This document specifies a test method for the determination of iron-55 (55Fe) activity concentration in samples of all types of water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, this test method can measure the 55Fe activity concentrations in the range from the limit of detection up to 120 mBq l-1. These values can be achieved with a counting time between 7 200 s and 10 800 s for a sample volume from 0,5 l to 1,5 l. Higher activ...view more

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This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an emergency situation, consideration should be given to: — taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of contamination; — using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations to obtain a result rapid...view more

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This document specifies the conditions for the determination of uranium isotope activity concentration in samples of environmental water (including sea waters) using alpha-spectrometry and 232U as a yield tracer. A chemical separation is required to separate and purify uranium from a test portion of the sample.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Po in all types of waters by alpha spectrometry. The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample may be required. The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the countin...view more

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This document specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) and radium-228 (228Ra) activity concentrations in drinking water samples by chemical separation of radium and its measurement using liquid scintillation counting. Massic activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available liquid scintillation counters go down to 0,01 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 0,06 Bq/kg for 228Ra for a 0,5 kg sample mass and a 1 h counting time in a low backgr...view more

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 99Tc in all types of water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling and test sample preparation. A filtration of the test sample is necessary. The detection limit depends on the sample volume and the instrume...view more

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 99Tc in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. A filtration of the test sample is necessary. The detection limit depends on the sample volume and the instrument used. The met...view more

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This document specifies a method by liquid scintillation counting for the determination of tritium activity concentration in samples of marine waters, surface waters, ground waters, rain waters, drinking waters or of tritiated water ([3H]H2O) in effluents. The method is not directly applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires additional chemical processing of the sample (such as chemical oxidation or combustion). With suitable technical conditions, the det...view more

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This document specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurement is not intended to give an absolute determination of the activity concentration of all alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in a test sample, but is a screening analysis to ensure particular reference levels of specific alpha and beta emitters have not been exceeded. This type of determination is a...view more

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This document specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The method is applicable to all types of waters with a dry residue of less than 5 g/l and when no correction for colour quenching is necessary. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurement is not intended to give an absolute determination of the activity concentration of all alpha- and beta-emitting ra...view more

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of gross beta activity concentration in non-saline waters. The method covers non-volatile radionuclides with maximum beta energies of approximately 0,3 MeV or higher. Measurement of low energy beta emitters (e.g. 3H, 228Ra, 210Pb, 14C, 35S and 241Pu) and some gaseous or volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) might not be included in the gross beta quantification using the test method described in this document. This test me...view more

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This document specifies methods used to determine the concentration of plutonium and neptunium isotopes in water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 237Np). The concentrations obtained can be converted into activity concentrations of the different isotopes[9]. Due to its relatively short half-life and 238U isobaric interference, 238Pu can hardly be measured by this method. To quantify this isotope, other techniques can be used (ICP-MS with collision-...view more

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This document specifies the measurement method for the determination of total activity concentration of uranium isotopes in non-saline waters by extraction and liquid scintillation counting. This method covers the measurement of soluble uranium isotopes in water in activity concentrations between approximately 2·10−3 Bq/kg and 10 Bq/kg when analysing a 1 l test sample volume with a 60 000 s counting time with a typical alpha LSC instrument. The ratio 234U/238U can also be determined. This method...view more

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ISO 9696:2017 specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile up to 350 °C. The method is applicable to raw and potable waters. The range of application depends on the amount of total soluble salts in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. It is the laboratory's responsibility to ensure the suitability of this method for the water...view more

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ISO 13165-3:2016 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in all types of water by coprecipitation followed by gamma-spectrometry (see ISO 18589‑3). The method described is suitable for determination of soluble 226Ra activity concentrations greater than 0,02 Bq l−1 using a sample volume of 1 l to 100 l of any water type. For water samples smaller than a volume of 1 l, direct gamma-spectrometry can be performed following ISO 10703 with a higher detection limit. NOT...view more

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ISO 13167:2015 specifies a test method for measuring actinides (238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, 243+244Cm and 237Np) in water samples by alpha spectrometry following a chemical separation. The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. The volume of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. The detection limit of the test method is 5 × 10−3 to 5 × 10−4 Bq/l for a volume of the test portion of 0,1 l to 5 l w...view more

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ISO 13168:2015 describes a test method for the simultaneous measurement of tritium and carbon-14 in water samples by liquid scintillation counting of a source obtained by mixing the water sample with a hydrophilic scintillation cocktail. This is considered a screening method because of the potential presence of interfering nuclides in the test sample. The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. ISO 13168:2015 is applicable to all types of waters having an activity c...view more

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ISO 13164-4:2015 describes a test method for the determination of radon-222 (222Rn) activity concentration in non-saline waters by extraction and liquid scintillation counting. The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, are at least above 0,5 Bq l−1 for a 10 ml test sample and a measuring time of 1 h. This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples and it is the responsibility of the laboratory...view more

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ISO 13165-2:2014 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in all types of water by emanometry. The method specified is suitable for the determination of the soluble, suspended, and total 226Ra activity concentration in all types of water with soluble 226Ra activity concentrations greater than 0,02 Bq l−1. In water containing high activity concentrations of 228Th, interference from 220Rn decay products can lead to overestimation of measured levels.

