Water quality -- Radon-222

ISO 13164-1:2013 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222. The test methods fall into two categories: a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164‑2); b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another phase (see ISO 13164‑3). The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

Qualité de l'eau -- Radon 222

L'ISO 13164-1:2013 fournit des lignes directrices générales pour le prélčvement, le conditionnement et le transport d'échantillons d'eau de tous types, pour la mesure de l'activité volumique du radon 222. Les méthodes de mesure relčvent de deux catégories: a) mesure directe de l'échantillon d'eau, sans transfert de phase (voir l'ISO 13164-2); b) mesure indirecte impliquant le transfert du radon 222 de la phase aqueuse vers une autre phase (voir l'ISO 13164-3). Les méthodes d'essais peuvent ętre mises en oeuvre en laboratoire ou sur site. Il est de la responsabilité du laboratoire de s'assurer de l'adéquation de la méthode d'essai aux échantillons d'eau soumis ŕ essai.

Kakovost vode - Radon Rn-222 - 1. del: Splošna načela

Ta del standarda ISO 13164 navaja splošne smernice za vzorčenje, pakiranje in prevoz vseh vrst vzorcev vode za merjenje koncentracije aktivnosti radona 222. Preskusne metode ustrezajo dvema kategorijama: a) neposredno merjenje vzorca vode brez kakršnega koli prenosa v fazi (glej ISO 13164-2); b) posredno merjenje, ki vključuje prenos radona 222 iz vodne faze v drugo fazo (glej ISO 13164-3). Preskusne metode se lahko uporabljajo v laboratoriju ali na samem mestu. Laboratorij mora zagotoviti primernost te preskusne metode za vzorce vode, ki se testirajo.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Aug-2013
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
08-Jul-2013
Completion Date
27-Aug-2013

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13164-1
First edition
2013-09-01
Corrected version
2013-11-15
Water quality — Radon-222 —
Part 1:
General principles
Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222 —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and symbols .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Principle of the measurement method ......................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Transportation and storage ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Test sample preparation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1 Degassing techniques ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Permeation technique ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Liquid extraction technique ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Detection techniques ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Gamma-spectrometry ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Silver-activated zinc sulfide ZnS(Ag) scintillation .................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Air ionization ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.4 Semiconductor (alpha-detection)........................................................................................................................................10

8.5 Liquid scintillation ............................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Measurement methods ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.2 Gamma-spectrometry method ...............................................................................................................................................10

9.3 Emanometric method ....................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4 Liquid scintillation counting methods (LSC) .............................................................................................................12

9.5 Permeation method .........................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Calibration ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Quality assurance and quality control programme ......................................................................................................12

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11.2 Influence quantities .........................................................................................................................................................................12

11.3 Instrument verification.................................................................................................................................................................13

11.4 Method verification ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

11.5 Demonstration of analyst capability .................................................................................................................................13

12 Expression of results .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

13 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Radon and its decay products in water .............................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Examples of data record forms ..................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, www.iso.org/directives.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received, www.iso.org/patents.

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 3,

Radioactivity measurements.

ISO 13164 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Radon-222:

— Part 1: General principles
— Part 2: Test method using gamma-ray spectrometry
— Part 3: Test method using emanometry
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 4: Test method using two-phase liquid scintillation counting

This corrected version of ISO 13164-1:2013 incorporates the following corrections:

— Table 2: The check marks which printed out incorrectly in the last two columns have been

changed to X’s. The X’s from the cells “Gamma spectrometry – On-site” and “Liquid scintillation –

On-site” have been removed.

— Annex B: The examples of data record forms for B.2 and B.3 were inversed. They are now in the

right places.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Introduction

Radioactivity from several naturally occurring and human-made sources is present throughout the

environment. Thus, water bodies (surface waters, groundwaters, sea waters) can contain radionuclides

of natural and human-made origin.

— Natural radionuclides, including potassium-40, and those of the thorium and uranium decay series,

in particular radium-226, radium-228, uranium-234, uranium-238, lead-210, can be found in water

for natural reasons (e.g. desorption from the soil and wash-off by rain water) or releases from

technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and

processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use).

— Human-made radionuclides such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium,

curium), tritium, carbon-14, strontium-90 and gamma-emitting radionuclides can also be found in

natural waters as they can be authorized to be routinely released into the environment in small

quantities in the effluent discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities and following their used in

unsealed form in medicine or industry. They are also found in water due to the past fallout of the

explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima.

Drinking-water can thus contain radionuclides at activity concentration which could present a risk to

human health. In order to assess the quality of drinking-water (including mineral waters and spring

waters) with respect to its radionuclide content and to provide guidance on reducing health risks by

taking measures to decrease radionuclide activity concentrations, water resources (groundwater, river,

lake, sea, etc.) and drinking water are monitor for their radioactivity content as recommended by the

World Health Organization (WHO).

Standard test methods for radon-222 activity concentrations in water samples are needed by test

laboratories carrying out such measurements in fulfillment of national authority requirements.

Laboratories may have to obtain a specific accreditation for radionuclide measurement in drinking

water samples.

The radon activity concentration in surface water is very low, usually below 1 Bq l . In groundwater, the

−1 −1 −1

activity concentration varies from 1 Bq l up to 50 Bq l in sedimentary rock aquifers, from 10 Bq l

−1 −1 −1

up to 300 Bq l in wells, and from 100 Bq l up to 1 000 Bq l in crystalline rocks. The highest activity

concentrations are normally measured in rocks with high concentration of uranium (Reference [30]).

High variations in the activity concentrations of radon in aquifers have been observed. Even in a region

with relatively uniform rock types, some well water may exhibit radon activity concentration greatly

higher than the average value for the same region. Significant seasonal variations have also been

recorded (see Annex A).

Water may dissolve chemical substances as it passes from the soil surface to an aquifer or spring waters.

The water may pass through or remain for some time in rock, some formations of which may contain a

high concentration of natural radionuclides. Under favourable geochemical conditions, the water may

selectively dissolve some of these natural radionuclides.

Guidance on radon in drinking-water supplies provided by WHO in 2008 suggests that controls should be

implemented if the radon concentration of drinking-water for public water supplies exceeds 100 Bq l .

It also recommended that any new, especially public, drinking-water supply using groundwater should

be tested prior to being used for general consumption and that if the radon concentration exceeds

100 Bq l , treatment of the water source should be undertaken to reduce the radon levels to well below

that level (Reference [41]).

