Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Finishes of built heritage - Investigation and documentation

This document defines best practice for collecting data and processing findings when investigating finishes on built heritage, with the aim of establishing existing schemes. It applies to decorative and protective finishes on buildings and their interiors, as well as other objects of built heritage.
This document applies to the planning and execution of such investigations with documentation throughout. It can be used as a process reference for stakeholders involved in the investigation of built heritage.

Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Oberflächenausführungen des gebauten Erbes - Untersuchung und Dokumentation

Dieses Dokument legt bewährte Vorgehensweisen für die Datensammlung und die Verarbeitung von Befunden bei der Untersuchung von Oberflächenausführungen auf gebautem Kulturerbe fest, mit dem Ziel, vorhandene Ausstattungen festzustellen. Es gilt für dekorative und schützende Oberflächenausführungen von Gebäuden und ihren Innenräumen sowie anderen Objekten des gebauten Kulturerbes.
Dieses Dokument gilt für die Planung und Durchführung derartiger Untersuchungen mit durchgehender Dokumentation. Es kann als eine Prozessreferenz für die an der Untersuchung von gebautem Kulturerbe Beteiligten angewendet werden.

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Finitions du patrimoine bâti - Investigation et documentation

Le présent document définit les bonnes pratiques lors de la réalisation d'investigations sur les finitions du patrimoine bâti, dans le but d'établir les modèles décoratifs sur la base de la collecte de données et du traitement des résultats. Il s'applique aux finitions appliquées sur les bâtiments et leurs intérieurs, qui peuvent avoir une fonction décorative ou protectrice, ainsi que sur d'autres biens relevant du patrimoine bâti, mais il exclut explicitement la catégorie des peintures murales.
Le présent document s'applique à la planification et à l'exécution de ces investigations documentées tout au long de leur déroulement. Il sera utilisé comme modèle de référence pour les parties prenantes impliquées dans les investigations portant sur le patrimoine bâti.

Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Zidne obloge gradbene dediščine - Preiskovanje in dokumentiranje

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Sep-2020
Publication Date
24-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-Aug-2021
Due Date
24-Oct-2021
Completion Date
25-Aug-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17543:2021
01-oktober-2021

Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Zidne obloge gradbene dediščine - Preiskovanje in

dokumentiranje

Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Finishes of built heritage - Investigation and

documentation
Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Oberflächenausführungen des gebauten Erbes -
Untersuchung und Dokumentation

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Finitions du patrimoine bâti - Investigation et

documentation
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17543:2021
ICS:
97.195 Umetniški in obrtniški izdelki. Items of art and handicrafts.
Kulturne dobrine in kulturna Cultural property and
dediščina heritage
SIST EN 17543:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
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SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.195
English Version
Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Finishes of built
heritage - Investigation and documentation

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Finitions du Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes -

patrimoine bâti - Investigation et documentation Oberflächenausführungen des gebauten Erbes -

Untersuchung und Dokumentation
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 June 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17543:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Overview of the investigation process .................................................................................................... 8

5 Preparation ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Project brief ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Commissioning .............................................................................................................................................. 10

6 Execution ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Archival investigation ................................................................................................................................ 11

6.3 Period chart .................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.4 On-site investigation ................................................................................................................................... 11

6.4.1 Initial survey .................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.4.2 Exposures of finishes .................................................................................................................................. 11

6.4.3 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 12

6.5 Laboratory investigation ........................................................................................................................... 12

6.5.1 Microscopic examination of cross-sections ........................................................................................ 12

6.5.2 Advanced material analysis ..................................................................................................................... 13

6.6 Colour evaluation ......................................................................................................................................... 13

6.7 Synthesis of results and conclusion ....................................................................................................... 13

7 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

7.2 Contents of the report................................................................................................................................. 14

7.3 Further agreements .................................................................................................................................... 15

Annex A (informative) Example of period chart ............................................................................................ 16

Annex B (informative) Interpretation of cross-sections ............................................................................. 17

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 18

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17543:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 346 “Conservation

of Cultural Heritage”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by February 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
Introduction

Throughout its existence, built heritage is subject to continuous change and alteration. The most frequent

changes have been the repeated refurbishment and redecoration of interiors and exterior architectural

surfaces, carried out in response to a wide range of factors: developments in decorative fashions, changes

in the functions of rooms, changes in the wealth of successive occupants and owners, the need to revive

an old and worn painted decoration or simply maintenance. The investigation on built heritage finishes

provides a systematic method of understanding these changes. It offers insights into the appearance of

original and later schemes and may provide dates for the application of specific finishes.

