’un concept générique

(3.2.19) selon un critère de subdivision (3.2.17) au même niveau hiérarchique
EXEMPLE Gaz rare: hélium, néon, argon, krypton, xénon ou radon.

Note 1 à l'article: Une définition par extension générique est fondée sur une relation générique (3.2.13) et

l’énumération se termine par l’opérateur «ou».
3.3.5
définition par extension partitive

définition par extension (3.3.3) qui énumère tous les concepts partitifs (3.2.22) d’un concept intégrant

(3.2.21) au même niveau hiérarchique

EXEMPLE Famille 18 du tableau périodique des éléments: hélium, néon, argon, krypton, xénon et radon.

Note 1 à l'article: Une définition par extension partitive est fondée sur une relation partitive (3.2.26) et

l’énumération se termine par l’opérateur «et».
3.4 Désignations
3.4.1
désignation

représentation d’un concept (3.2.7) par un signe qui le dénote dans un domaine (3.1.4) ou sujet (3.1.5)

Note 1 à l'article: Une désignation peut être linguistique ou non linguistique. Elle peut être constituée de

différents types de caractères, mais aussi de signes de ponctuation tels que des traits d’union et des parenthèses,

régis par des conventions spécifiques au domaine, au sujet ou au langage.

Note 2 à l'article: Une désignation peut être un terme (3.4.2), incluant les appellations (3.4.3), un nom propre

(3.4.4) ou un symbole (3.4.5).

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.1.1.1, modifié — "dans un domaine (3.1.4) ou sujet (3.1.5)" a été ajouté à

la définition; l'ordre et le contenu des Notes à l'article ont été modifiés.]
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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.4.2
terme

désignation (3.4.1) qui représente un concept général (3.2.9) par des moyens linguistiques

EXEMPLE «imprimante laser», «planète», «stimulateur cardiaque», «composé chimique», «¾ temps», «virus

de la grippe A», «peinture à l’huile».

Note 1 à l'article: Les termes peuvent être partiellement ou entièrement verbaux.

3.4.3
appellation

terme (3.4.2) appliqué à un groupe d’objets (3.1.1) dont les propriétés (3.1.3) pertinentes sont identiques

EXEMPLE «Nokia 7 Plus®» (téléphone portable), «Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro» (logiciel), «Road King®»

(motocyclette) .
3.4.4
nom propre
désignation (3.4.1) qui représente un concept individuel (3.2.8)
® 2)

EXEMPLE «Organisation internationale de normalisation», «IBM » , «Îles britanniques», «Organisation

des Nations Unies».
3.4.5
symbole

désignation (3.4.1) qui représente un concept (3.2.7) par des moyens non linguistiques

Note 1 à l'article: Il existe plusieurs types de symboles tels que les symboles graphiques (ISO 3864, toutes les

parties) et les symboles littéraux (ISO 80000, toutes les parties).
3.4.6
terme simple
terme (3.4.2) constitué d’un seul mot ou d’une seule unité lexicale

EXEMPLE «son», «onde», «barrière», «accessoire», «accessoiriser», «virus», «viral».

Note 1 à l'article: Les termes simples incluent les termes (3.4.2) créés par dérivation (3.4.38).

3.4.7
uniterme
terme simple (3.4.6) constitué d’un mot unique
EXEMPLE «cerise», «bateau», «fer», «barrière».
3.4.8
terme composé
uniterme (3.4.7) qui peut être divisé morphologiquement en éléments distincts
EXEMPLE «bateau-vapeur», «rouge-gorge», «postnatal».

[SOURCE: ISO 25964-1:2011, 2.9, modifié — Exemples remplacés et Note 1 à l'article supprimée.]

3.4.9
terme complexe
terme (3.4.2) constitué de plusieurs mots ou unités lexicales
EXEMPLE «souris d’ordinateur», «pas de porte».

1) Nokia 7 Plus® est une marque de Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro est une marque d'Adobe Systems,

Road King® est une marque de Harley-Davidson. Ces informations sont données à l’intention des utilisateurs du

présent document et ne signifient nullement que l’ISO approuve l’emploi des produits ainsi désignés.

2) IBM® est une marque d'International Business Machines Corporation. Cette information est donnée à l’intention

des utilisateurs du présent document et ne signifie nullement que l’ISO approuve l’emploi du produit ainsi désigné.

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ISO 1087:2019(F)
3.4.10
multiterme
terme complexe (3.4.9) constitué de plusieurs mots

EXEMPLE «tomate cerise», «cordon bleu», «fer à vapeur», «barrière végétale antibruit».

Note 1 à l'article: Dans certains langages (3.1.6), il peut être recommandé
...

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