This International Standard is one of a series dealing with the measurement of the activity concentration

of radionuclides in water samples.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Water quality — Radon-222 —
Part 1:
General principles

WARNING — Persons using this document should be familiar with normal laboratory practice.

This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its

use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to

ensure compliance with any national regulatory conditions.

IMPORTANT — It is absolutely essential that tests conducted in accordance with this document

be carried out by suitably qualified staff.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13164 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of

water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222.
The test methods fall into two categories:

a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164-2);

b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another

phase (see ISO 13164-3).
The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site.

The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

ISO 10703, Water quality — Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides — Method by high

resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 13164-2, Water quality — Radon-222 — Part 2: Test method using gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 13164-3, Water quality — Radon-222 — Part 3: Test method using emanometry

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 80000-10, Quantities and units — Part 10: Atomic and nuclear physics
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3 Terms, definitions, and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 80000-10 and the following apply.

3.1.1
activity

number of spontaneous nuclear disintegrations occurring in a given quantity of material during a

suitably small interval of time divided by that interval of time
23]
[SOURCE: ISO 921:1997,
3.1.2
activity concentration in water
activity per volume of water

Note 1 to entry: The activity concentration in water is expressed in becquerels per litre.

3.1.3
activity concentration in air
activity per volume of air following the degassing phase

Note 1 to entry: The activity concentration in air is expressed in becquerels per cubic metre.

3.1.4
test sample
part of the total sample subjected to analysis
3.1.5
Bunsen coefficient

volume of a gas dissolved at standard temperature (273,15 K) and standard partial pressure (0,1 MPa)

divided by the volume of the solvent at a temperature, T, and standard pressure (0,1 MPa)

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from Reference [10], p. 239.

Note 2 to entry: Modern practice recommends that gas solubility be expressed as molality, mole fraction or

mole ratio (see Reference [10]). However, in many studies dealing with radon measurement in water, the Bunsen

coefficient appears frequently.

Note 3 to entry: The solubility of radon in water increases as the water temperature decreases (see Annex A).

3.1.6
continuous measurement of radon in water

measurement of the radon activity concentration of continuous samples at a given sampling point in the

water environment

Note 1 to entry: This form of analysis is used to monitor variations in the activity concentration of radon in the

water at the sampling point over time.
3.1.7
continuous sampling
process whereby samples are taken continuously from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32, modified]
3.1.8
degassing

transfer of dissolved radon from water to air, usually by means of a physical process

2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3.1.9
direct in-situ measurement

automatic analysis system in which at least the measurement probe is immersed in the body of water

3.1.10
discrete sample
localized discrete sample
single sample taken from a body of water at a random time or place
3.1.11
dissolution
mixing of two phases with the formation of one new homogeneous phase
3.1.12
drinking water
potable water
water of a quality suitable for drinking purposes
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 30]
3.1.13
groundwater

water which is held in, and can usually be recovered from, an underground formation

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 41, modified]
3.1.14
intermittent sampling
process whereby discrete samples are taken from a body of water
3.1.15
mains water

water fed from a drinking water treatment station, spring or borehole into a distribution system or reservoir

3.1.16
Ostwald coefficient

volume of a gas dissolved at a given temperature and pressure divided by the volume of the solvent at

the same temperature and pressure
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from Reference [10], p. 1147.

Note 2 to entry: Modern practice recommends that gas solubility be expressed as molality, mole fraction or mole

ratio (see Reference [10]). However, in many studies dealing with radon measurement in water, the Ostwald

coefficient appears frequently.

Note 3 to entry: The solubility of radon in a liquid increases as the liquid temperature decreases (see Annex A).

3.1.17
radon transport by permeation

transfer of radon from one medium to another across a third homogeneous medium (membrane)

3.1.18
raw water

water which has received no treatment whatsoever, or water entering a plant for treatment or

further treatment
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 59]
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3.1.19
reservoir

construction, partially or wholly man-made, for storage or regulation and control of water

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 107, modified]
3.1.20
surface water
water which flows over, or rests on, the surface of a land mass
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 74]
3.1.21
sample

portion, ideally representative, removed from a specified body of water, either discretely or continuously,

for the purpose of examination of various defined characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 111]
3.1.22
sampling

process of removing a portion, intended to be representative, of a body of water for the purpose of

examination of various defined characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 114]
3.1.23
sampling point
precise position within a sampling location from which samples are taken
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.1.24
sampling zone
extent of a body of water over which samples are taken
3.1.25
222
short-lived Rn decay products
222

radionuclides with a half-life <1 h produced by the decay of radon-222 ( Rn), namely polonium-218

218 214 214 214
( Po), lead-214 ( Pb), bismuth-214 ( Bi), and polonium-214 ( Po)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.26
spot measurement of radon in water

measurement of the radon activity concentration in a water discrete sample carried out either

immediately or after a known delay

Note 1 to entry: The result obtained is only representative of the time the sample was taken.

3.1.27
transfer
displacement or transport of radon from one phase to another
3.2 Symbols

For the purpose of this document, the symbols given in ISO 80000-10 and the following apply.

c activity concentration in air following degassing, in becquerels per cubic metre

c activity concentration in water, in becquerels per litre
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
decision threshold, in becquerels per litre
detection limit, in becquerels per litre
lower and upper limits of the confidence interval, in becquerels per litre
cc,
c activity concentration in a liquid, in becquerels per litre
L Ostwald coefficient
T temperature of water sample, in degrees Celsius
U expanded uncertainty calculated by U = k.u( ) with k = 2
u(c ) standard uncertainty associated with the measurement result
V volume of the test sample, in litres
α Bunsen coefficient
4 Principle of the measurement method
222 226

Radon-222 ( Rn) is a radioactive gas produced by the decay of radium-226 ( Ra), which is one of the

238

decay products of the uranium-238 ( U) that is naturally present in the Earth’s crust (see Annex A).

The decay of radon-222 proceeds through a series of non-volatile radioactive elements resulting in

stable lead-206 (see Figure 1) (Reference [9]).
Figure 1 — Uranium-238 and its decay products

A large number of methods are available to measure the activity concentration of radon-222 in water.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)

The measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222 in water involves the following operations:

— collection of a representative sample of the water at time t in a suitable container;

— storage and the transportation of the sample, when the measurement is carried out in a laboratory;

— test sample preparation by transferring the radon dissolved in the water to another phase, when

needed by the detection techniques (emanometric or a liquid scintillation counting);

— determination of the radon activity concentration in the water using a variety of detection techniques

directly or through its decay products (see Figure 2).
The result of the measurement is expressed in becquerels per litre.