The purpose of the investigation can be to locate, identify, interpret and, if possible, date current and

previous finishes. Such investigations help to deepen our general knowledge of the significance of the

area under investigation, its history and alterations, and also to assess its condition and to plan for future

conservation and presentation, taking account of aesthetic considerations. These investigations should

be looked upon as an integral part of the documentation and investigation process on built heritage.

The aim of each investigation may vary considerably in scope and complexity. While this document offers

a framework, it should be recognized that every finish offers a different challenge to an investigation and

interpretation. The presence of wall paintings will be recorded, although the investigation and

documentation of wall paintings themselves is beyond the scope of this standard.

While the focus of this document is the investigation of finishes in and on buildings, the techniques

described are commonly employed on other heritage objects.

The expertise required to carry out such investigations should be in line with the objectives and

challenges. Multidisciplinary professionals involved in this field are drawn from a wide range of

backgrounds, including conservation, science, art history, architecture, building archaeology, and

painting and decorating crafts.

In some countries, the investigation and documentation of finishes, is known as Architectural Paint

Research (APR).

It is the aim of this document to define common principles and best practice for the investigation on built

heritage finishes.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document defines best practice when investigating finishes on built heritage, with the aim of

establishing existing schemes by collecting data and processing findings. It applies to finishes that can be

decorative or protective, on buildings and their interiors, as well as other built heritage, but explicitly

excludes the category of wall paintings.

This document applies to the planning and execution of such investigations with documentation

throughout. It can be used as a process reference for stakeholders involved in the investigation of built

heritage.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 16085:2012, Conservation of Cultural property - Methodology for sampling from materials of cultural

property - General rules

EN 16853:2017, Conservation of cultural heritage - Conservation process - Decision making, planning and

implementation

EN 17429:2020, Conservation of cultural heritage - Procurement of conservation services and works

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
architectural element
designed part of a building

Note 1 entry: “architectural element” has a wider meaning, but in this standard refers to a elements of a building,

such as skirting, panel, door, column, pillar, etc.
3.2
built heritage

immovable and movable standing structures which have an architectural, cultural or historic value

EXAMPLES: buildings, railings, street furniture, vehicles, industrial artefacts, ships, boats, furniture

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
3.3
conservation

measures and actions aimed at safeguarding cultural heritage while respecting its significance,

including its accessibility to present and future generations

Note 1 to entry: Conservation includes preventive conservation, remedial conservation and restoration.

Note 2 to entry: The term “preservation” is also used, e.g. in libraries and archives.

Note 3 to entry: All conservation actions are based on documentary and/or material evidence.

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.3.1]
3.4
cross-section
sample material cut perpendicularly to the surface of the last layer
3.5
cultural heritage

tangible and intangible entities of significance to present and future generations

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.1.1]
3.6
documentation

recorded information created, collected, held and maintained for the purpose of present and future

conservation and for reference
EXAMPLES: drawings, photographs, written reports, scientific data
Note 1 to entry: This term can also refer to the process itself.

Note 2 to entry: Documentation of all stages of conservation is an essential part of the overall process of

conservation planning.
[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.6.8, modified]
3.7
exposure
removal of overlying layers to reveal a specific finish
Note 1 to entry: See also 3.19 stratigraphic exposure.

Note 2 to entry: This term can also refer to the surface obtained as a result of an exposure.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
3.8
finish
treatment or result of a treatment of a surface

EXAMPLES: paint, varnishes, gilding, glazes, stencilling, marbling, wood graining, textiles and/or

wallpapers, plasters, renders, stucco, veneers, leather, tiles, ceramics

Note 1 to entry: A finish can be a planned combination of several layers (primer, undercoat, top coat, glazes and

varnishes) or an uncoated surface left as built.

Note 2 to entry: The term finish is also used to describe the self-finished surface of a building material such as

concrete, render, stone, stucco or wood.
Note 3 to entry: Applied to protect or decorate a surface.
3.9
investigation

obtaining and gathering the information necessary for a conservation decision-making process

Note 1 to entry: This should include both qualitative and quantitative information.

Note 2 to entry: When the objective of the investigation is about conservation purposes, the definition given in

EN 15898:2019 becomes relevant.
[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.6.3 modified]
3.10
investigator
professional performing an investigation

Note 1 to entry: Professions include, but are not limited to, conservation, science, art history, architecture,

building engineering, building archaeology, and painting and decorating crafts.
3.11
method statement

detailed description of the way a service, work, task or process is to be completed

Note 1 to entry: The costed method statement is the equivalent of a tender offer (EN 17429:2020, 3.2.9).

