Content Delivery and Rights Management: Functional requirements for identifiers and descriptors for use in the music, film, video, sound recording and publishing industries

The business and information architectures outlined in ISO/TR 21449:2004 are designed specifically to assist organizations involved in the development and administration of identification and description schemas for intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships between their organizations and other content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights management. ISO/TR 21449:2004 does not preclude the possibility of other perspectives on the same environments or other business and information architectures designed to serve other purposes. The functional requirements for identifiers and descriptors set out in ISO/TR 21449:2004 are centred on intra- and inter-industry business transactions relating to production, distribution, and rights management in the content industries (i.e., the music, film, video, sound recording and publishing industries). The information model presented in ISO/TR 21449:2004 is focussed specifically on the requirements of the originators, producers, distributors, registration authorities, and rights administrators involved in the development and delivery of intellectual and artistic content. It does not reflect business functions such as marketing and archiving, nor does it directly reflect transactions between secondary service providers such as libraries, archives and museums.

Mise à disposition de contenus et gestion de droits — Spécifications fonctionnelles des identificateurs et descripteurs à l'usage des industries musicales, cinématographiques, vidéographiques, phonographiques et de l'édition

L'architecture conceptuelle du domaine d'activité et l'architecture de l'information exposées dans l'ISO/TR 21449:2004 sont destinées spécialement à aider les organismes responsables de l'élaboration et de l'administration des schémas d'identification et de description du contenu intellectuel et des produits à comprendre les relations entre leur organisme et les autres acteurs de l'industrie de contenu impliqués dans la production, la distribution et la gestion des droits. L'ISO/TR 21449:2004 n'exclut pas l'éventualité d'aperçus différents sur ces mêmes environnements ou d'autres architectures du secteur d'activité et de l'information établies pour répondre à d'autres objectifs. Les exigences fonctionnelles des identificateurs et descripteurs exposées dans l'ISO/TR 21449:2004 sont centrées sur les transactions d'activité des industries, en interne ou entre elles, relatives à la production, à la distribution et à la gestion des droits dans les industries de contenu (c'est-à-dire les industries musicales, cinématographiques, vidéographies, phonographiques et d'édition). Le modèle de l'information présenté dans l'ISO/TR 21449:2004 se concentre en particulier sur les spécifications des initiateurs, producteurs, diffuseurs/distributeurs, agences d'enregistrement et administrateurs de droits, impliqués dans l'élaboration et la communication de contenus intellectuels et artistiques. Il ne reflète pas des fonctions d'activités comme le commerce ou l'archivage; ils ne reflète pas non plus directement les transactions entre fournisseurs de services secondaires comme les bibliothèques, les archives et les musées.

Dostava vsebin in upravljanje pravic: Funkcionalne zahteve za identifikatorje in deskriptorje za uporabo v glasbeni, filmski in video dejavnosti ter pri zvočnem snemanju in v založništvu

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
30-Sep-2004
Withdrawal Date
30-Sep-2004
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
10-Jun-2013
Completion Date
10-Jun-2013

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 21449
First edition
2004-10-01
Content Delivery and Rights
Management — Functional requirements
for identifiers and descriptors for use in
the music, film, video, sound recording
and publishing industries
Mise à disposition de contenus et gestion de droits — Spécifications
fonctionnelles des identificateurs et descripteurs à l'usage des
industries musicales, cinématographiques, vidéographiques,
phonographiques et de l'édition
Reference number
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Approach................................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Diagramming Conventions .................................................................................................................. 2

4 Conceptual Business Architecture ..................................................................................................... 2

5 Information Architecture ...................................................................................................................... 4

6 Attributes and Relationships ............................................................................................................. 11

7 User Transactions............................................................................................................................... 12

Annex A Tables of entity attributes and relationships................................................................................. 27

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 47

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 21449 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 9, Identification and description.
iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Introduction

This Technical Report was prepared by Tom Delsey for organizations involved in the administration of

identifier systems and projects within ISO/TC 46, SC 9.

Recent advances in digital technology have prompted significant change within the music, film, video, sound

recording and publishing industries. These so-called “content” industries are all actively engaged in adapting

conventional modes of production and distribution to exploit new technologies for the creation, storage and

communication of information. Major industry players are repositioning themselves in relation not only to their

traditional competitors but to new entrants in the field as well, many of which have emerged from other

industries within the broader information/communications sector. The new technologies and a new competitive

environment together are driving industries right across that broader sector to develop new business models

in order to maintain and strengthen their respective positions in the marketplace.

Within this new technological and economic environment, infrastructure has become a key factor for strategic

positioning. It is no longer sufficient to have in place an infrastructure designed to support a specific industry;

increasingly all industries within the information/communications sector rely on a technological infrastructure

that is cross-sectoral and, in effect, global in design and scope. In that context, standardization becomes an

issue of much greater significance. Within the content industries, increased recognition of the strategic

importance of standardization is evidenced by a growing number of industry-wide and cross-sectoral initiatives

aimed at developing the models, standards and protocols that are needed to support electronic commerce

more efficiently and effectively. The development of a Multimedia Framework (MPEG-21) by the joint ISO/IEC

Moving Picture Expert Group is the most recent, and perhaps the most far-reaching of such initiatives.

As one element of the new multimedia infrastructure, standardized mechanisms for the identification and

description of digital items are becoming increasingly important as a means of supporting content-related

business transactions on a cross-sectoral and global basis. Within the publishing and sound recording

industries, standard identifiers have been used for decades as a means of facilitating product distribution and

remuneration. With the transition to networked delivery of digital content, there is a growing need for efficient

and reliable mechanisms for identifying not only the product as such, but the intellectual property embodied in

the product as well. Standard identifiers play an increasingly important role in facilitating and tracking a

multitude of transactions conducted throughout the lifecycle of a digital item and across the spectrum of the

supply chain. As a result, issues relating to integrity, scalability and flexibility in the design of standard

identifiers take on new importance, and “interoperability” becomes a key consideration.

From a business perspective, the interest of the content industries in networking infrastructure stems primarily

from a recognition of the essential role that infrastructure will play in future exploitation of market potential.

Digital item identification and description will serve as key elements of that infrastructure, and will form an

integral part of the technology that will support efficient business transactions and protect commercial rights

and interests in a networked environment.

From an operational perspective, the effective design and application of standards for digital item identification

and description will be critical for the support of activities throughout the supply chain, from content creation

and production through to distribution and the tracking of usage. To be fully effective in a multimedia

environment, digital item identifiers and descriptions will have to function on an all-inclusive scale. They will

have to encompass a broader range of content than they do currently; they will have to differentiate between

product and property; and they will have to be applied at multiple levels of aggregation and decomposition.

Scalability and flexibility will be essential. Above all, digital item identifiers and descriptions will have to

function in a multifaceted, cross-sectoral environment where interoperability is critical.

This Technical Report was developed to provide the content industries with a shared frame of reference for

describing the nature of the business and information transactions that take place between and among them

in the course of production, distribution, and rights management, and a structured statement of requirements

to guide the further development of identification and description schema in support of those functions.

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Content Delivery and Rights Management — Functional
requirements for identifiers and descriptors for use in the
music, film, video, sound recording and publishing industries
1 Scope

The business and information architectures outlined in this Technical Report are designed specifically to assist

organizations involved in the development and administration of identification and description schemas for

intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships between their organizations and other

content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights management. This Technical Report

does not preclude the possibility of other perspectives on the same environments or other business and

information architectures designed to serve other purposes.