The methods specified in the different parts of this International Standard are applicable to all types

of water (see Table 2), and the method is selected according to the purpose of the measurement,

phenomenological observation or radiological impact assessment taking into account the level of the

radon activity concentration expected in the raw sample.
5 Sampling
Sampling shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 5667-1 and ISO 5667-3.

The sampling conditions shall comply with ISO 5667-1, and shall also satisfy those specified in Table 1

in order to minimize as far as possible any exchange with the atmosphere and to maintain the radon in

solution in the water sample.
The sample container shall be labelled.
The sampling location, date and time shall be recorded.
), avoid any contact between
When measuring very low levels of radon activity concentration (<10 Bq l
the sample and the atmosphere when taking the sample.

When measurement methods require specific precautions, these are listed in the relevant parts of

ISO 13164 (e.g. when using degassing techniques, the temperature of the water shall be recorded).

6 Transportation and storage

The transportation and storage conditions shall be adapted to keep the integrity of the sample.

The temperature of the transportation and storage of the sample shall be below that of the original

water (but above 0 °C). The container shall be protected and sealed to avoid opening during

transportation. The container shall be packed in an appropriate manner, especially around the cap, in

order to prevent any leakage.

The sample shall be measured as soon as possible after sampling. When it is necessary to store the

sample for an extended period of time prior to measurement, it shall be stored at low temperature in a

refrigerator or similar storage facility in accordance with ISO 5667-1 and ISO 5667-3.

The duration of transportation and storage prior to analysis shall be as short as possible given the

half-life of radon-222, the expected activity concentration, and the detection limit of the measurement

method to be used.

Experience indicates that it is essential that the time between sampling and analysis not exceed 48 h.

6 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Measurement of
radon-222 in water
Direct Indirect
Gaseous Liquid Solid
phase phase phase
Transfer
Activated
Degassing Permeation Mixture Permeation Plastic
charcoal
Gamma- ZnS Alpha Liquid Gamma- ZnS
spectrometry scintillation spectrometry scintillation spectrometry scintillation
Ionization
chamber
Alpha
spectrometry
Detection Electret
Solid-state
nuclear track
detector
Figure 2 — Diagram illustrating the techniques used to measure radon in water
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Table 1 — Sampling conditions
Sampling type Container Sampling steps
— The container shall be made
from a material that is non-porous to — Prepare the equipment.
radon (e.g. aluminium). Avoid the use of
— Open the tap to obtain a continuous
highly hydrophobic materials in order
flow to avoid turbulence at the outlet of the tap
to minimize the presence of gas bubbles
and on the walls of the container.
on the walls of the container. Avoid the

use of grease and oil because of the high — Take the sample carefully, allowing the

solubility of radon in those substances. stream of water to flow against the walls of the

container.
Sampling from an
— The volume of the container shall
outlet (tap, spring,
be adapted to the test sample size needed
— Fill the container completely in order to
etc.)
for the chosen measurement method
avoid the presence of air in the container, but do
(refer to the relevant parts of this Inter-
not allow the container to overflow with turbu-
national Standard).
lence.
— The sealing of the container shall — Close the container.
be airtight (e.g. a cap with an aluminium
NOTE In some cases, it can be necessary to
cover).
purge the supply system before taking the sam-
— The container shall be resistant ple
to shock and pressure
— Prepare the equipment.
— Ensure that the sampling point is rep-
resentative of the body of water concerned. It is
likely that stratification will make it necessary
— Type and size of container, see
to take several samples at different lateral posi-
Sampling by
above.
tions or depths.
immersion in stag-
— If necessary, the container shall
nant water — Take the sample carefully, minimizing
be closed under water
any turbulence.
— Fill the container completely in order to
avoid the presence of air.
— Close the con
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
01-december-2013
.DNRYRVWYRGH5DGRQ5QGHO6SORãQDQDþHOD
Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 1: General principles
Qualité de l'eau - Radon 222 - Partie 1: Principes généraux
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 13164-1:2013
ICS:
13.060.60 Preiskava fizikalnih lastnosti Examination of physical
vode properties of water
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST ISO 13164-1:2013 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13164-1
First edition
2013-09-01
Water quality — Radon-222 —
Part 1:
General principles
Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222 —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and symbols .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Principle of the measurement method ......................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Transportation and storage ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Test sample preparation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1 Degassing techniques ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Permeation technique ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Liquid extraction technique ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Detection techniques ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Gamma-spectrometry ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Silver-activated zinc sulfide ZnS(Ag) scintillation .................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Air ionization ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.4 Semiconductor (alpha-detection)........................................................................................................................................10

8.5 Liquid scintillation ............................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Measurement methods ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.2 Gamma-spectrometry method ...............................................................................................................................................10

9.3 Emanometric method ....................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4 Liquid scintillation counting methods (LSC) .............................................................................................................12

9.5 Permeation method .........................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Calibration ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Quality assurance and quality control programme ......................................................................................................12

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11.2 Influence quantities .........................................................................................................................................................................12

11.3 Instrument verification.................................................................................................................................................................13

11.4 Method verification ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

11.5 Demonstration of analyst capability .................................................................................................................................13

12 Expression of results .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

13 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Radon and its decay products in water .............................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Examples of data record forms ..................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, www.iso.org/directives.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received, www.iso.org/patents.

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 3,

Radioactivity measurements.

ISO 13164 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Radon-222:

— Part 1: General principles
— Part 2: Test method using gamma-ray spectrometry
— Part 3: Test method using emanometry
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 4: Test method using two-phase liquid scintillation counting
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Introduction

Radioactivity from several naturally occurring and human-made sources is present throughout the

environment. Thus, water bodies (surface waters, groundwaters, sea waters) can contain radionuclides

of natural and human-made origin.

— Natural radionuclides, including potassium-40, and those of the thorium and uranium decay series,

in particular radium-226, radium-228, uranium-234, uranium-238, lead-210, can be found in water

for natural reasons (e.g. desorption from the soil and wash-off by rain water) or releases from

technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and

processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use).

— Human-made radionuclides such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium,

curium), tritium, carbon-14, strontium-90 and gamma-emitting radionuclides can also be found in

natural waters as they can be authorized to be routinely released into the environment in small

quantities in the effluent discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities and following their used in

unsealed form in medicine or industry. They are also found in water due to the past fallout of the

explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima.

