Smart community infrastructures — Common framework for development and operation

ISO/TR 37152:2016 outlines the basic concept of a common framework for the development and operation of smart community infrastructures. The framework describes the planning, development, operation and maintenance methodology to facilitate the harmonization of each infrastructure as a part of a smart community and ensures that the interactions between multiple infrastructures are well orchestrated. The framework is applicable to all processes of smart community infrastructures' life cycle (from conceptual design through planning, development, operation, maintenance, redevelopment and feedback). The infrastructures to be covered are energy, water, transportation, waste management, ICT and others. The framework can be adopted by all relevant stakeholders who are engaged in planning, development and operation of smart community infrastructures, including planners, developers, business operators and suppliers. The framework is intended to cover the processes in which these stakeholders are engaged, such as management, organizational structure, analyses and design methods, and documentations.

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Cadre commun pour le développement et les opérations

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Published
Publication Date
18-Jul-2016
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Jul-2016
Completion Date
19-Jul-2016
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 37152
First edition
2016-08-01
Smart community infrastructures —
Common framework for development
and operation
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Cadre commun pour le
développement et les opérations
Reference number
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Possible issues and solutions in developing and operating smart

community infrastructures ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Possible issues and solutions ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Case examples of issues ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2.1 Difficulties in ensuring consistency among subsystems, without which
functionality of the whole system of smart community infrastructures

cannot occur ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.2.2 Considerable influence by interference of external systems or interactions
among components onto the quality and performance of smart

community infrastructures ..................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2.3 Various interest and wide range of responsibilities dispersed

among stakeholders ...................................................................................................................................................11

2.3 Related topics to be clarified when developing and operating smart

community infrastructure ..........................................................................................................................................................12

3 Outline and benefits of the framework ......................................................................................................................................13

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

3.2 Elements of the framework .......................................................................................................................................................14

3.2.1 Element (A): Allocation of specifications to each component and

validation of the allocating procedures .....................................................................................................14

3.2.2 Element (B): Specifications associated with interaction including
investigation between outside/inside smart community infrastructures

and adopt countermeasures into planning and operation .......................................................15

3.2.3 Element (C): Process to facilitate the information sharing and

communication among stakeholders ..........................................................................................................16

3.3 Benefits of the framework..........................................................................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/

foreword.html

The committee responsible for this document is Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable

development in communities, Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Introduction

In the foreseeable future, urban density is likely to increase, resulting in further urbanization complexity.

From this perspective, a “smart community” approach is an important concept to address such urban

challenges by integrating different forms of infrastructures in a rational and efficient manner.

An important aspect of a smart community is integrating infrastructures as “a system of systems”. Until

now it has not been possible to ensure consistency across infrastructure types to meet the requirements

for smart community infrastructures as owners have focused on just assembling solutions to each

subsystem of infrastructures.

In order to ensure consistency of smart community infrastructures as a whole, first, functions of each

subsystem need to be clarified and arranged based on the needs for a smart community, and secondly,

the perspectives of various stakeholders and lifecycle of infrastructures need to be considered.

Thus, a new framework is needed to develop a procedure followed by all stakeholders in order to

establish an orchestration function of each smart community infrastructure component and to achieve

information sharing as well as consensus amongst the stakeholders.

For this purpose, ISO/TC 268/SC 1/AHG 1 “Common framework for development and operation of smart

community infrastructures” was established to conduct preliminary studies to develop international

standards to formulate a framework which realizes well-functioning smart community infrastructures

as a whole, considering their characteristics, i.e. “a system of systems”, having various stakeholders, and

long lifecycle. These standards will formulate technical procedures for stakeholders to achieve their

accountability in developing, operating and maintaining smart community infrastructures as a system

of systems. This document presents the results of the study conducted in the AHG. The framework aims

to ensure consistency between smart community infrastructures without overlapping with existing

work (see Figure 1). It incorporates the metrics as a KPI of the development, operation and maintenance

methodology.