The functional requirements for identifiers and descriptors set out in this Technical Report are centred on

intra- and inter-industry business transactions relating to production, distribution, and rights management in

the content industries (i.e., the music, film, video, sound recording and publishing industries).

The information model presented in this Technical Report is focussed specifically on the requirements of the

originators, producers, distributors, registration authorities, and rights administrators involved in the

development and delivery of intellectual and artistic content. It does not reflect business functions such as

marketing and archiving, nor does it directly reflect transactions between secondary service providers such as

libraries, archives and museums.
2 Approach

This analysis of functional requirements for identifiers and descriptors, for use in the content industries, is set

out in four segments.

The first segment defines a conceptual business architecture that identifies the functions performed by

individuals and organizations involved in the production and distribution of intellectual or artistic content and

the management of rights associated with that content, and highlights the key business relationships between

those functions. The conceptual business architecture provides a perspective on the business environment

designed specifically to assist the organizations responsible for the development and administration of

identification and description schemas for intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships

between their organizations and other content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights

management. Details of the conceptual business architecture are documented in Clause 4.

The second segment defines an information architecture that provides a structured representation of, and

definitions for, the key entities (i.e., the objects, agents, activities, events, etc.) involved in each of the

business functions and the primary relationships between those entities. Details of the information architecture

are documented in Clause 5.

The third segment identifies and defines the attributes and relationships associated with each of the entities

identified in the information architecture. Details of the attribute and relationship definitions are documented in

Annex A.

The fourth segment defines a generic set of user transactions and maps the attributes and relationships

associated with the three entities of primary focus in the information architecture (content, product and

property) to those transactions. The mapping of attributes and relationships to transactions is intended to

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)

serve as the basis for defining a common set of descriptors required for the registration of content, products

and property. Details of the user transaction definitions and mapping are documented in Clause 7.

3 Diagramming Conventions
Conceptual Business Architecture (Figure 1)
A circle represents a function performed by an individual or organization
operating within the overall context of production, distribution, and rights
management.
The lines and arrows between the circles represent transactions between
individuals and organizations performing the designated functions. Transactions
of secondary relevance are represented by dashed arrows.
Information Model (Figures 2, 3 and 4)
A rectangle represents an entity (i.e., an object, agent, activity, event, etc.)

about which information is needed in order to support an intra- or inter-industry

business function.
The lines and arrows connecting the rectangles represent relationships between
the designated entities.
A dashed-line rectangle surrounding a group of two or more entities indicates
that a relationship represented by an arrow contiguous with the dotted line may
apply to any and/or all of the entities represented within the rectangle.
A block arrow functions as a page connector. The connector serves as a
shorthand method of linking an entity to all related entities represented in the
diagram referenced by the block arrow.
4 Conceptual Business Architecture

The purpose of the conceptual business architecture depicted in Figure 1 is to identify the functions performed

by individuals and organizations involved in the production and distribution of intellectual or artistic content

and the management of rights associated with that content, and to highlight the key business relationships

between those functions. The architecture outlined here provides a perspective on the business environment

designed specifically to assist the organizations responsible for the development and administration of

identification and description schemas for intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships

between their organizations and other content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights

management. It does not preclude the possibility of other perspectives on the same business environment or

other conceptual business architectures designed to serve other purposes.

The diagram depicts nine distinct business functions (each of which is defined in Table 1). The business

functions represent roles performed by individuals and organizations within the business environment. Any

individual or organization may perform more than one designated function or role. Any function may be

performed by a number of individuals and/or organizations. Functions may be performed simultaneously, in

parallel or sequentially.

The transactions depicted in the diagram reflect business dealings that take place between individuals and

organizations in the course of performing the designated functions. The diagram reflects all intra- and inter-

industry transactions of relevance within the context of content production, distribution, and rights

2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)

management. However, for the purposes of focusing further analysis of functional requirements, a distinction

has been made between transactions of primary relevance from the perspective of organizations providing

registration services for content and products and those that are of secondary relevance from that perspective.

Transactions considered to be of secondary relevance include those that currently fall outside the normal

pattern of business associated with content production, distribution, and rights management, and those that

involve no direct dependency on the services or information provided by the registration authorities.

Figure 1 — Conceptual Business Architecture for Content Delivery and Rights Management

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Table 1 — Conceptual Business Architecture – Role Definitions
Function Scope

Originate Content The creation, expression, or production of intellectual or artistic content.

Includes the creation of content by writers, composers, artists, etc. (as authors

of literary, musical and artistic works) and by film and video producers (as
authors of audiovisual works), the expression of content by performers, and the
production of content by recording companies (as producers of phonograms)
and broadcasters (as producers of broadcast signals), etc.
Own Rights

The ownership of legal title to a right or rights in a property. Includes ownership

by first owners (authors, producers, performers, etc.), ownership by assignees,
transferees, successors in title, etc.

Register Content/ The registration of content, products or property. Includes registration by

Product authorities and agencies responsible for the registration of monographic and

serial publications, literary, musical, artistic and audiovisual works, sound
recordings, broadcast signals, etc.
Provide Content
The production and release of a product. Includes production and release of
products by publishers, record producers, film and video producers, multimedia
producers, etc.

Monitor Usage The monitoring of distribution and usage of products. Includes monitoring the

distribution of monographic and serial publications, sound recordings, films,
video recordings, multimedia products, etc.

Administer Rights The administration of intellectual property rights by, or on behalf of, an owner.

Includes the direct administration of rights by the owner, the authorized

administration of rights on behalf of the owner by agents, executors, publishers,

film producers, collecting societies, etc., and the administration of rights by
boards, trustees, etc. established by law to act on behalf of rights owners.

Certify Consumer/ The certification or authentication of consumers or distributors of products.

Distributor Includes certification or authentication of consumers or distributors of

monographic and serial publications, sound recordings, films, video recordings,
multimedia products, etc.

Distribute Content The distribution of a product. Includes distribution of publications, sound

recordings, films, video recordings, multimedia products, etc.

Consume Content The consumption of intellectual or artistic content. Includes purchase, licensing,

use, etc. by consumers of monographic and serial publications, sound
recordings, films, video recordings, multimedia products, etc.
5 Information Architecture

The information architecture for content delivery and rights management is depicted in a set of three

interconnected entity-relationship diagrams (Figures 2, 3 and 4). Each of the diagrams focuses on a major

business function: rights management (Figure 2); content production (Figure 3), and content distribution

(Figure 4).

The entity-relationship diagrams provide a structured representation of the key entities (i.e., the objects,

agents, activities, events, etc.) involved in each of the business functions and the primary relationships

between those entities. Each diagram is accompanied by a table containing definitions for the entities depicted

in the diagram.
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)

The legal framework for the management of intellectual property rights depicted in Figure 2 is based on an

analysis of four key documents: the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention, the WIPO Copyright Treaty,

and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty. Those documents reflect international agreements on

intellectual property rights and serve as the basis for copyright and neighbouring rights legislation in more than

140 countries throughout the world.