Drinking-water can thus contain radionuclides at activity concentration which could present a risk to

human health. In order to assess the quality of drinking-water (including mineral waters and spring

waters) with respect to its radionuclide content and to provide guidance on reducing health risks by

taking measures to decrease radionuclide activity concentrations, water resources (groundwater, river,

lake, sea, etc.) and drinking water are monitor for their radioactivity content as recommended by the

World Health Organization (WHO).

Standard test methods for radon-222 activity concentrations in water samples are needed by test

laboratories carrying out such measurements in fulfillment of national authority requirements.

Laboratories may have to obtain a specific accreditation for radionuclide measurement in drinking

water samples.

The radon activity concentration in surface water is very low, usually below 1 Bq l . In groundwater, the

−1 −1 −1

activity concentration varies from 1 Bq l up to 50 Bq l in sedimentary rock aquifers, from 10 Bq l

−1 −1 −1

up to 300 Bq l in wells, and from 100 Bq l up to 1 000 Bq l in crystalline rocks. The highest activity

concentrations are normally measured in rocks with high concentration of uranium (Reference [30]).

High variations in the activity concentrations of radon in aquifers have been observed. Even in a region

with relatively uniform rock types, some well water may exhibit radon activity concentration greatly

higher than the average value for the same region. Significant seasonal variations have also been

recorded (see Annex A).

Water may dissolve chemical substances as it passes from the soil surface to an aquifer or spring waters.

The water may pass through or remain for some time in rock, some formations of which may contain a

high concentration of natural radionuclides. Under favourable geochemical conditions, the water may

selectively dissolve some of these natural radionuclides.

Guidance on radon in drinking-water supplies provided by WHO in 2008 suggests that controls should be

implemented if the radon concentration of drinking-water for public water supplies exceeds 100 Bq l .

It also recommended that any new, especially public, drinking-water supply using groundwater should

be tested prior to being used for general consumption and that if the radon concentration exceeds

100 Bq l , treatment of the water source should be undertaken to reduce the radon levels to well below

that level (Reference [41]).

This International Standard is one of a series dealing with the measurement of the activity concentration

of radionuclides in water samples.
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SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Water quality — Radon-222 —
Part 1:
General principles

WARNING — Persons using this document should be familiar with normal laboratory practice.

This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its

use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to

ensure compliance with any national regulatory conditions.

IMPORTANT — It is absolutely essential that tests conducted in accordance with this document

be carried out by suitably qualified staff.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13164 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of

water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222.
The test methods fall into two categories:

a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164-2);

b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another

phase (see ISO 13164-3).
The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site.

The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

ISO 10703, Water quality — Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides — Method by high

resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 13164-2, Water quality — Radon-222 — Part 2: Test method using gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 13164-3, Water quality — Radon-222 — Part 3: Test method using emanometry

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 80000-10, Quantities and units — Part 10: Atomic and nuclear physics
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ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3 Terms, definitions, and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 80000-10 and the following apply.

3.1.1
activity

number of spontaneous nuclear disintegrations occurring in a given quantity of material during a

suitably small interval of time divided by that interval of time
23]
[SOURCE: ISO 921:1997,
3.1.2
activity concentration in water
activity per volume of water

Note 1 to entry: The activity concentration in water is expressed in becquerels per litre.

3.1.3
activity concentration in air
activity per volume of air following the degassing phase

Note 1 to entry: The activity concentration in air is expressed in becquerels per cubic metre.

3.1.4
test sample
part of the total sample subjected to analysis
3.1.5
Bunsen coefficient

volume of a gas dissolved at standard temperature (273,15 K) and standard partial pressure (0,1 MPa)

divided by the volume of the solvent at a temperature, T, and standard pressure (0,1 MPa)

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from Reference [10], p. 239.

Note 2 to entry: Modern practice recommends that gas solubility be expressed as molality, mole fraction or

mole ratio (see Reference [10]). However, in many studies dealing with radon measurement in water, the Bunsen

coefficient appears frequently.

Note 3 to entry: The solubility of radon in water increases as the water temperature decreases (see Annex A).

3.1.6
continuous measurement of radon in water

measurement of the radon activity concentration of continuous samples at a given sampling point in the

water environment

Note 1 to entry: This form of analysis is used to monitor variations in the activity concentration of radon in the

water at the sampling point over time.
3.1.7
continuous sampling
process whereby samples are taken continuously from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32, modified]
3.1.8
degassing

transfer of dissolved radon from water to air, usually by means of a physical process

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ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3.1.9
direct in-situ measurement

automatic analysis system in which at least the measurement probe is immersed in the body of water

3.1.10
discrete sample
localized discrete sample
single sample taken from a body of water at a random time or place
3.1.11
dissolution
mixing of two phases with the formation of one new homogeneous phase
3.1.12
drinking water
potable water
water of a quality suitable for drinking purposes
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 30]
3.1.13
groundwater

water which is held in, and can usually be recovered from, an underground formation

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 41, modified]
3.1.14
intermittent sampling
process whereby discrete samples are taken from a body of water
3.1.15
mains water

water fed from a drinking water treatment station, spring or borehole into a distribution system or reservoir

3.1.16
Ostwald coefficient

volume of a gas dissolved at a given temperature and pressure divided by the volume of the solvent at

the same temperature and pressure
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from Reference [10], p. 1147.

Note 2 to entry: Modern practice recommends that gas solubility be expressed as molality, mole fraction or mole

ratio (see Reference [10]). However, in many studies dealing with radon measurement in water, the Ostwald

coefficient appears frequently.

Note 3 to entry: The solubility of radon in a liquid increases as the liquid temperature decreases (see Annex A).

3.1.17
radon transport by permeation

transfer of radon from one medium to another across a third homogeneous medium (membrane)

3.1.18
raw water

water which has received no treatment whatsoever, or water entering a plant for treatment or

further treatment
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 59]
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SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
3.1.19
reservoir

construction, partially or wholly man-made, for storage or regulation and control of water

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 107, modified]
3.1.20
surface water
water which flows over, or rests on, the surface of a land mass
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 74]
3.1.21
sample

portion, ideally representative, removed from a specified body of water, either discretely or continuously,

for the purpose of examination of various defined characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 111]
3.1.22
sampling

process of removing a portion, intended to be representative, of a body of water for the purpose of

examination of various defined characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 114]
3.1.23
sampling point
precise position within a sampling location from which samples are taken
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.1.24
sampling zone
extent of a body of water over which samples are taken
3.1.25
222
short-lived Rn decay products
222

radionuclides with a half-life <1 h produced by the decay of radon-222 ( Rn), namely polonium-218

218 214 214 214
( Po), lead-214 ( Pb), bismuth-214 ( Bi), and polonium-214 ( Po)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.26
spot measurement of radon in water

measurement of the radon activity concentration in a water discrete sample carried out either

immediately or after a known delay

Note 1 to entry: The result obtained is only representative of the time the sample was taken.