This framework is concerned to ensure the consistency of different systems consisting smart

community infrastructures so that they function rationally as a whole.
Smart community infrastructures
Transport infrastructure
XX infrastructure
(Railway) infrastructure
䞉䞉䞉
Sub
Sub
Sub Sub Sub Interaction Sub
Interaction
system
system
system system system system
Figure 1 — Scope of the framework
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Common framework
for development and operation
1 Scope

This document outlines the basic concept of a common framework for the development and operation of

smart community infrastructures. The framework describes the planning, development, operation and

maintenance methodology to facilitate the harmonization of each infrastructure as a part of a smart

community and ensures that the interactions between multiple infrastructures are well orchestrated.

The framework is applicable to all processes of smart community infrastructures’ life cycle (from

conceptual design through planning, development, operation, maintenance, redevelopment and

feedback). The infrastructures to be covered are energy, water, transportation, waste management, ICT

and others.

The framework can be adopted by all relevant stakeholders who are engaged in planning, development

and operation of smart community infrastructures, including planners, developers, business operators

and suppliers. The framework is intended to cover the processes in which these stakeholders

are engaged, such as management, organizational structure, analyses and design methods, and

documentations.
2 Possible issues and solutions in developing and operating smart community
infrastructures
2.1 Possible issues and solutions
Features of smart community infrastructure can be described as below:

— Smart community infrastructure is infrastructure that has a high level of financial and resource

efficiency and convenience for people.
— To achieve the above state, smart community infrastructure

— has orchestration function to achieve synergy effect of multiple types of infrastructures to

improve financial and resource efficiency and convenience for people, and

— maintains its efficiency in adaptive manners against any changes of city’s circumstances

including disasters and demographic changes to improve financial and resource efficiency and

convenience for people (resiliency / dependability).
NOTE 1 Efficiency means output performance divided by resource input.

NOTE 2 The orchestration function can be implemented by either a centralized approach or a decentralized

autonomous approach.

Since smart community infrastructures have the features shown above, they may have three

characteristics different from those of conventional infrastructures (see Figure 2). Issues are identified

from the characteristics as below. In addition, solutions corresponding to these issues are extracted as

elements of the framework.
— Issues due to “a system of systems” and long life cycle:

— Difficulties in ensuring consistency among components, without which functionality of the

whole system of smart community infrastructures cannot occur.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)

— Considerable influence by interference of external systems or interactions among components

onto the quality and performance of smart community infrastructures as a whole.
— Issue due to the participation of many different stakeholders:

— Various interest and wide range of responsibilities dispersed among stakeholders.

In Table 1, specific issues, extracted from the main three issues described above, are summarized along

with solutions that will effectively accommodate these issues.
Users
User Data
"A system of
(including qualities that users receive)
systems,” including Reactions
Transportation
Energy (Solar panels)
interactions with
users (citizens)
Data/Control signals
Waste
ICT
Water
Various
stakeholders
Implementation
Governments
Operators Investors
Communications
Integrators Manufacturers
Extended scope to
entire lifecycle
End of
Implementation/
Plan/ Operation/
lives
Concept Testing/
Design Maintenance
Validation
Redevelopment and feedback
Figure 2 — Characteristics of smart community infrastructures
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
2.2 Case examples of issues

2.2.1 Difficulties in ensuring consistency among subsystems, without which functionality of

the whole system of smart community infrastructures cannot occur

2.2.1.1 Value added to smart community infrastructures as a whole cannot be shown simply

by verifying the performance of each subsystem resulting in undervaluation of the appeal

integrated infrastructure benefits (see Figure 3)
Figure 3 — Difficulty in showing added value to smart community
infrastructures as a whole

Case example (a): If the value added of the community brought by the smart community

infrastructures is not visible, it would not appeal to users sufficiently to get a return on the

investment.

City developers generate profit by increasing value of smart communities (including intangible elements

such as convenience, comfort, low costs and so on), by introducing smart community infrastructures.