Figure 2 is centred on the property (i.e., the work, performance, phonogram, broadcast signal, etc.) and its

relationships (both direct and indirect) with the various objects, agents, activities, events, et cetera that form

the legal framework for the management of intellectual property rights. Table 2 defines the entities shown in

Figure 2.

Figure 3 is centred on the product (i.e., the publication, sound recording, film, video recording, etc.) and its

relationships (both direct and indirect) with the various objects, agents, activities, events, et cetera that come

into play in the production cycle of content delivery. Table 3 defines the entities shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4 is centred on the product as well, and highlights the relationships (both direct and indirect) of the

product with the various objects, agents, activities, events, et cetera that come into play in the distribution

cycle of content delivery. Table 4 defines the entities shown in Figure 4.

Although each business function (rights management, production and distribution) has been represented in a

separate entity-relationship diagram, all three diagrams are linked through the property, product, authorization

and use entities. Each diagram can therefore be viewed as a segment of a larger diagram representing the

information architecture for content delivery and rights management as a whole.

The diagrams depicting the information architecture also have a direct relationship with the conceptual

business architecture (Figure 1). The entities representing agents in Figures 2, 3 and 4 (originator, owner,

agent, competent authority, user, producer, creator, registration authority, distributor, monitoring service,

certification authority, and consumer) parallel the business functions depicted in Figure 1.

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Figure 2 — Legal Framework for Intellectual Property Management and Protection
6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Table 2 — Entity Definitions
Entity Definition

Legislation An enactment of a legislative body. Includes laws, statutes, orders, directives,

regulations, etc. established pursuant to a law relating to intellectual property.

Right
An entitlement established by legislation. Includes both economic and moral

rights pertaining to all forms of intellectual property (literary, musical, artistic

and audiovisual works, performances, phonograms, broadcast signals, etc.).

Authorization Permission granted by a rights owner, the owner’s agent, or a competent

authority. Includes written permissions, licences, contractual agreements,
compulsory licences, etc.

Exception An exclusion or limitation established by legislation. Includes exclusions of

designated classes of intellectual property, limitations of designated rights,
exceptions for designated non-infringing uses, etc.

Owner An individual or organization holding legal title to a right or rights in a property.

Includes first owners (authors, producers, performers, etc.), assignees,
transferees, successors in title, etc.
Agent
An individual or organization authorized by an owner to act on his/her behalf.
Includes literary agents, publishers representing anonymous authors,
executors, collective societies, etc.

Competent Authority A body authorized by legislation to act on behalf of an owner. Includes boards,

trustees, etc. established by law, order, regulation, etc.
User
An individual or organization utilizing a property. Includes users authorized by
licence, contract, permission, etc., users operating within the parameters of an
exception, users engaged in infringing use.

Property An entity to which property rights apply. Includes literary, musical, artistic and

audiovisual works, performances, phonograms, broadcast signals, etc.
Originator
An individual or organization responsible for the creation or production of a

property. Includes authors (as creators of literary, musical and artistic works),

performers (as creators of performances), film and video producers (as
authors of audiovisual works), recording companies (as producers of
phonograms), broadcasters (as producers of broadcast signals), etc.

Territory A geographical area belonging to, or under the jurisdiction of, a governmental

authority.
Term
A period of time during which a right is enforceable. Includes fixed periods
linked to a designated event (e.g., the production, first publication, first
broadcast, etc. of a property), periods extending from a designated event (e.g.,
the creation of a property) through a fixed length of time following a
subsequent event (e.g., the death of an author), etc.

Condition A stipulation, proviso, or limitation. Includes conditions attached to the

enjoyment of a right or the exercise of an authorization or exception, payment
of a royalty or tariff, etc.

Use An act entailing utilization of a property. Includes reproduction, adaptation,

translation, public performance, communication to the public, broadcasting,
distribution, rental, etc.

Infringement An encroachment or trespass on a right. Includes unauthorized use, use that

exceeds the limitations stipulated in a licence, use that exceeds the
parameters established for an exception, etc.
Remedy
A legal means to recover a right or to prevent or obtain redress for an
infringement. Includes penalties established in law, judgments issued by the
courts, settlements agreed to by the contestants in a dispute, etc.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Figure 3 — Production Cycle for Content Delivery
8 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Table 3 — Content Production — Entity Definitions
Entity Definition
Producer An individual or organization responsible for the making of a product.
Includes publishers, record producers, film and video producers, etc.

Production The act of making a product. Includes production of monographic and serial

publications, sound recordings, films, video recordings, multimedia products,
etc.

Release The act of making a product available to the public. Includes publication,

release of a sound recording, film, or video, broadcasting, communication to
the public via electronic networks, etc.

Authorization Permission granted by a rights owner, the owner’s agent, or a competent

authority. Includes written permissions, licences, contractual agreements,
compulsory licences, etc.
Product An object resulting from an act of production. Includes monographic and
serial publications, sound recordings, film, video recordings, multimedia
products, etc. Includes intermediate as well as final products. Includes
product components and aggregate products as well as single-entity
products.
Creator
An individual or organization responsible for the intellectual or artistic
creation of content. Includes writers, composers, artists, performers,
producers of sound recordings and films, etc.

Creation The act of originating intellectual or artistic content. Includes the creation of

literary, musical, artistic
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP ISO/TR 21449:2005
01-november-2005
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Content Delivery and Rights Management: Functional requirements for identifiers and

descriptors for use in the music, film, video,sound recording and publishing industries

Mise à disposition de contenus et gestion de droits -- Spécifications fonctionnelles des

identificateurs et descripteurs à l'usage des industries musicales, cinématographiques,

vidéographiques, phonographiques et de l'édition
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TR 21449:2004
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
SIST-TP ISO/TR 21449:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 21449:2005
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 21449:2005
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 21449
First edition
2004-10-01
Content Delivery and Rights
Management — Functional requirements
for identifiers and descriptors for use in
the music, film, video, sound recording
and publishing industries
Mise à disposition de contenus et gestion de droits — Spécifications
fonctionnelles des identificateurs et descripteurs à l'usage des
industries musicales, cinématographiques, vidéographiques,
phonographiques et de l'édition
Reference number
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 21449:2005
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 21449:2005
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Approach................................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Diagramming Conventions .................................................................................................................. 2

4 Conceptual Business Architecture ..................................................................................................... 2

5 Information Architecture ...................................................................................................................... 4

6 Attributes and Relationships ............................................................................................................. 11

7 User Transactions............................................................................................................................... 12

Annex A Tables of entity attributes and relationships................................................................................. 27

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 47

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 21449:2005
ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 21449 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 9, Identification and description.
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ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Introduction

This Technical Report was prepared by Tom Delsey for organizations involved in the administration of

identifier systems and projects within ISO/TC 46, SC 9.

Recent advances in digital technology have prompted significant change within the music, film, video, sound

recording and publishing industries. These so-called “content” industries are all actively engaged in adapting

conventional modes of production and distribution to exploit new technologies for the creation, storage and

communication of information. Major industry players are repositioning themselves in relation not only to their

traditional competitors but to new entrants in the field as well, many of which have emerged from other

industries within the broader information/communications sector. The new technologies and a new competitive

environment together are driving industries right across that broader sector to develop new business models

in order to maintain and strengthen their respective positions in the marketplace.