3.1.27
transfer
displacement or transport of radon from one phase to another
3.2 Symbols

For the purpose of this document, the symbols given in ISO 80000-10 and the following apply.

c activity concentration in air following degassing, in becquerels per cubic metre

c activity concentration in water, in becquerels per litre
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ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
decision threshold, in becquerels per litre
detection limit, in becquerels per litre
lower and upper limits of the confidence interval, in becquerels per litre
cc,
c activity concentration in a liquid, in becquerels per litre
L Ostwald coefficient
T temperature of water sample, in degrees Celsius
U expanded uncertainty calculated by U = k.u( ) with k = 2
u(c ) standard uncertainty associated with the measurement result
V volume of the test sample, in litres
α Bunsen coefficient
4 Principle of the measurement method
222 226

Radon-222 ( Rn) is a radioactive gas produced by the decay of radium-226 ( Ra), which is one of the

238

decay products of the uranium-238 ( U) that is naturally present in the Earth’s crust (see Annex A).

The decay of radon-222 proceeds through a series of non-volatile radioactive elements resulting in

stable lead-206 (see Figure 1) (Reference [9]).
Figure 1 — Uranium-238 and its decay products

A large number of methods are available to measure the activity concentration of radon-222 in water.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)

The measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222 in water involves the following operations:

— collection of a representative sample of the water at time t in a suitable container;

— storage and the transportation of the sample, when the measurement is carried out in a laboratory;

— test sample preparation by transferring the radon dissolved in the water to another phase, when

needed by the detection techniques (emanometric or a liquid scintillation counting);

— determination of the radon activity concentration in the water using a variety of detection techniques

directly or through its decay products (see Figure 2).
The result of the measurement is expressed in becquerels per litre.

The methods specified in the different parts of this International Standard are applicable to all types

of water (see Table 2), and the method is selected according to the purpose of the measurement,

phenomenological observation or radiological impact assessment taking into account the level of the

radon activity concentration expected in the raw sample.
5 Sampling
Sampling shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 5667-1 and ISO 5667-3.

The sampling conditions shall comply with ISO 5667-1, and shall also satisfy those specified in Table 1

in order to minimize as far as possible any exchange with the atmosphere and to maintain the radon in

solution in the water sample.
The sample container shall be labelled.
The sampling location, date and time shall be recorded.
), avoid any contact between
When measuring very low levels of radon activity concentration (<10 Bq l
the sample and the atmosphere when taking the sample.

When measurement methods require specific precautions, these are listed in the relevant parts of

ISO 13164 (e.g. when using degassing techniques, the temperature of the water shall be recorded).

6 Transportation and storage

The transportation and storage conditions shall be adapted to keep the integrity of the sample.

The temperature of the transportation and storage of the sample shall be below that of the original

water (but above 0 °C). The container shall be protected and sealed to avoid opening during

transportation. The container shall be packed in an appropriate manner, especially around the cap, in

order to prevent any leakage.

The sample shall be measured as soon as possible after sampling. When it is necessary to store the

sample for an extended period of time prior to measurement, it shall be stored at low temperature in a

refrigerator or similar storage facility in accordance with ISO 5667-1 and ISO 5667-3.

The duration of transportation and storage prior to analysis shall be as short as possible given the

half-life of radon-222, the expected activity concentration, and the detection limit of the measurement

method to be used.

Experience indicates that it is essential that the time between sampling and analysis not exceed 48 h.

6 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Measurement of
radon-222 in water
Direct Indirect
Gaseous Liquid Solid
phase phase phase
Transfer
Activated
Degassing Permeation Mixture Permeation Plastic
charcoal
Gamma- ZnS Alpha Liquid Gamma- ZnS
spectrometry scintillation spectrometry scintillation spectrometry scintillation
Ionization
chamber
Alpha
spectrometry
Detection Electret
Solid-state
nuclear track
detector
Figure 2 — Diagram illustrating the techniques used to measure radon in water
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SIST ISO 13164-1:2013
ISO 13164-1:2013(E)
Table 1 — Sampling conditions
Sampling type Container Sampling steps
— The container shall be made
from a material that is non-porous to — Prepare the equipment.
radon (e.g. aluminium). Avoid the use of
— Open the tap to obtain a continuous
highly hydrophobic materials in order
flow to avoid turbulence at the outlet of the tap
to minimize the presence of gas bubbles
and on the walls of the container.
on the walls of the container. Avoid the

use of grease and oil because of the high — Take the sample carefully, allowing the

solubility of radon in those substances. stream of water to flow against the walls of the

container.
Sampling from an
— The volume of the container shall
outlet (tap, spring,
be adapted to the test sample size needed
— Fill the container completely in order to
etc.)
for the chosen measurement method
avoid the presence of air in the container, but do
(refer to the relevant parts of this Inter-
not allow the container to overflow with turbu-
national Standard).
lence.
— The sealing of the container shall — Close the container.
be airtight (e.g. a cap with an aluminium
NOTE In some cases, it can be
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 13164-1
Première édition
2013-09-01
Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222 —
Partie 1:
Principes généraux
Water quality — Radon-222 —
Part 1: General principles
Numéro de référence
ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
ISO 2013
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2013

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ii © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes, définitions et symboles .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Termes et définitions ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symboles ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Principe de la méthode de mesure .................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Transport et conservation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Préparation de la prise d’essai ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Techniques par dégazage ............................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Technique par perméation ........................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 Technique d’extraction liquide ...............................................................................................................................................10

8 Techniques de détection ............................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 Spectrométrie gamma ...................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Scintillation au sulfure de zinc activé à l’argent ZnS(Ag) ................................................................................10

8.3 Ionisation de l’air ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4 Détecteur à semi-conducteur (détection de particules alpha) ...................................................................11

8.5 Scintillation liquide ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

9 Méthodes de mesure .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Méthode par spectrométrie gamma ..................................................................................................................................11