To give an example, if heat supply system is introduced to a community, which can reuse exhaust heat

from sewage treatment facility, it will be an opportunity to appeal to the users who are willing to live

in a community where energy bill and carbon emission are reduced despite comparatively high rent or

water bill. However, in case the cooperation between sewage treatment facility and heat supply system

is not defined and the expected amount of heat reuse is not clear, it is hard to appreciate much the

reduction of energy bill and carbon emission would occur and thus would have limited appeal to end

users. As a result, developers will not be able to raise rent or water bill and eventually fail to yield a fair

return for additional investment in the heat reuse system.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)

2.2.1.2 Smart community infrastructures may not achieve their target value simply by

assembling high performance components unless the consistency among the subsystems is

ensured (see Figure 4)
Figure 4 — Difficulty in achieving their target value unless the consistency
among the subsystems is not ensured

Case example (b): Inconvenience on passengers due to unconnected and inconsistent services

among transportation infrastructures
In a large scale p
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 37152
First edition
Smart community infrastructures —
Common framework for development
and operation — Ad hoc group report
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Cadre commun pour le
développement et les opérations — Rapport du groupe Ad hoc
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Possible issues and solutions in developing and operating smart

community infrastructures ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Possible issues and solutions ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Case examples of issues ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2.2 Various interest and wide range of responsibilities dispersed

among stakeholders ...................................................................................................................................................11

2.3 Related topics to be clarified when developing and operating smart

community infrastructure ..........................................................................................................................................................12

3 Outline and benefits of the framework ......................................................................................................................................13

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

3.2 Elements of the framework .......................................................................................................................................................14

3.2.1 Element (A): Allocation of specifications to each component and

validation of the allocating procedures .....................................................................................................14

3.2.2 Element (B): Specifications associated with interaction including
investigation between outside/inside smart community infrastructures

and adopt countermeasures into planning and operation .......................................................15

3.2.3 Element (C): Process to facilitate the information sharing and

communication among stakeholders ..........................................................................................................16

3.3 Benefits of the framework..........................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/

foreword.html

The committee responsible for this document is Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable

development in communities, Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Introduction

In the foreseeable future, urban density is likely to increase, resulting in further urbanization complexity.

From this perspective, a “smart community” approach is an important concept to address such urban

challenges by integrating different forms of infrastructures in a rational and efficient manner.

An important aspect of a smart community is integrating infrastructures as “a system of systems”. Until

now it has not been possible to ensure consistency across infrastructure types to meet the requirements

for smart community infrastructures as owners have focused on just assembling solutions to each

subsystem of infrastructures.

In order to ensure consistency of smart community infrastructures as a whole, first, functions of each

subsystem need to be clarified and arranged based on the needs for a smart community, and secondly,

the perspectives of various stakeholders and lifecycle of infrastructures need to be considered.

Thus, a new framework is needed to develop a procedure followed by all stakeholders in order to

establish an orchestration function of each smart community infrastructure component and to achieve

information sharing as well as consensus amongst the stakeholders.

For this purpose, ISO/TC 268/SC 1/AHG 1 “Common framework for development and operation of smart

community infrastructures” was established to conduct preliminary studies to develop international

standards to formulate a framework which realizes well-functioning smart community infrastructures

as a whole, considering their characteristics, i.e. “a system of systems”, having various stakeholders, and

long lifecycle. These standards will formulate technical procedures for stakeholders to achieve their

accountability in developing, operating and maintaining smart community infrastructures as a system

of systems. This document presents the results of the study conducted in the AHG. The framework aims

to ensure consistency between smart community infrastructures without overlapping with existing

work (see Figure 1). It incorporates the metrics as a KPI of the development, operation and maintenance

methodology.
Figure 1 — Scope of the framework
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Common framework
for development and operation — Ad hoc group report
1 Scope

This document outlines the basic concept of a common framework for the development and operation of

smart community infrastructures. The framework describes the planning, development, operation and

maintenance methodology to facilitate the harmonization of each infrastructure as a part of a smart

community and ensures that the interactions between multiple infrastructures are well orchestrated.

The framework is applicable to all processes of smart community infrastructures’ life cycle (from

conceptual design through planning, development, operation, maintenance, redevelopment and

feedback). The infrastructures to be covered are energy, water, transportation, waste management, ICT

and others.