Within this new technological and economic environment, infrastructure has become a key factor for strategic

positioning. It is no longer sufficient to have in place an infrastructure designed to support a specific industry;

increasingly all industries within the information/communications sector rely on a technological infrastructure

that is cross-sectoral and, in effect, global in design and scope. In that context, standardization becomes an

issue of much greater significance. Within the content industries, increased recognition of the strategic

importance of standardization is evidenced by a growing number of industry-wide and cross-sectoral initiatives

aimed at developing the models, standards and protocols that are needed to support electronic commerce

more efficiently and effectively. The development of a Multimedia Framework (MPEG-21) by the joint ISO/IEC

Moving Picture Expert Group is the most recent, and perhaps the most far-reaching of such initiatives.

As one element of the new multimedia infrastructure, standardized mechanisms for the identification and

description of digital items are becoming increasingly important as a means of supporting content-related

business transactions on a cross-sectoral and global basis. Within the publishing and sound recording

industries, standard identifiers have been used for decades as a means of facilitating product distribution and

remuneration. With the transition to networked delivery of digital content, there is a growing need for efficient

and reliable mechanisms for identifying not only the product as such, but the intellectual property embodied in

the product as well. Standard identifiers play an increasingly important role in facilitating and tracking a

multitude of transactions conducted throughout the lifecycle of a digital item and across the spectrum of the

supply chain. As a result, issues relating to integrity, scalability and flexibility in the design of standard

identifiers take on new importance, and “interoperability” becomes a key consideration.

From a business perspective, the interest of the content industries in networking infrastructure stems primarily

from a recognition of the essential role that infrastructure will play in future exploitation of market potential.

Digital item identification and description will serve as key elements of that infrastructure, and will form an

integral part of the technology that will support efficient business transactions and protect commercial rights

and interests in a networked environment.

From an operational perspective, the effective design and application of standards for digital item identification

and description will be critical for the support of activities throughout the supply chain, from content creation

and production through to distribution and the tracking of usage. To be fully effective in a multimedia

environment, digital item identifiers and descriptions will have to function on an all-inclusive scale. They will

have to encompass a broader range of content than they do currently; they will have to differentiate between

product and property; and they will have to be applied at multiple levels of aggregation and decomposition.

Scalability and flexibility will be essential. Above all, digital item identifiers and descriptions will have to

function in a multifaceted, cross-sectoral environment where interoperability is critical.

This Technical Report was developed to provide the content industries with a shared frame of reference for

describing the nature of the business and information transactions that take place between and among them

in the course of production, distribution, and rights management, and a structured statement of requirements

to guide the further development of identification and description schema in support of those functions.

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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 21449:2004(E)
Content Delivery and Rights Management — Functional
requirements for identifiers and descriptors for use in the
music, film, video, sound recording and publishing industries
1 Scope

The business and information architectures outlined in this Technical Report are designed specifically to assist

organizations involved in the development and administration of identification and description schemas for

intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships between their organizations and other

content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights management. This Technical Report

does not preclude the possibility of other perspectives on the same environments or other business and

information architectures designed to serve other purposes.

The functional requirements for identifiers and descriptors set out in this Technical Report are centred on

intra- and inter-industry business transactions relating to production, distribution, and rights management in

the content industries (i.e., the music, film, video, sound recording and publishing industries).

The information model presented in this Technical Report is focussed specifically on the requirements of the

originators, producers, distributors, registration authorities, and rights administrators involved in the

development and delivery of intellectual and artistic content. It does not reflect business functions such as

marketing and archiving, nor does it directly reflect transactions between secondary service providers such as

libraries, archives and museums.
2 Approach

This analysis of functional requirements for identifiers and descriptors, for use in the content industries, is set

out in four segments.

The first segment defines a conceptual business architecture that identifies the functions performed by

individuals and organizations involved in the production and distribution of intellectual or artistic content and

the management of rights associated with that content, and highlights the key business relationships between

those functions. The conceptual business architecture provides a perspective on the business environment

designed specifically to assist the organizations responsible for the development and administration of

identification and description schemas for intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships

between their organizations and other content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights

management. Details of the conceptual business architecture are documented in Clause 4.

The second segment defines an information architecture that provides a structured representation of, and

definitions for, the key entities (i.e., the objects, agents, activities, events, etc.) involved in each of the

business functions and the primary relationships between those entities. Details of the information architecture

are documented in Clause 5.

The third segment identifies and defines the attributes and relationships associated with each of the entities

identified in the information architecture. Details of the attribute and relationship definitions are documented in

Annex A.

The fourth segment defines a generic set of user transactions and maps the attributes and relationships

associated with the three entities of primary focus in the information architecture (content, product and

property) to those transactions. The mapping of attributes and relationships to transactions is intended to

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serve as the basis for defining a common set of descriptors required for the registration of content, products

and property. Details of the user transaction definitions and mapping are documented in Clause 7.

3 Diagramming Conventions
Conceptual Business Architecture (Figure 1)
A circle represents a function performed by an individual or organization
operating within the overall context of production, distribution, and rights
management.
The lines and arrows between the circles represent transactions between
individuals and organizations performing the designated functions. Transactions
of secondary relevance are represented by dashed arrows.
Information Model (Figures 2, 3 and 4)
A rectangle represents an entity (i.e., an object, agent, activity, event, etc.)

about which information is needed in order to support an intra- or inter-industry

business function.
The lines and arrows connecting the rectangles represent relationships between
the designated entities.
A dashed-line rectangle surrounding a group of two or more entities indicates
that a relationship represented by an arrow contiguous with the dotted line may
apply to any and/or all of the entities represented within the rectangle.
A block arrow functions as a page connector. The connector serves as a
shorthand method of linking an entity to all related entities represented in the
diagram referenced by the block arrow.
4 Conceptual Business Architecture

The purpose of the conceptual business architecture depicted in Figure 1 is to identify the functions performed

by individuals and organizations involved in the production and distribution of intellectual or artistic content

and the management of rights associated with that content, and to highlight the key business relationships

between those functions. The architecture outlined here provides a perspective on the business environment

designed specifically to assist the organizations responsible for the development and administration of

identification and description schemas for intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships

between their organizations and other content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights

management. It does not preclude the possibility of other perspectives on the same business environment or

other conceptual business architectures designed to serve other purposes.

The diagram depicts nine distinct business functions (each of which is defined in Table 1). The business

functions represent roles performed by individuals and organizations within the business environment. Any

individual or organization may perform more than one designated function or role. Any function may be

performed by a number of individuals and/or organizations. Functions may be performed simultaneously, in

parallel or sequentially.

The transactions depicted in the diagram reflect business dealings that take place between individuals and

organizations in the course of performing the designated functions. The diagram reflects all intra- and inter-

industry transactions of relevance within the context of content production, distribution, and rights

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management. However, for the purposes of focusing further analysis of functional requirements, a distinction

has been made between transactions of primary relevance from the perspective of organizations providing

registration services for content and products and those that are of secondary relevance from that perspective.

Transactions considered to be of secondary relevance include those that currently fall outside the normal

pattern of business associated with content production, distribution, and rights management, and those that

involve no direct dependency on the services or information provided by the registration authorities.

Figure 1 — Conceptual Business Architecture for Content Delivery and Rights Management

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Table 1 — Conceptual Business Architecture – Role Definitions
Function Scope

Originate Content The creation, expression, or production of intellectual or artistic content.