9.3 Méthode par émanométrie ........................................................................................................................................................13

9.4 Méthodes par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide (CSL) .......................................................13

9.5 Méthode par perméation ............................................................................................................................................................13

10 Étalonnage ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

11 Programme d’assurance qualité et de contrôle de la qualité .............................................................................13

11.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................13

11.2 Grandeurs d’influence....................................................................................................................................................................14

11.3 Vérification des instruments ....................................................................................................................................................14

11.4 Vérification de la méthode .........................................................................................................................................................14

11.5 Démonstration de l’aptitude de l’analyste ...................................................................................................................14

12 Expression des résultats............................................................................................................................................................................14

13 Rapport d’essai ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annexe A (informative) Le radon et ses descendants dans l’eau .........................................................................................16

Annexe B (informative) Exemples de fiches d’expression des résultats ......................................................................20

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant les

références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de l’élaboration

du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou sur la liste ISO des déclarations de brevets reçues

(voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les éventuelles appellations commerciales utilisées dans le présent document sont données pour

information à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne constituent pas une approbation ou une recommandation.

Le comité chargé de l’élaboration du présent document est l’ISO/TC 147, Qualité de l’eau, sous-comité

SC 3, Mesurages de la radioactivité.

La présente version française de l’ISO 13164-1:2013 correspond à la version anglaise publiée le

2013-09-01 et corrigée le 2013-11-15.

L’ISO 13164 comprend les parties suivantes, présentées sous le titre général Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222:

— Partie 1: Principes généraux
— Partie 2: Méthode d’essai par spectrométrie gamma
— Partie 3: Méthode d’essai par émanométrie
La partie suivante est en cours d’élaboration:

— Partie 4: Méthode par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide à deux phases

iv © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
Introduction

La radioactivité provenant de sources d’origine naturelle et artificielle est présente partout dans

l’environnement. Par conséquent, les masses d’eau (eaux de surface, eaux souterraines, eau de mer)

peuvent contenir des radionucléides d’origine naturelle et d’origine artificielle.

— Les radionucléides naturels, y compris le potassium 40, et ceux des chaînes de désintégration du

thorium et de l’uranium, notamment le radium 226, le radium 228, l’uranium 234, l’uranium 238, le

plomb 210, peuvent se trouver dans l’eau pour des raisons naturelles (par exemple désorption par le

sol et lessivage par les eaux pluviales) ou ils peuvent être libérés par des processus technologiques

impliquant des matériaux naturellement radioactifs (par exemple extraction minière et traitement

de sables minéraux ou production et utilisation d’engrais phosphatés).

— Les radionucléides artificiels, tels que les transuraniens (américium, plutonium, neptunium,

curium), le tritium, le carbone 14, le strontium 90 et les radionucléides émetteurs gamma peuvent

aussi se trouver dans les eaux naturelles car la réglementation autorise leur libération périodique

dans l’environnement en faibles quantités dans les effluents rejetés par les installations du cycle

du combustible nucléaire et suite à leur utilisation dans le domaine de la médecine nucléaire ou de

l’industrie. Il est également possible de les trouver dans l’eau, en raison des retombées des anciens

essais nucléaires atmosphériques et celles relatives aux accidents de Tchernobyl et de Fukushima.

L’eau potable peut donc contenir des radionucléides à une activité volumique susceptible de présenter un

risque pour la santé humaine. Afin d’évaluer la qualité de l’eau potable (y compris les eaux minérales et les

eaux de source) vis-à-vis de sa teneur en radionucléides et de fournir des lignes directrices pour réduire

les risques pour la santé humaine en prenant des dispositions destinées à réduire les valeurs d’activité

volumique des radionucléides, la teneur en radioactivité des ressources en eau (eaux souterraines,

rivières, lacs, mers, etc.) et des eaux potables est surveillée conformément aux recommandations de

l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS).

Des méthodes d’essai normalisées concernant les valeurs d’activité volumique du radon 222 dans

les échantillons d’eau sont nécessaires pour les laboratoires d’essais réalisant ces mesures dans le

respect des exigences émises par les autorités nationales. Les laboratoires sont parfois tenus d’obtenir

une accréditation spécifique pour la réalisation de mesures concernant les radionucléides dans les

échantillons d’eau potable.

Les valeurs d’activité volumique du radon dans les eaux de surface sont très faibles, généralement

−1 −1 −1

inférieures à 1 Bq l . Dans les eaux souterraines, elles peuvent varier de 1 Bq l à 50 Bq l pour les

−1 −1

aquifères rocheux dans les roches sédimentaires, de 10 Bq l à 300 Bq l pour les puits creusés dans

−1 −1

le sol, et de 100 Bq l à 1 000 Bq l dans les roches cristallines. Les valeurs d’activité volumique les

plus élevées sont généralement mesurées dans le socle rocheux à fortes concentrations en uranium

(Référence [30]).

Les valeurs d’activité volumique du radon dans les aquifères rocheux se caractérisent par leur grande

variabilité. Ainsi dans une région aux types de roches relativement homogènes, certains puits peuvent

présenter des valeurs d’activité volumique du radon largement supérieures à la moyenne de la région.

Des variations saisonnières significatives ont également été enregistrées (voir Annexe A).

Les eaux se chargent en éléments chimiques au cours de leur progression depuis la surface jusqu’à

l’aquifère ou l’émergence. Lors de ce parcours, elles vont rencontrer, voire séjourner, dans des roches

dont certaines formations peuvent avoir des teneurs élevées en radionucléides naturels. Lorsque les

conditions géochimiques sont favorables, les eaux peuvent entraîner préférentiellement certains de ces

radionucléides naturels.

Les lignes directrices relatives au radon dans les réseaux d’alimentation en eau potable, fournies par l’OMS

en 2008, suggèrent qu’il convient que des contrôles soient mis en œuvre dès lors que la concentration en

radon de l’eau potable dans les réseaux publics dépasse 100 Bq l . Elles recommandent également que

tout nouveau réseau (notamment public) d’alimentation en eau potable fasse l’objet d’essais avant qu’il

ne soit utilisé pour la consommation générale et que, si la concentration en radon dépasse 100 Bq l ,

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)

il convient d’entreprendre le traitement de la source d’approvisionnement en eau afin de réduire les

concentrations en radon à des niveaux beaucoup plus faibles que 100 Bq l (Référence [41]).