The framework can be adopted by all relevant stakeholders who are engaged in planning, development

and operation of smart community infrastructures, including planners, developers, business operators

and suppliers. The framework is intended to cover the processes in which these stakeholders

are engaged, such as management, organizational structure, analyses and design methods, and

documentations.
2 Possible issues and solutions in developing and operating smart community
infrastructures
2.1 Possible issues and solutions
Features of smart community infrastructure can be described as below:

— Smart community infrastructure is infrastructure that has a high level of financial and resource

efficiency and convenience for people.
— To achieve the above state, smart community infrastructure

— has orchestration function to achieve synergy effect of multiple types of infrastructures to

improve financial and resource efficiency and convenience for people, and

— maintains its efficiency in adaptive manners against any changes of city’s circumstances

including disasters and demographic changes to improve financial and resource efficiency and

convenience for people (resiliency / dependability).
NOTE 1 Efficiency means output performance divided by resource input.

NOTE 2 The orchestration function can be implemented by either a centralized approach or a decentralized

autonomous approach.

Since smart community infrastructures have the features shown above, they may have three

characteristics different from those of conventional infrastructures (see Figure 2). Issues are identified

from the characteristics as below. In addition, solutions corresponding to these issues are extracted as

elements of the framework.
— Issues due to “a system of systems” and long life cycle:

— Difficulties in ensuring consistency among components, without which functionality of the

whole system of smart community infrastructures cannot occur.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)

— Considerable influence by interference of external systems or interactions among components

onto the quality and performance of smart community infrastructures as a whole.
— Issue due to the participation of many different stakeholders:

— Various interest and wide range of responsibilities dispersed among stakeholders.

In Table 1, specific issues, extracted from the main three issues described above, are summarized along

with solutions that will effectively accommodate these issues.
Figure 2 — Characteristics of smart community infrastructures
2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)
2.2 Case examples of issues

2.2.1 Difficulties in ensuring consistency among subsystems, without which functionality of the whole

system of smart community infrastructures cannot occur

2.2.1.1 Value added to smart community infrastructures as a whole cannot be shown simply by

verifying the performance of each subsystem resulting in undervaluation of the appeal integrated

infrastructure benefits (see Figure 3)
Figure 3 — Difficulty in showing added value to smart community
infrastructures as a whole

Case example (a): If the value added of the community brought by the smart community

infrastructures is not visible, it would not appeal to users sufficiently to get a return on the

investment.

City developers generate profit by increasing value of smart communities (including intangible elements

such as convenience, comfort, low costs and so on), by introducing smart community infrastructures.

To give an example, if heat supply system is introduced to a community, which can reuse exhaust heat

from sewage treatment facility, it will be an opportunity to appeal to the users who are willing to live

in a community where energy bill and carbon emission are reduced despite comparatively high rent or

water bill. However, in case the cooperation between sewage treatment facility and heat supply system

is not defined and the expected amount of heat reuse is not clear, it is hard to appreciate much the

reduction of energy bill and carbon emission would occur and thus would have limited appeal to end

users. As a result, developers will not be able to raise rent or water bill and eventually fail to yield a fair

return for additional investment in the heat reuse system.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37152:2016(E)

2.2.1.2 Smart community infrastructures may not achieve their target value simply by assembling high

performance components unless the consistency among the subsystems is ensured (see Figure 4)

Figure 4 — Difficulty in achieving their target value unless the consistency
among the subsystems is not ensured

Case example (b): Inconvenience on passengers due to unconnected and inconsistent services

among transportation infrastructures

In a large scale project to integrate individual smart community infrastructures, business risks are

often high. In such a situation, projects are divided into small parts or functions to be managed by

a particular operator or supplier to make them develop their own infrastructures in their specific

technical field. Thus, operators and suppliers focus their arrangements only on the component that they

are directly responsible. Such a situation discourages communication on the consistency of broader

smart community infrastructures.

For example, Japan Railways have operated a large service network of surface transportation in

the country by operating ferries and buses besides railroads, which are of all different forms of

infrastructures. Thus, the
...

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