Includes the creation of content by writers, composers, artists, etc. (as authors

of literary, musical and artistic works) and by film and video producers (as
authors of audiovisual works), the expression of content by performers, and the
production of content by recording companies (as producers of phonograms)
and broadcasters (as producers of broadcast signals), etc.
Own Rights

The ownership of legal title to a right or rights in a property. Includes ownership

by first owners (authors, producers, performers, etc.), ownership by assignees,
transferees, successors in title, etc.

Register Content/ The registration of content, products or property. Includes registration by

Product authorities and agencies responsible for the registration of monographic and

serial publications, literary, musical, artistic and audiovisual works, sound
recordings, broadcast signals, etc.
Provide Content
The production and release of a product. Includes production and release of
products by publishers, record producers, film and video producers, multimedia
producers, etc.

Monitor Usage The monitoring of distribution and usage of products. Includes monitoring the

distribution of monographic and serial publications, sound recordings, films,
video recordings, multimedia products, etc.

Administer Rights The administration of intellectual property rights by, or on behalf of, an owner.

Includes the direct administration of rights by the owner, the authorized

administration of rights on behalf of the owner by agents, executors, publishers,

film producers, collecting societies, etc., and the administration of rights by
boards, trustees, etc. established by law to act on behalf of rights owners.

Certify Consumer/ The certification or authentication of consumers or distributors of products.

Distributor Includes certification or authentication of consumers or distributors of

monographic and serial publications, sound recordings, films, video recordings,
multimedia products, etc.

Distribute Content The distribution of a product. Includes distribution of publications, sound

recordings, films, video recordings, multimedia products, etc.

Consume Content The consumption of intellectual or artistic content. Includes purchase, licensing,

use, etc. by consumers of monographic and serial publications, sound
recordings, films, video recordings, multimedia products, etc.
5 Information Architecture

The information architecture for content delivery and rights management is depicted in a set of three

interconnected entity-relationship diagrams (Figures 2, 3 and 4). Each of the diagrams focuses on a major

business function: rights management (Figure 2); content production (Figure 3), and content distribution

(Figure 4).

The entity-relationship diagrams provide a structured representation of the key entities (i.e., the objects,

agents, activities, events, etc.) involved in each of the business functions and the primary relationships

between those entities. Each diagram is accompanied by a table containing definitions for the entities depicted

in the diagram.
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The legal framework for the management of intellectual property rights depicted in Figure 2 is based on an

analysis of four key documents: the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention, the WIPO Copyright Treaty,

and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty. Those documents reflect international agreements on

intellectual property rights and serve as the basis for copyright and neighbouring rights legislation in more than

140 countries throughout the world.

Figure 2 is centred on the property (i.e., the work, performance, phonogram, broadcast signal, etc.) and its

relationships (both direct and indirect) with the various objects, agents, activities, events, et cetera that form

the legal framework for the management of intellectual property rights. Table 2 defines the entities shown in

Figure 2.

Figure 3 is centred on the product (i.e., the publication, sound recording, film, video recording, etc.) and its

relationships (both direct and indirect) with the various objects, agents, activities, events, et cetera that come

into play in the production cycle of content delivery. Table 3 defines the entities shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4 is centred on the product as well, and highlights the relationships (both direct and indirect) of the

product with the various objects, agents, activities, events, et cetera that come into play in the distribution

cycle of content delivery. Table 4 defines the entities shown in Figure 4.

Although each business function (rights management, production and distribution) has been represented in a

separate entity-relationship diagram, all three diagrams are linked through the property, product, authorization

and use entities. Each diagram can therefore be viewed as a segment of a larger diagram representing the

information architecture for content delivery and rights management as a whole.

The diagrams depicting the information architecture also have a direct relationship with the conceptual

business architecture (Figure 1). The entities representing agents in Figures 2, 3 and 4 (originator, owner,

agent, competent authority, user, producer, creator, registration authority, distributor, monitoring service,

certification authority, and consumer) parallel the business functions depicted in Figure 1.

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Figure 2 — Legal Framework for Intellectual Property Management and Protection
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Table 2 — Entity Definitions
Entity Definition

Legislation An enactment of a legislative body. Includes laws, statutes, orders, directives,

regulations, etc. established pursuant to a law relating to intellectual property.

Right
An entitlement established by legislation. Includes both economic and moral

rights pertaining to all forms of intellectual property (literary, musical, artistic

and audiovisual works, performances, phonograms, broadcast signals, etc.).

Authorization Permission granted by a rights owner, the owner’s agent, or a competent

authority. Includes written permissions, licences, contractual agreements,
compulsory licences, etc.

Exception An exclusion or limitation established by legislation. Includes exclusions of

designated classes of intellectual property, limitations of designated rights,
exceptions for designated non-infringing uses, etc.

Owner An individual or organization holding legal title to a right or rights in a property.

Includes first owners (authors, producers, performers, etc.), assignees,
transferees, successors in title, etc.
Agent
An individual or organization authorized by an owner to act on his/her behalf.
Includes literary agents, publishers representing anonymous authors,
executors, collective societies, etc.

Competent Authority A body authorized by legislation to act on behalf of an owner. Includes boards,

trustees, etc. established by law, order, regulation, etc.
User
An individual or organization utilizing a property. Includes users authorized by
licence, contract, permission, etc., users operating within the parameters of an
exception, users engaged in infringing use.

Property An entity to which property rights apply. Includes literary, musical, artistic and

audiovisual works, performances, phonograms, broadcast signals, etc.
Originator
An individual or organization responsible for the creation or production of a

property. Includes authors (as creators of literary, musical and artistic works),

performers (as creators of performances), film and video producers (as
authors of audiovisual works), recording companies (as producers of
phonograms), broadcasters (as producers of broadcast signals), etc.

Territory A geographical area belonging to, or under the jurisdiction of, a governmental

authority.
Term
A period of time during which a right is enforceable. Includes fixed periods
linked to a designated event (e.g., the production, first publication, first
broadcast, etc. of a property), periods extending from a designated event (e.g.,
the creation of a property) through a fixed length of time following a
subsequent event (e.g., the death of an author), etc.

Condition A stipulation, proviso, or limitation. Includes conditions attached to the

enjoyment of a right or the exercise of an authorization or exception, payment
of a royalty or tariff, etc.

Use An act entailing utilization of a property. Includes reproduction, adaptation,

translation, public performance, communication to the public, broadcasting,
distribution, rental, etc.

Infringement An encroachment or trespass on a right. Includes unauthorized use, use that

exceeds the limitations stipulated in a licence, use that exceeds the
parameters established for an exception, etc.
Remedy
A legal means to recover a right or to prevent or obtain redress for an
infringement. Includes penalties established in law, judgments issued by the
courts, settlements agreed to by the contestants in a dispute, etc.
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Figure 3 — Production Cycle for Content Delivery
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...

