Cultural heritage - Assessment and monitoring of archaeological deposits for preservation in situ

This document describes investigations required for in situ preservation and monitoring of archaeological sites. It sets out the main parameters used to assess the state of preservation of archaeological materials and evaluate the preservation conditions of archaeological deposits and provides a framework for monitoring sites. A “decision making” framework is included to help readers make appropriate knowledge-based choices.
The procedures described are appropriate for both terrestrial and underwater archaeological sites.
The informative annexes relate primarily to terrestrial sites; for detailed technical guidance on investigating and monitoring marine sites, see sasmap.eu [6, 7].
NOTE   Marine sites include all underwater sites and those in the intertidal zone.

Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Anforderungen an die Überwachung und Untersuchung der Umgebung von Lagerstätten des Kulturerbes

Dieses Dokument beschreibt Untersuchungen, die für die In-situ-Erhaltung und Überwachung archäologischer Stätten erforderlich sind. Es legt die Hauptparameter für die Beurteilung des Erhaltungszustands von archäologischen Materialien und für die Bewertung der Erhaltungsbedingungen von archäologischen Lagerstätten fest und bietet ein Rahmenwerk für die Überwachung von Stätten. Ein Rahmen zur Entscheidungsfindung ist enthalten, um Lesern dabei zu helfen, geeignete wissensbasierte Entscheidungen zu treffen.
Die beschriebenen Verfahren sind sowohl für archäologische Stätten an Land als auch unter Wasser geeignet.
Die informativen Anhänge beziehen sich hauptsächlich auf Stätten an Land; für einen detaillierten technischen Leitfaden zur Untersuchung und Überwachung maritimer Stätten siehe sasmap.eu [6], [7].
ANMERKUNG   Maritime Stätten umfassen sämtliche Stätten unter Wasser und Stätten in der Gezeitenzone.

Patrimoine culturel - Investigation et suivi de l'état de conservation des couches archéologiques pour la préservation in situ

Le présent document décrit les investigations requises pour la préservation sur site et le suivi de l'état de conservation des sites archéologiques. Il définit les principaux paramètres utilisés pour évaluer l'état de conservation des matériaux archéologiques et les conditions de préservation des dépôts archéologiques, et il fournit un cadre pour le suivi de l'état de conservation des sites. Un cadre décisionnel est inclus afin d'aider les utilisateurs à faire des choix appropriés, basés sur des connaissances.
Les procédures décrites sont appropriées pour les sites archéologiques tant terrestres que subaquatiques.
Les annexes informatives concernent principalement les sites terrestres ; pour des recommandations techniques détaillées sur l'investigation et le suivi des sites marins, voir sasmap.eu [6, 7].
NOTE   Les sites marins incluent tous les sites subaquatiques et ceux situés dans l'estran.

Kulturna dediščina - Ocenjevanje in spremljanje stanja ohranjenosti arheoloških najdišč na kraju samem

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-May-2021
Publication Date
19-Sep-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Sep-2022
Due Date
21-Nov-2022
Completion Date
20-Sep-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17652:2022
01-november-2022
Kulturna dediščina - Ocenjevanje in spremljanje stanja ohranjenosti arheoloških
najdišč na kraju samem
Cultural heritage - Assessment and monitoring of archaeological deposits for
preservation in situ

Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Anforderungen an die Überwachung und Untersuchung

der Umgebung von Lagerstätten des Kulturerbes

Patrimoine culturel - Investigation et suivi de l'état de conservation des couches

archéologiques pour la préservation in situ
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17652:2022
ICS:
97.195 Umetniški in obrtniški izdelki. Items of art and handicrafts.
Kulturne dobrine in kulturna Cultural property and
dediščina heritage
SIST EN 17652:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 17652:2022
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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.195
English Version
Cultural heritage - Assessment and monitoring of
archaeological deposits for preservation in situ

Patrimoine culturel - Investigation et suivi de l'état de Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Anforderungen an

conservation des couches archéologiques pour la die Überwachung und Untersuchung der Umgebung

préservation in situ von Lagerstätten des Kulturerbes
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 July 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17652:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Objective and procedure .............................................................................................................................. 7

5 Assessment ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Desktop study ................................................................................................................................................ 10

5.3 Preliminary assessment ............................................................................................................................ 10

5.4 Detailed assessment .................................................................................................................................... 12

5.5 Conclusion and decision-making ............................................................................................................ 12

6 Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

6.2 Design of a monitoring programme (“Plan”) ..................................................................................... 16

6.3 Monitoring (“Do”) ........................................................................................................................................ 17

6.4 Review of data (“Check”) ........................................................................................................................... 17