(SOURCE: EN 17429:2020, 3.2.10, note added)
3.12
period chart
time-referenced table of all schemes
3.13
photomicrograph

graphic reproduction of the image of a cross-section captured through a microscope

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
3.14
probing cut
oblique incision from surface to substrate
Note 1 to entry: Made to establish the existence of layers.
Note 2 to entry: Known as cratering when circular.
3.15
project brief

description of the objective, background and context for the proposed investigation

3.16
sampling
process of removing material for investigation
[SOURCE: EN 16085:2012, 3.3, modified]
3.17
scheme

set of finishes applied to different architectural elements at a particular period in time

3.18
statement of significance

expression that determines the value of a heritage asset because of its heritage interest; such interest

may be archaeological, architectural, artistic or historic

Note 1 to entry: When it exists, legal protection status of the studied object needs to be taken into account.

3.19
stratigraphic exposure

systematic removal of overlying layers to establish a sequence of finishes/schemes

Note 1 to entry: See also 3.7 exposure.
3.20
substrate
material upon which finishes are applied
3.21
technical imaging

all images that can be obtained using different magnification and under different lighting conditions

(direct light, semi- or raking light) and different wavelengths (from ultraviolet to infrared)

4 Overview of the investigation process

Investigation of finishes on built heritage will expand the understanding of a building’s history and

condition. Results can inform future conservation management and presentation. Documentation of the

findings shall follow the steps of this process and shall be defined and initiated before any alteration

works. The commissioner shall obtain any permissions required by national legislation.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
An investigation of finishes may be initiated to:

• obtain a general understanding of the decorative history and use of a building;

• identify a specific scheme;
• establish a scheme sequence;
• inform an exposure or a reconstruction of a specific scheme;
• clarify structural development and alteration;
• assess the significance of an existing finish;

• clarify the type, cause(s) and effect of alteration processes in the existing finishes;

• inform conservation-restoration options.

The investigation and documentation is composed of three main parts, according to Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Flow-chart of the investigation process
5 Preparation
5.1 Project brief

Every investigation of finishes shall begin with an expression of need, which is formalized into a project

brief. The drafting of the project brief will be carried out by the commissioner or their representatives.

When suitable and/or stated by demands in accordance with law, this will be done in dialogue with

cultural heritage authorities.

The development of the project brief shall be in accordance with EN 17429:2020, Clause 5.

For the purpose of this standard, the project brief shall include, but not be limited to:

— an expression of need, scope of research, and anticipated outcomes;
— a statement of significance;

— all documentation relevant to the proposed investigation (including any existing research);

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 17543:2021
EN 17543:2021 (E)
— agreement on archiving, copyright and other intellectual property issues;

— agreement on how exposed or sampled areas will be treated after on-site investigation;

— time frame or provisional schedule.

The scope and aims of the investigation of finishes shall be determined in close collaboration between

commissioners and their advisors. This process shall follow EN 16853:2017, Clause 6.1.

5.2 Commissioning
The commissioning of an investigator to undertake the work is an important part
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
01-oktober-2020

Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Zidne obloge gradbene dediščine - Preiskovanje in

dokumentiranje

Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Finishes of built heritage - Investigation and

documentation
Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Oberflächenausführungen des gebauten Erbes -
Untersuchung und Dokumentation

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Finitions du patrimoine bâti - Investigation et

documentation
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17543
ICS:
97.195 Umetniški in obrtniški izdelki. Items of art and handicrafts.
Kulturne dobrine in kulturna Cultural property and
dediščina heritage
oSIST prEN 17543:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17543
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2020
ICS 97.195
English Version
Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Finishes of built
heritage - Investigation and documentation

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Finitions du Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes -

patrimoine bâti - Investigation et documentation Oberflächenausführungen des gebauten Erbes -

Untersuchung und Dokumentation

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 346.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17543:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
prEN 17543:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 17543:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 346

“Conservation of Cultural Heritage”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
prEN 17543:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword .......................................................................................................................................................2

Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................5

4 Overview of the investigation process .....................................................................................................8

5 Preparation ........................................................................................................................................................8

5.1 Project brief .......................................................................................................................................................8

5.2 Commissioning .................................................................................................................................................9

6 Execution ............................................................................................................................................................9

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................9

6.2 Archival investigation ................................................................................................................................. 10

6.3 Period chart .................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4 On-site investigation ................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4.1 Initial survey .................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.4.2 Exposures of finishes ................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4.3 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.5 Laboratory investigation ........................................................................................................................... 11