RAPPORT ISO/TR
TECHNIQUE 21449
Première édition
2004-10-01
Mise à disposition de contenus et gestion
de droits — Spécifications fonctionnelles
des identificateurs et descripteurs à
l'usage des industries musicales,
cinématographiques, vidéographiques,
phonographiques et de l'édition
Content Delivery and Rights Management — Functional requirements
for identifiers and descriptors for use in the music, film, video, sound
recording and publishing industries
Numéro de référence
ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)
ISO 2004
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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)
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ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax. + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos..................................................................................................................................................... iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Domaine d'application.......................................................................................................................... 1

2 Approche................................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Conventions de représentation graphique.........................................................................................2

4 Architecture conceptuelle du domaine d'activité .............................................................................. 2

5 Architecture de l'information ............................................................................................................... 5

6 Attributs et relations........................................................................................................................... 11

7 Transactions Utilisateur ..................................................................................................................... 12

Annexe A Tableaux des entités, leurs attributs et relations........................................................................ 28

Bibliographie .................................................................................................................................................... 48

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Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée

aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du

comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non

gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux. L'ISO collabore étroitement avec

la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI,

Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d'élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur

publication comme Normes internationales requiert l'approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres

votants.

Exceptionnellement, lorsqu'un comité technique a réuni des données de nature différente de celles qui sont

normalement publiées comme Normes internationales (ceci pouvant comprendre des informations sur l'état

de la technique par exemple), il peut décider, à la majorité simple de ses membres, de publier un Rapport

technique. Les Rapports techniques sont de nature purement informative et ne doivent pas nécessairement

être révisés avant que les données fournies ne soient plus jugées valables ou utiles.

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne

pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L'ISO/TR 21449 a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 46, Information et documentation, sous-comité

SC 9, Identification et description.
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Introduction

Le présent Rapport technique a été préparé par Tom Delsey pour les organisations responsables pour

l'administration des systèmes et projets d'identification élaborés par l’ISO/TC 46, SC 9.

Les progrès récents de la technologie numérique ont provoqué d'importants changements dans les industries

musicales, cinématographiques, vidéographiques, phonographiques et de l'édition. Ces industries dites des

"contenus" ont toutes activement entrepris d'adapter leurs modes de production et de distribution pour intégrer

les nouvelles technologies dans la création, le stockage et la communication de l'information. Les principaux

acteurs de l'industrie ont eux-mêmes redéfini leur rôle non seulement face à leurs concurrents traditionnels,

mais aussi face à de nouveaux venus dans le secteur qui, nombreux, ont émergé d'autres industries pour

aborder les secteurs plus larges de l'information et de la communication. Les nouvelles technologies et un

nouvel environnement concurrentiel poussent les industries à franchir résolument les frontières de leur

secteur et à développer de nouveaux modèles d'activité afin de préserver et de renforcer leurs positions

respectives sur le marché.

Dans ce nouvel environnement technologique et commercial, l'infrastructure est devenue un facteur clé de

positionnement stratégique. Il ne suffit plus d'avoir, sur place, une infrastructure établie pour fonder une

industrie particulière; de plus en plus, toutes les industries du secteur de l'information et de la communication

s'appuient sur une infrastructure technologique transsectorielle et, en réalité, globale dans le programme

comme dans le domaine d'application. Dans ce contexte, la normalisation devient une question d'une portée

accrue. Dans les industries de contenu, la reconnaissance grandissante de l'importance stratégique de la

normalisation ressort du nombre croissant d'initiatives internes à une industrie ou transsectorielles visant à

élaborer les modèles, les normes et les protocoles nécessaires pour donner au commerce électronique des

bases plus sûres et plus efficaces. L'élaboration d'une structuration multimédia (MPEG-21) par le comité

mixte ISO/CEI «Moving Picture Expert Group» au sein du groupe d’experts de l’image animée est la plus

récente de ces initiatives, et peut-être celle qui va le plus loin.

Parmi les éléments d'une nouvelle infrastructure multimédia, les mécanismes normalisés d'identification et de

description des objets numériques croissent en importance comme moyens d'appuyer les transactions

commerciales de contenus sur une base globale et transsectorielle. Dans les industries de l'édition et de la

production phonographique, des identificateurs normalisés sont utilisés depuis des décennies pour faciliter la

distribution des produits et la rémunération. Avec le passage à la diffusion de contenus numériques sur des

réseaux, on constate un besoin croissant de disposer de mécanismes efficaces et fiables pour identifier non

seulement les produits en tant que tels, mais aussi la propriété intellectuelle incorporée à ces produits. Les

identificateurs normalisés jouent un rôle sans cesse de plus en plus important dans le processus de

facilitation et de pistage d'une multitude de transactions qui surviennent tout au long du cycle de vie d'un objet

numérique et à chaque étape de la chaîne de sa mise à disposition. En conséquence, les questions touchant

à l'intégrité, à la modularité et la souplesse du profil des identificateurs normalisés prennent une importance

nouvelle, et "l'interopérabilité" devient une notion clé.

D'un point de vue commercial, l'intérêt porté à une infrastructure de communication en réseau par les

industries de contenu résulte principalement d'une reconnaissance du rôle essentiel que cette infrastructure

va jouer dans l'exploitation future des potentiels marchands. L'identification et la description des objets

numériques occupera une des positions clés de cette infrastructure et s'insérera à part entière dans la

technologie qui garantira efficacement les transactions d'activité et protégera les droits et les intérêts

commerciaux dans un environnement en réseau.

D'un point de vue opérationnel, la construction et l'application de normes performantes pour l'identification et

la description des objets numériques seront une base déterminante des activités de l'ensemble de la chaîne

de fourniture, depuis la création du contenu et la production jusqu'à la distribution et le pistage de son

utilisation. Pour être pleinement efficace dans un environnement multimédia, les identificateurs et les

descriptions d'objets numériques devront fonctionner à tous les niveaux de l’échelle. Ils devront englober un

plus large éventail de contenus qu'ils ne le font actuellement; ils devront faire la différence entre produit et

bien; et ils devront être applicables à de multiples niveaux d'agrégation et de décomposition. Modularité et

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souplesse seront essentielles. Par dessus tout, les identificateurs et les descriptions d'objets numériques

devront fonctionner dans un environnement à multiples facettes et transsectoriel où l'interopérabilité est un

point décisif.

Le présent Rapport technique vise à fournir aux industries de contenu un cadre commun de référence pour

décrire la nature des transactions de commerce et d'information qui ont lieu entre elles et en leur sein au long

du processus de production, de distribution et de gestion des droits, ainsi qu'un relevé structuré des

exigences qui serviront de guide à l'élaboration des schémas pour l'identification et la description en soutien à

ces fonctions.
vi © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
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RAPPORT TECHNIQUE ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)
Mise à disposition de contenus et gestion de droits —
Spécifications fonctionnelles des identificateurs et descripteurs
à l'usage des industries musicales, cinématographiques,
vidéographiques, phonographiques et de l'édition
1 Domaine d'application

L'architecture conceptuelle du domaine d'activité et l'architecture de l'information exposées dans le présent

Rapport technique sont destinées spécialement à aider les organismes responsables de l'élaboration et de

l'administration des schémas d'identification et de description du contenu intellectuel et des produits à

comprendre les relations entre leur organisme et les autres acteurs de l'industrie de contenu impliqués dans la

production, la distribution et la gestion des droits. Le présent Rapport technique n'exclut pas l'éventualité

d'aperçus différents sur ces mêmes environnements ou d'autres architectures du secteur d'activité et de

l'information établies pour répondre à d'autres objectifs.