La présente Norme internationale fait partie d’une série traitant des méthodes d’essai pour le mesurage

de l’activité volumique des radionucléides dans des échantillons d’eau.
vi © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222 —
Partie 1:
Principes généraux

AVERTISSEMENT — Il convient que l’utilisateur du présent document connaisse bien les pratiques

courantes de laboratoire. Le présent document n’a pas pour but de traiter tous les problèmes

de sécurité qui sont, le cas échéant, liés à son utilisation. Il incombe à l’utilisateur d’établir des

pratiques appropriées en matière d’hygiène et de sécurité, et de s’assurer de la conformité à la

réglementation nationale en vigueur.

IMPORTANT — Il est absolument essentiel que les essais réalisés conformément au présent

document soient effectués par un personnel ayant une qualification adéquate.
1 Domaine d’application

La présente partie de l’ISO 13164 fournit des lignes directrices générales pour le prélèvement, le

conditionnement et le transport d’échantillons d’eau de tous types, pour la mesure de l’activité volumique

du radon 222.
Les méthodes de mesure relèvent de deux catégories:

a) mesure directe de l’échantillon d’eau, sans transfert de phase (voir l’ISO 13164-2);

b) mesure indirecte impliquant le transfert du radon 222 de la phase aqueuse vers une autre phase

(voir l’ISO 13164-3).
Les méthodes d’essais peuvent être mises en œuvre en laboratoire ou sur site.

Il est de la responsabilité du laboratoire de s’assurer de l’adéquation de la méthode d’essai aux échantillons

d’eau soumis à essai.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants, en tout ou partie, sont référencés de manière normative dans le présent

document et sont indispensables pour son application. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée

s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y

compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 5667-1, Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 1: Lignes directrices pour la conception des

programmes et des techniques d’échantillonnage

ISO 5667-3, Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 3: Conservation et manipulation des échantillons d’eau

ISO 10703, Qualité de l’eau — Détermination de l’activité volumique des radionucléides — Méthode par

spectrométrie gamma à haute résolution

ISO 13164-2, Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222 — Partie 2: Méthode d’essai par spectrométrie gamma

ISO 13164-3, Qualité de l’eau — Radon 222 — Partie 3: Méthode d’essai par émanométrie

ISO/CEI 17025, Exigences générales concernant la compétence des laboratoires d’étalonnages et d’essais

ISO 80000-10, Grandeurs et unités — Partie 10: Physique atomique et nucléaire
© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
3 Termes, définitions et symboles
3.1 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 80000-10 ainsi que les

suivants s’appliquent.
3.1.1
activité

nombre de désintégrations nucléaires spontanées qui se produisent dans une quantité donnée de

matière pendant un intervalle de temps convenablement petit, divisé par cet intervalle de temps

[SOURCE: ISO 921:1997, 23]
3.1.2
activité volumique dans l’eau
activité par volume d’eau

Note 1 à l’article: L’activité volumique dans l’eau est exprimée en becquerels par litre.

3.1.3
activité volumique dans l’air
activité par volume d’air suivant la phase de dégazage

Note 1 à l’article: L’activité volumique dans l’air est exprimée en becquerels par mètre cube.

3.1.4
prise d’essai
partie d’un échantillon total qui est soumise aux analyses
3.1.5
coefficient de Bunsen

volume d’un gaz dissous à la température normale (273,15 K) et à la pression partielle normale (0,1 MPa),

divisé par le volume du solvant à une température T et à la pression normale (0,1 MPa)

Note 1 à l’article: Adaptée de la Référence [10], p. 239.

Note 2 à l’article: La pratique actuelle recommande d’exprimer la solubilité d’un gaz en molalité, fraction molaire

ou rapport molaire (Voir Référence [10]). Toutefois, dans de nombreuses études traitant de l’analyse du radon

dans l’eau, le coefficient de Bunsen apparaît souvent.

Note 3 à l’article: La solubilité du radon dans l’eau augmente lorsque la température de l’eau diminue (voir Annexe A).

3.1.6
mesure en continu du radon dans l’eau

mesure de l’activité volumique du radon effectuée en continu en un point donné du milieu eau

Note 1 à l’article: Cette analyse permet de suivre les variations temporelles de l’activité volumique du radon dans

l’eau au point de prélèvement.
3.1.7
échantillonnage en continu

procédé selon lequel un échantillon est prélevé de façon continue dans une masse d’eau

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32; modifiée]
3.1.8
dégazage

transfert vers la phase air du radon dissous dans l’eau, généralement au moyen d’un procédé physique

2 © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
3.1.9
mesure directe in situ

système automatique d’analyse dont au moins la sonde de mesure est immergée dans la masse d’eau

3.1.10
échantillon ponctuel
échantillon localisé

échantillon discret prélevé dans une masse d’eau de façon aléatoire (en ce qui concerne le moment ou

l’emplacement)
3.1.11
dissolution
mélange de deux phases avec formation d’une nouvelle phase homogène
3.1.12
eau de boisson
eau potable
eau d’une qualité telle qu’elle peut être destinée à la boisson
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 30]
3.1.13
eau souterraine

eau qui est retenue, et qui peut généralement être récupérée, au sein d’une formation souterraine

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 41; modifiée]
3.1.14
échantillonnage intermittent
procédé selon lequel des échantillons d’eau sont prélevés dans une masse d’eau
3.1.15
eau de distribution

eau qui a généralement subi un traitement et qui passe dans le réseau de distribution ou dans un

réservoir de service
3.1.16
coefficient d’Ostwald

volume d’un gaz dissous à une température et une pression données divisé par le volume du solvant à la

même température et à la même pression
Note 1 à l’article: Adaptée de la Référence [10], p.1147.

Note 2 à l’article: La pratique actuelle recommande d’exprimer la solubilité d’un gaz en molalité, fraction molaire

ou rapport molaire (Voir Référence [10]). Toutefois, dans de nombreuses études traitant de l’analyse du radon

dans l’eau, le coefficient d’Ostwald apparaît souvent.

Note 3 à l’article: La solubilité du radon dans l’eau augmente lorsque la température de l’eau diminue (voir Annexe A).