6.5.1 Microscopic examination of cross-sections ........................................................................................ 11

6.5.2 Advanced material analysis ...................................................................................................................... 12

6.6 Colour evaluation ......................................................................................................................................... 12

6.7 Synthesis of results and conclusion ....................................................................................................... 13

7 Reporting ......................................................................................................................................................... 13

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

7.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 13

7.3 Further agreements ..................................................................................................................................... 14

Annex A (informative) Example of period chart ............................................................................................... 15

Annex B (informative) Interpretation of cross-sections .............................................................................. 16

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 17

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
prEN 17543:2020 (E)
Introduction

Throughout its existence, built heritage has been subject to continuous change and alteration. The most

frequent changes have been the repeated refurbishment and redecoration of interiors and façades,

carried out in response to a wide range of factors: developments in decorative fashions, changes in the

functions of rooms, changes in the wealth of successive occupants and owners, the need to revive an old

and worn painted decoration or simply maintenance. The investigation of built heritage finishes provides

a systematic method of understanding these changes. It offers insights into the appearance of original

and later schemes and may provide dates for the application of specific finishes.

The term “finish” is used within this document to describe all paint systems and decorative applications.

Most applied finishes can be composed of a number of layers, typically primers, undercoats, top coats,

glazes and varnishes. Finishes have been applied to a wide range of substrate materials. The term finish

is also sometimes used to describe the self-finished surface of a building material.

The purpose of the investigation can be to locate, identify, interpret and, if possible, date current and

historic finishes. Such investigations help to deepen our general knowledge of the significance of the area

under investigation, its history and alterations, and also to assess its condition and to plan for future

conservation and presentation, taking account of aesthetic considerations. These investigations should

be looked upon as part of ongoing documentation and research.

The aim of each investigation may vary considerably in scope and complexity. While this document offers

a framework, it should be recognized that every finish offers a different challenge to investigation and

interpretation.

While the focus of this document is the investigation of finishes in and on buildings, the techniques

described are commonly employed for other heritage objects which have been painted.

The expertise required to carry out such investigations should be in line with the objectives and

challenges. Multidisciplinary professionals involved in this field, are drawn from a wide range of

backgrounds, including conservation, science, art history, building archaeology, and painting and

decorating crafts.

In some countries, the investigation and documentation of finishes, is known as Architectural Paint

Research (APR).

It is the aim of this document to define common principles and best practice for the discipline.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
prEN 17543:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document defines best practice for collecting data and processing findings when investigating

finishes on built heritage, with the aim of establishing existing schemes. It applies to decorative and

protective finishes on buildings and their interiors, as well as other objects of built heritage.

This document applies to the planning and execution of such investigations with documentation

throughout. It can be used as a process reference for stakeholders involved in the investigation of built

heritage.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 16085, Conservation of Cultural property — Methodology for sampling from materials of cultural

property — General rules

EN 16853, Conservation of cultural heritage — Conservation process — Decision making, planning and

implementation

FprEN 17429, Conservation of cultural heritage — Procurement of conservation services and works

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
architectural element
design element of a building
3.2
built heritage
standing structures which have an architectural, cultural or historic value

EXAMPLES: buildings, railings, street furniture, vehicles, industrial artefacts, ships, boats, furniture

3.3
conservation

measures and actions aimed at safeguarding cultural heritage while respecting its significance,

including its accessibility to present and future generations
[SOURCE: EN 15898:2011, 3.3.1]
3.4
cross-section
sample material cut perpendicularly
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17543:2020
prEN 17543:2020 (E)
3.5
cultural heritage

tangible and intangible entities of significance to present and future generations

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2011, 3.1.1]
3.6
documentation
recorded information created, collected, held and maintained
EXAMPLES: drawings, photographs, written reports, scientific data
Note 1 to entry: This term can also refer to the process itself.
[SOURCE: EN 15898:2011, 3.6.8, modified —]
3.7
exposure
removing overlying layers to reveal a specific finish
Note 1 to entry: See also 3.19 stratigraphic exposure
Note 2 to entry: This term can also refer to the process itself.
3.8
finish
final treatment of a surface

EXAMPLES: paint, varnishes, gilding, glazes, stencilling, marbling, wood graining, textiles and/or

wallpapers, plasters, renders, stucco

Note 1 to entry: A finish can be a planned combination of several layers (primer, undercoat, top coat, glazes and

varnishes) or an uncoated surface left as built.