Les spécifications fonctionnelles des identificateurs et descripteurs exposées dans le présent Rapport

technique sont centrées sur les transactions d'activité des industries, en interne ou entre elles, relatives à la

production, à la distribution et à la gestion des droits dans les industries de contenu (c'est-à-dire les industries

musicales, cinématographiques, vidéographies, phonographiques et d'édition).

Le modèle de l'information présenté dans le présent Rapport technique se concentre en particulier sur les

spécifications des initiateurs, producteurs, diffuseurs/distributeurs, agences d'enregistrement et

administrateurs de droits, impliqués dans l'élaboration et la communication de contenus intellectuels et

artistiques. Il ne reflète pas des fonctions d'activités comme le commerce ou l'archivage; ils ne reflète pas non

plus directement les transactions entre fournisseurs de services secondaires comme les bibliothèques, les

archives et les musées.
2 Approche

Cette analyse des spécifications fonctionnelles pour des identificateurs et des descripteurs à l'usage des

industries de contenu est exposé en quatre parties.

La première partie définit une architecture conceptuelle du secteur d'activité qui identifie les fonctions

exercées par les personnes et les organismes impliqués dans la production et la distribution de contenus

intellectuels ou artistiques et par la gestion des droits associés à ces contenus, et met en lumière les relations

d'activité clés entre ces fonctions. L'architecture conceptuelle du secteur d'activité donne un aperçu de

l'environnement du secteur d'activité spécialement destiné à aider les organismes responsables de

l'élaboration et de l'administration des schémas d'identification et de description du contenu intellectuel et des

produits en exposant les relations entre leur organisme et les autres acteurs de l'industrie de contenu

impliqués dans la production, la distribution et la gestion des droits. Les détails de l'architecture conceptuelle

du secteur d'activité sont donnés dans l’Article 4.

La deuxième partie définit une architecture de l'information qui fournit une représentation structurée et les

définitions des entités clés (c'est-à-dire les objets, les acteurs, les activités, les événements, etc.) impliqués

dans chacune des fonctions du secteur d'activité et les relations primaires qui existent entre ces entités. Les

détails de l'architecture de l'information sont donnés dans l’Article 5.

La troisième partie identifie et définit les attributs et les relations associées à chacune des entités identifiées

dans l'architecture de l'information. Le détail des définitions de ces attributs et relations figurent en annexe A.

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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)

La quatrième partie définit un ensemble générique de transactions utilisateurs et procède à un mapping

entre les attributs et relations associées aux trois entités de premier plan dans l’architecture d’information

(contenu, produit et bien) et ces transactions. Ce mapping, entre ces attributs et relations et ces transactions,

vise à servir de base à la définition d'un ensemble commun de descripteurs requis pour l'enregistrement du

contenu, des produits et des biens. Le détail des définitions des transactions utilisateurs ainsi que de mapping

figure dans l’Article 7.
3 Conventions de représentation graphique
Architecture conceptuelle du secteur d'activité (Figure 1)
Un cercle représente une fonction exercée par une personne ou un organisme

opérant dans l'ensemble du contexte de la production, de la distribution et de la

gestion des droits.
Les lignes fléchées entre les cercles représentent des transactions entre des
personnes et des organismes exerçant les fonctions indiquées. Les transactions
de second niveau sont représentées par des flèches en pointillé.
Modèle de l'information (Figures 2, 3 et 4)

Un rectangle représente une entité (c'est-à-dire un objet, un acteur, une activité,

un événement, etc.) sur laquelle il est nécessaire d'avoir une information pour
assurer une fonction d'activité intra-industries ou inter-industries.
Les lignes fléchées reliant les rectangles représentent des relations entre les
entités indiquées.
Un rectangle en pointillé entourant un groupe de deux ou plusieurs entités
indique que la relation représentée par une flèche touchant les pointillés peut
s'appliquer à n'importe laquelle et/ou à l'ensemble des entités représentées
dans ce rectangle.
Une flèche pleine permet d'établir une connexion de page à page. Cet artifice
relie commodément une entité à toutes les entités associées qui sont
représentées dans le diagramme auquel renvoie cette flèche pleine.
4 Architecture conceptuelle du domaine d'activité

L'objectif de l'architecture conceptuelle du domaine d'activité représentée dans la Figure 1 est d'identifier les

fonctions exercées par les personnes et les organismes impliqués dans la production et la distribution de

contenus intellectuels ou artistiques et par la gestion des droits associés à ces contenus, et de mettre en

lumière les relations d'activité clés entre ces fonctions. L'architecture exposée ici donne un aperçu de

l'environnement du secteur d'activité spécialement destiné à aider les organismes responsables de

l'élaboration et de l'administration des schémas d'identification et de description du contenu intellectuel et des

produits à comprendre les relations entre leur organisme et les autres acteurs de l'industrie de contenu

impliqués dans la production, la distribution et la gestion des droits. Elle n'exclut pas l'éventualité d'aperçus

différents sur ce même environnement du secteur d'activité ou d'autres architectures conceptuelles du secteur

d'activité établies pour répondre à d'autres objectifs.

Ce diagramme représente neuf fonctions du secteur d'activité distinctes (chacune d'elle est définie dans le

Tableau 1). Les fonctions du secteur d'activité correpondent à des rôles que tiennent des personnes ou des

organismes dans l'environnement du secteur d'activité. Chaque personne ou organisme peut tenir plus d'un

des rôles ou fonctions indiquées. Chaque fonction peut être remplie par plusieurs personnes et/ou

organismes. Des fonctions peuvent être remplies conjointement, en parallèle ou successivement.

Les transactions représentées dans ce diagramme reflètent les affaires qui mettent en rapport des personnes

ou des organismes dans l'exercice des fonctions indiquées. Ce diagramme reflète toutes les transaction des

2 © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)

industries, en interne ou entre elles, relatives à la production de contenu, sa distribution et la gestion des

droits afférents. Toutefois, afin de mieux concentrer l'analyse sur les spécifications fonctionnelles, une

distinction a été faite entre les transactions de première importance pour les organismes qui fournissent des

services d'enregistrement de contenu et de produits et celles qui présentent un intérêt secondaire de ce point

de vue. Les transactions considérées comme secondaires incluent celles qui n'appartiennent pas au

processus normal de l'activité relative à la production, la distribution et la gestion de droits et celles qui

n'impliquent pas de recours direct aux services ou à l'information fournis par les agences d'enregistrement.

Figure 1 — Architecture conceptuelle du secteur d'activités pour la mise à disposition

de contenus et le gestion de droits
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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)

Tableau 1 — Architecture conceptuelle du secteur d’activités — Définition des rôles

Entité Définition

Avoir l’initiative du Création, expression ou production de contenu intellectuel ou artistique.

contenu Comprend la création de contenu par des écrivains, des compositeurs, des
artistes, etc. (tels que les auteurs d'œuvres littéraires, musicales et
artistiques), des producteurs de films ou de vidéos (tels que les auteurs
d'œuvres audiovisuelles), l'expression de contenu par des interprètes, et la
production de contenu par des sociétés d'enregistrement phonographique
(tels que les producteurs de disques) et des émetteurs-diffuseurs (tels que
les producteurs de signaux d’émission), etc.

Détenir des droits Propriété d'un titre légal à un droit ou à des droits sur un bien. Comprend la

propriété par des ayants droit ab initio (auteurs, producteurs, interprètes,
etc.), ainsi que des représentants, des cessionnaires ou des successeurs en
titre, etc.