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ISO 13163 specifies the determination of lead-210 (210Pb) activity concentration in samples of all types of water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For raw and drinking water, the sample should be degassed in order to minimize the ingrowth of 210Pb from radon-222 (222Rn). Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, this test method can measure the 210Pb activity concentrations in the range of less than 20 mBq⋅l-1 to 50 mBq⋅l-1. These values can be achieved with a counting t...view more

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ISO 13164-2:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following the measurement of its short-lived decay products by direct gamma-spectrometry of the water sample. The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available gamma-ray instruments, range from a few becquerels per litre to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 1 l test sample. This test method can be us...view more

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ISO 13164-1:2013 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222. The test methods fall into two categories: a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164‑2); b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another phase (see ISO 13164‑3). The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on s...view more

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ISO 13164-3:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following its transfer from the aqueous phase to the air phase by degassing and its detection. It gives recommendations for rapid measurements performed within less than 1 h. The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, range from 0,1 Bq l−1 to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 100 ...view more

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ISO 13165-1:2013 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in non-saline water samples by extraction of its daughter radon-222 (222Rn) and its measurement using liquid scintillation counting. Radium-226 activity concentrations which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available liquid scintillation counters goes down to 50 mBq l−1. This method is not applicable to the measurement of other radium isotopes.

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ISO 13160:2012 specifies the test methods and their associated principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y, and 89Sr, pure beta-emitting radionuclides, in water samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using a proportional counter (PC) or liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The selection of the test method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteris...view more

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ISO 13162:2011 specifies the conditions for the determination of 14C activity concentration in samples of environmental water or of 14C-containing water using liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to the analysis of any organic molecule soluble in water that is well mixed with the scintillation cocktail. It does not apply to micelles or "large" particles (lipids, fulvic acid, humic acid, etc.) that are inadequately mixed with the scintillation cocktail and the water. Some beta ...view more

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ISO 10703:2007 specifies a method for the simultaneous determination of the activity concentration of various radionuclides emitting gamma rays with energies between 40 keV and 2 MeV in water samples, by gamma‑ray spectrometry using germanium detectors with high energy resolution in combination with a multichannel analyser.

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ISO 9697:2015 specifies a test method for the determination of gross beta activity concentration in non-saline waters. The method covers non-volatile radionuclides with maximum beta energies of approximately 0,3 MeV or higher. Measurement of low energy beta emitters (e.g. 3H, 228Ra, 210Pb, 14C, 35S, and 241Pu) and some gaseous or volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) might not be included in the gross beta quantification using the test method described in ISO 9697:2015. This test m...view more

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ISO 13166:2014 specifies the conditions for the determination of uranium isotope activity concentration in samples of environmental water (including sea waters) using alpha-spectrometry and 232U as a yield tracer. A chemical separation is required to separate and purify uranium from a test portion of the sample. Plutonium isotopes can interfere, if present, with detectable activities in the sample. The detection limit for measurement of a test portion of about 500 ml is approximately 5 mBq · l−1...view more

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ISO 13161:2011 specifies the measurement of 210Po activity concentration by alpha spectrometry in all kinds of natural waters. The detection limit of this method depends on the volume of the sample, the counting time, the background count rate and the detection efficiency. In the case of drinking water, the analysis is usually carried out on the raw sample, without filtration or other pretreatment. If suspended material has to be removed or analysed, filtration at 0,45 µm is recommended. The ana...view more

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ISO 9698:2010 specifies the conditions for the determination of tritium activity concentration in samples of environmental water or of tritiated water using liquid scintillation counting. The choice of the analytical procedure, either with or without distillation of the water sample prior to determination, depends on the aim of the measurement and the sample characteristics. Direct measurement of a raw water sample using liquid scintillation counting has to consider the potential presence of oth...view more

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ISO 11704:2010 specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity in waters for radionuclides which are not volatile at 80 °C. Radon isotopes and their decay products of short half life are not included in the determination. The method is applicable to raw and potable waters with a dry residue less than 5 g/l and when no correction for colour quenching is necessary.

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ISO 10704:2009 specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity in non‑saline waters for alpha- and beta‑emitting radionuclides. The method is applicable to raw and potable waters containing a small quantity of dissolved matter. It can, after adaptation, apply to other kind of waters. The range of application depends upon the amount of dissolved material in the water and on the performance characteristics of the measurement equipment (background count rate and coun...view more

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ISO 9697:2008 specifies a method for the determination of gross beta activity in non-saline waters. The method covers non-volatile radionuclides with maximum beta energies > 0,3 MeV. Measurement of very low energy beta emitters, such as 3H; 14C, 35S and 241Pu, is not included in ISO 9697:2008. The method is applicable to the analysis of raw and potable waters.

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ISO 9696:2007 specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha‑emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 °C. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters.

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