3.1.17
transport du radon par perméation

transfert du radon d’un milieu vers un autre, au travers d’un milieu homogène (membrane)

3.1.18
eau brute

eau qui n’a subi aucun traitement de quelque sorte que ce soit, ou eau qui entre dans une station afin d’y

subir un traitement ou un traitement supplémentaire
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 59]
© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
3.1.19
réservoir

construction, de réalisation partiellement ou totalement humaine, destinée au stockage ou à la régulation

et au contrôle de l’eau
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 107; modifiée]
3.1.20
eau de surface
eau qui coule, ou qui stagne, à la surface du sol
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 74]
3.1.21
échantillon

partie, idéalement représentative, prélevée dans une masse d’eau définie, de façon intermittente ou

continue afin d’en examiner diverses caractéristiques définies
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 111]
3.1.22
échantillonnage

action qui consiste à prélever une partie, considérée comme représentative, d’une masse d’eau en vue de

l’examen de diverses caractéristiques définies
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 114]
3.1.23
point d’échantillonnage

position précise dans une zone d’échantillonnage où sont prélevés les échantillons

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.1.24
zone d’échantillonnage
étendue d’une masse d’eau où sont prélevés les échantillons
3.1.25
222
descendants à vie courte du Rn
222

radionucléides ayant une période inférieure à l’heure issus de la désintégration du radon 222 ( Rn), à

218 214 214 214

savoir: le polonium 218 ( Po), le plomb 214 ( Pb), le bismuth 214 ( Bi) et le polonium 214 ( Po)

Note 1 à l’article: Voir Figure 1.
3.1.26
mesure ponctuelle du radon dans l’eau

analyse de l’activité volumique du radon dans un échantillon discret d’eau, réalisée immédiatement ou

après un délai déterminé

Note 1 à l’article: Le résultat obtenu n’est représentatif que de l’instant du prélèvement.

3.1.27
transfert
déplacement ou transport du radon d’une phase à une autre
4 © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
3.2 Symboles

Pour les besoins du présent document, les symboles définis dans l’ISO 80000-10 ainsi que les suivants

s’appliquent.

c Activité volumique dans l’air suivant le dégazage, en becquerels par mètre cube

c Activité volumique dans l’eau, en becquerels par litre
Seuil de décision, en becquerels par litre
Limite de détection, en becquerels par litre

Limites inférieure et supérieure de l’intervalle de confiance, en becquerels par litre

cc,
c Activité volumique dans l’eau, en becquerels par litre
Coefficient d’Ostwald
T Température de l’échantillon d’eau, en degrés Celsius
Incertitude élargie calculée par U = k.u( ) avec k = 2
u(c ) Incertitude-type associée au résultat de mesure
V Volume de la prise d’essai, en litres
α Coefficient de Bunsen
4 Principe de la méthode de mesure
222

L’isotope 222 ( Ra) du radon, est un gaz radioactif produit par la désintégration de l’isotope 226

226 238

du radium ( Ra), qui est l’un des descendants de l’uranium 238 ( U), naturellement présent dans

la croûte terrestre (voir Annexe A). La désintégration du radon 222, par l’intermédiaire d’une série

d’éléments non volatils radioactifs, donne naissance à l’isotope 206 stable du plomb (voir Figure 1)

(Référence [9]).
© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
Figure 1 — L’uranium 238 et ses descendants

Il existe un grand nombre de méthodes différentes pour mesurer l’activité volumique du radon 222 dans

l’eau.

La mesure de l’activité volumique du radon 222 dans l’eau comprend les opérations suivantes:

— le prélèvement, dans un récipient adapté, d’un échantillon représentatif de l’eau, au temps t;

— la conservation et le transport de l’échantillon, lorsque la mesure est réalisée en laboratoire;

— la préparation de la prise d’essai par transfert du radon dissous dans l’eau vers une autre phase,

lorsqu’elle est exigée par les techniques de détection (méthode par émanométrie ou méthode par

comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide);

— la détermination de l’activité volumique du radon dans l’eau, à l’aide d’une grande variété de

techniques de détection ou à l’aide de ses descendants (voir Figure 2).
Le résultat de la mesure est exprimé en becquerels par litre.

Les méthodes spécifiées dans les différentes parties de la présente Norme internationale sont applicables

à tous les types d’eau (voir Tableau 2), et la méthode est choisie en fonction de l’objectif du mesurage

recherché (observation phénoménologique ou étude à caractère sanitaire), en tenant compte du niveau

attendu d’activité volumique du radon dans l’échantillon brut.
5 Échantillonnage

L’échantillonnage doit être effectué conformément à l’ISO 5667-1 et à l’ISO 5667-3.

Les conditions d’échantillonnage doivent être conformes à l’ISO 5667-1 et doivent également satisfaire

aux conditions spécifiées dans le Tableau 1 afin de limiter autant que possible les échanges avec

l’atmosphère et de maintenir le radon en solution dans l’échantillon d’eau.
Une étiquette doit être apposée sur le récipient pour échantillon.
6 © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
Le lieu, la date et l’heure du prélèvement doivent être consignés.

Lors de la mesure de très faibles niveaux d’activité volumique du radon (<10 Bq l ), éviter tout contact

de l’échantillon avec l’atmosphère lors du prélèvement.

Lorsque certaines méthodes de mesure nécessitent des précautions particulières, celles-ci sont

énumérées dans les parties correspondantes de l’ISO 13164 (par exemple lorsque des techniques par

dégazage sont utilisées, la température de l’eau doit être consignée).
6 Transport et conservation

Les conditions de transport et de conservation doivent être adaptées pour assurer l’intégrité de

l’échantillon.

La température de transport et de conservation de l’échantillon doit être inférieure à celle de l’eau au

remplissage (mais toutefois supérieure à 0 °C). Le récipient doit être protégé et bouché de sorte qu’il

ne puisse pas se rouvrir pendant le transport. Le récipient doit être emballé de manière appropriée,

notamment au voisinage de l’ouverture afin d’éviter toute fuite par le bouchage.

L’échantillon doit être analysé dès que possible après le prélèvement. Lorsqu’il est nécessaire de conserver

l’échantillon pendant une longue période avant les mesures, il doit être conservé à basse température

dans un réfrigérateur ou dans un dispositif conformément à l’ISO 5667-1 et à l’ISO 5667-3.

Compte tenu de la période radioactive du radon 222, de l’activité volumique présumée et de la sensibilité

de la méthode de mesure à utiliser, la durée du transport et de la conservation avant analyse doit être

aussi brève que possible.

L’expérience montre qu’il est essentiel que la durée entre la fin de l’échantillonnage et l’analyse ne

dépasse pas 48 h.
© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 7
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ISO 13164-1:2013(F)
Légende
DSTN détecteur solide de traces nucléaires
Figure 2 — Représentation schématique des techniques de mesure
...

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