Enregistrer du contenu ou Enregistrement de contenu, de produit ou d’un bien. Comprend

d’un produit l'enregistrement par les autorités ou les agences responsables de
l'enregistrement des publications monographiques ou des publications en
série, d'œuvres littéraires, musicales, artistiques ou audiovisuelles, les
enregistrements phonographiques, les signaux d’émission, etc.

Fournir du contenu Production et réalisation d'un produit. Comprend la production et la

commercialisation de produits par les éditeurs, les producteurs
phonographiques, les producteurs de films et de vidéos, les producteurs
multimédia, etc.

Contrôler l’utilisation Contrôle de la diffusion-distribution et de l'utilisation de produits. Comprend

le contrôle de la diffusion-distribution des monographies ou des publications
en série, des enregistrements phonographiques, des films, des
enregistrements vidéo, des produits multimédia, etc.

Gérer des droits Gestion des droits de propriété intellectuelle par un ayant droit ou pour son

compte. Comprend la gestion directe des droits par le détenteur, la gestion
autorisée des droits pour le compte d'un ayant droit par des agents, des
exécuteurs testamentaires, des éditeurs, des producteurs de films, des
sociétés de gestion collective, etc., et la gestion des droits par des conseils,
des administrateurs, etc. légalement établis aux fins d'agir pour le compte
des ayants droit.
Agréer un Certification ou authentification des consommateurs ou

consommateur/diffuseur– diffuseurs-distributeurs de produits. Comprend la certification ou

distributeur l'authentification de monographies et de publications en série,
d’enregistrements phonographiques, de films, d’enregistrements vidéo, de
produits multimédia, etc.
Diffuser-distribuer du
Diffusion-distribution d'un produit. Comprend la diffusion-distribution de

contenu publications, d’enregistrements phonographiques, films, d’enregistrements

vidéo, de produits multimédia, etc.

Consommer du contenu Consommation de contenu intellectuel ou artistique. Comprend l'achat,

l’acquisition sous licence, l'utilisation, etc., par des consommateurs de
monographies ou de publications en série, d'enregistrements
phonographiques, de films, d’enregistrements vidéos, de produits
multimédia, etc.
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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)
5 Architecture de l'information

L'architecture de l'information sur la mise à disposition de contenu et la gestion des droits est représentée par

un ensemble de trois diagrammes complémentaires d'entités-relations (Figures 2, 3 et 4). Chaque diagramme

est centré sur une fonction majeure du secteur d'activité: gestion des droits (Figure 2), production de contenu

(Figure 3) et distribution de contenu (Figure 4).

Les diagrammes d'entités-relations fournissent une représentation structurée des entités clés (c'est-à-dire des

objets, acteurs, activités, événements, etc.) impliqués dans chacune des fonctions du secteur d'activité et les

relations de premier niveau entre ces entités. Chaque diagramme est accompagné d'un tableau des

définitions des entités qui y sont représentées.

L'infrastructure légale de la gestion des droits de propriété intellectuelle représentée dans la Figure 2 se fonde

sur l'analyse de quatre documents essentiels: la Convention de Berne, la Convention de Rome, le WIPO

Copyright Treaty, et le WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty. Ces documents reflètent les

conventions internationales relatives aux droits de propriété intellectuelle et servent de base à la législation

sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins dans plus de 140 pays de par le monde.

La Figure 2 est centrée sur la propriété (c'est-à-dire l'œuvre, l'interprétation, le phonogramme, l'émission, etc.)

et ses relations (tant directes qu'indirectes) avec les divers objets, acteurs, activités, événements, et cetera,

qui constituent l'infrastructure légale de la gestion des droits de propriété intellectuelle. Le Tableau 2 donne

les définitions des entités qui sont représentées à la Figure 2.

La Figure 3 est centrée sur le produit (c'est-à-dire l'édition, l'enregistrement phonographique, le film,

l'enregistrement vidéographique, etc.) et ses relations avec les divers objets, acteurs, activités, événements,

et cetera, qui jouent un rôle dans le processus de production du contenu mis à disposition. Le Tableau 3

donne les définitions des entités qui sont représentées à la Figure 3.

La Figure 4 est également centrée sur le produit et sélectionne les relations (tant directes qu'indirectes) avec

les divers objets, acteurs, activités, événements, et cetera, qui jouent un rôle dans le processus de distribution

du contenu mis à disposition. Le Tableau 4 donne les définitions des entités qui sont représentées à la

Figure 4.

Bien que chaque fonction du secteur d'activité (gestion des droits, production et distribution) ait été

représentée dans des diagrammes d'entités-relations séparés, ces trois diagrammes sont liés entre eux à

travers les entités propriété, produit, autorisation et utilisation. Chaque diagramme peut ainsi être considéré

comme le segment d'un diagramme plus large représentant l'architecture de l'information sur la mise à

disposition de contenu et sur la gestion des droits comme un tout.

Les diagrammes représentant l'architecture de l'information ont aussi un lien directe avec l'architecture

conceptuelle du secteur d'activité (Figure 1). Les entités correspondant aux acteurs dans les Figures 2, 3 et 4

(initiateur, détenteur, mandataire, autorité compétente, usager, producteur, créateur, agence d'enregistrement,

diffuseur/distributeur, service de contrôle, autorité de certification et consommateur) sont parallèles aux

fonctions du secteur d'activité représentées dans la Figure 1.
© ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)

Figure 2 — Structure légale d'application de gestion et de protection de la propriété intellectuelle

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ISO/TR 21449:2004(F)

Tableau 2 — Gestion et protection de la propriété intellectuelle — Définitions des entités

Entité Définition

Législation Texte adopté par un corps législatif. Comprend les lois, décrets, ordonnances, directives,

règlements, etc., adoptés dans le domaine de la propriété intellectuelle.

Droit Prérogative consacrée par une législation. Comprend à la fois les droits patrimoniaux et les

droits moraux sur toutes les formes de propriété intellectuelle (œuvres littéraires, musicales,

artistiques, et audiovisuelles, interprétations, phonogrammes, signaux d’émission, etc.).

Autorisation Permission accordée par le détenteur, son mandataire ou une autorité compétente.

Comprend les autorisations écrites, licences, accords contractuels, licences obligatoires,

etc.

Exception Exclusion ou limitation établie par une législation. Comprend des dispositions excluant des

catégories déterminées de propriété intellectuelle ou limitant des droits déterminés ainsi

que des exceptions permettant certaines libres utilisations, etc.

Détenteur Personne physique ou morale détenant légalement un ou des droits de propriété sur un

bien. Comprend les ayants droit ab initio (auteurs, producteurs, artistes interprètes, etc.),

les représentants, les cessionnaires, les successeurs en titre, etc.

Mandataire Personne physique ou morale chargée par le détenteur d'agir pour son compte. Comprend

les agents littéraires, les éditeurs représentant des auteurs anonymes, les exécuteurs

testamentaires, les sociétés de gestion, etc.

Autorité Organe habilité par une législation à agir pour le compte d'un ayant droit. Comprend les

compétente conseils d'administration, de gestion, etc., institués par une loi, une ordonnance, un

règlement, etc.
Utilisateur Personne physique ou morale qui fait usage d’un bien
...

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