Note 2 to entry: The term finish is also used to describe the self-finished surface of a building material such as

concrete, render, stone, stucco or wood.
Note 3 to entry: Applied to protect or decorate a surface.
3.9
investigation

obtaining and gathering the information necessary for a conservation decision-making process

Note 1 to entry: This should include both qualitative and quantitative information.

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2011, 3.6.3]
3.10
investigator
professional performing an investigation

Note 1 to entry: Professions include conservation, science, art history, building archaeology, and painting and

decorating crafts.
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3.11
method statement
document that details a way a work, task or process is to be completed
[SOURCE: FprEN 17429:2020, 3.2.9]
3.12
period chart
time-referenced table of all schemes
3.13
photomicrograph

graphic reproduction of the image of a cross-section captured through a microscope

3.14
probing cut
oblique incision from surface to substrate
Note 1 to entry: Made to establish the existence of layers.
Note 2 to entry: Known as cratering when circular.
3.15
project brief

description of the objective, background and context for the proposed investigation

3.16
sampling
process of collecting material for investigation
[SOURCE: EN 16085:2012, 3.3, modified — ]
3.17
scheme

set of finishes applied to different architectural elements at a particular period in time

3.18
statement of significance

recorded determination of the value, nature, character, or quality of the area of investigation

3.19
stratigraphic exposure

systematic removal of overlying layers to establish a sequence of finishes/schemes

Note 1 to entry: See also 3.7 exposure.
3.20
substrate
material upon which finishes are applied
3.21
technical imaging

all images that can be obtained using different magnification and under different lighting conditions

(direct light, semi- or raking light) and different wavelengths (from ultraviolet to infrared)

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4 Overview of the investigation process

Investigation of finishes on built heritage will expand the understanding of a building’s history and

condition. Results will inform future conservation management and re-presentation. Documentation

of the findings shall follow the steps of this process.

Investigations of finishes shall be initiated before any alteration and the areas of interest shall be clearly

defined if required by national legislation, in cooperation between the commissioning party and cultural

heritage authorities.
An investigation of finishes may be initiated to:

• obtain a general understanding of the decorative history and use of a building;

• identify a specific scheme;
• establish a scheme sequence;
• inform conservation/restoration options;
• inform an exposure or a reconstruction of a specific scheme;
• clarify structural development and alteration;
• assess the significance of an existing finish;
• clarify the cause(s) of deterioration processes in the existing finishes.
The approach of the investigation is composed of three main parts:
• preparation (Clause 5) including planning, project brief and commissioning;

• execution (Clause 6) including archival-, on-site and laboratory investigation and synthesis of

results;
• reporting (Clause 7).
5 Preparation
5.1 Project brief

Every investigation of finishes shall begin with an expression of need, which is formalized into a project

brief. The drafting of the project brief will be carried out by the commissioner or agents acting on their

behalf. The project brief shall clearly define the objective or the question to be answered by the proposed

investigation. The development of the project brief shall follow FprEN 17429 Conservation of Cultural

Heritage – Procurement of Conservation Services and Works.

For the purpose of this standard, the project brief shall include, but not be limited to:

— an expression of need, scope of research, and anticipated outcomes;
— a statement of significance;

— all documentation relevant to the proposed investigation (including any existing research);

— agreement on archiving, copyright and other intellectual property issues;
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— time frame or provisional schedule.

The scope and aims of the investigation of finishes shall be determined in close collaboration between

commissioners and their advisors. This process shall follow EN 16853 Conservation process – Decision

making, planning and implementation. However, the commissioning party’s initial intent on how exposed

or sampled areas will be treated after an on-site investigation, should be stated in the project brief.

Technical specifications will be outlined in the costed method statement produced by the appointed

investigator.
5.2 Commissioning

Services shall be commissioned in accordance with FprEN 17429. The commissioning of an investigator

to undertake the work, is an important part of the process and shall follow standard practice. Once the

investigator has been appointed, they shall devise an investigation strategy with an appropriate

sequence of operations. There should be a continued dialogue between the chosen investigator and the

commissioner.
6 Execution
6.1 General

To establish an investigation strategy, the selection of locations and method(s) for investigation on site

shall be proportional and appropriate to the intended outcome.

Several complementary methods can be used, depending on the requirements of a specific investigation

which may involve both on-site and off-site procedures. The utilization of several methods strengthens

the interpretation of the findings. The findings and the results shall be verifiable and all investigated

locations documented.

The sequence of operations shall be determined by the investigation. The order in which operations are

listed here is not mandatory.
The investigation should include
...

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