6.5 Completion of monitoring (“Adjust”) .................................................................................................... 17

6.6 Continued monitoring (“Adjust”) ........................................................................................................... 18

6.7 Mitigation (“Adjust”) ................................................................................................................................... 18

7 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 18

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

7.2 Reporting of the desktop study ............................................................................................................... 18

7.3 Reporting of preliminary assessment .................................................................................................. 19

7.4 Report of the detailed assessment ......................................................................................................... 19

7.5 Report of the programme of monitoring ............................................................................................. 20

8 Quality assurance requirements ............................................................................................................ 20

Annex A (informative) Characterisation of the state of the preservation ............................................ 21

Annex B (informative) Characterisation of the environmental conditions – Archaeological

deposits ............................................................................................................................................................ 25

Annex C (informative) Example of classifying site ........................................................................................ 30

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 33

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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17652:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 346 “Cultural

heritage”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2023, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by March 2023.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
Introduction

The principle that in situ preservation should be considered as the first option for the conservation of

terrestrial, wetland or underwater archaeological sites, before permitting or engaging in any activity

directed at these sites, is laid down in the Council of Europe [5] and UNESCO [24] conventions as well as

in two ICOMOS charters [8, 9].

This document is designed to assist authorities, archaeological and other consultants, owners,

developers, applicants and others responsible for sites of archaeological and historical significance to

ensure the best outcome for the preservation of discovered material and can also be helpful in ensuring

that relevant legislation and conditions are abided by. It sets out a decision-making framework for the in

situ preservation of archaeological deposits and identifies mechanisms for assessing and, where

appropriate, monitoring of these sites.

Archaeological deposits and the finds they contain have accumulated through human activity over

hundreds or thousands of years. They are found in urban and rural areas, in the intertidal zone and

underwater, and include evidence of past occupation as well as natural deposits representing past

environments. These archaeological deposits and sediments display large variations in their state of

preservation, environmental conditions, and vulnerability. If the deposits or the environment around

them are altered, their information potential can be reduced or destroyed. Accelerated degradation of

archaeological deposits, shrinkage and subsidence of the sediments can also have serious consequences

for existing buildings, roads and infrastructure built above them.

Where changes are proposed at an archaeological site, an assessment of the significance (the cultural and

other values assigned to the archaeological asset and its surroundings), and an evaluation of the state of

preservation and environmental conditions should be conducted to inform decision-making. The changes

could be developments in the terrestrial or underwater environments, land-use change or improved

conservation management. The objective of these assessments is to balance the long-term preservation

and protection of these non-renewable heritage assets with sustainable development.

Preservation assessment is an iterative process, with more detail required for the most complex sites,

such as those with waterlogged deposits or a broad range of archaeological materials present. Details of

the proposed development or land- and seabed-use change are also required before decisions can be

made as to whether such changes can be made in a way that also protects and preserves the

archaeological site. In some cases, the significance of the site might be low and the state of preservation

poor; at these sites, rapid assessment to conclude no further investigation work is needed, would be

sufficient. In some instances, for example at the most significant and complex sites, a monitoring

programme can be required to verify that conditions for long-term preservation are maintained. A key

part of designing a monitoring programme is defining the monitoring objectives, as well as monitoring

parameters and trigger levels. These will differ from site to site.

Monitoring can form an important element for the management of these more complex sites. This

document mainly provides information about monitoring the burial environment. Systematic, regular

monitoring of selected parameters using recognised methods supports the comparison of data and

results over time and between different sites. The use of traceable, reproducible methods and actions will

increase the quality and reliability of the data collected. This will ensure that any changes in the

archaeological deposits and sediments can be detected and reported to the relevant stakeholders so that

decisions about further action can be taken. Increased knowledge gained from these monitoring projects

will, over time, provide a better basis for future preservation strategies and decision-making.

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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
1 Scope

This document describes assessments recommended for in situ preservation and monitoring of

archaeological sites. It sets out the main parameters used to assess the state of preservation of

archaeological materials and evaluate the environmental conditions of archaeological deposits and

provides a framework for monitoring sites. A decision-making framework is included to help readers

make appropriate knowledge-based choices.

The procedures described are appropriate for terrestrial, wetland or underwater archaeological sites.

They will not necessarily be relevant to all archaeological sites, and the level of assessment required and

the resources needed are expected to be balanced with and proportionate to the significance and

complexity of the site and the scale of any proposed changes.

The informative annexes relate primarily to terrestrial sites; for detailed technical guidance on

investigating and monitoring underwater sites, see sasmap.eu [19, 20].

NOTE Underwater sites include all underwater sites and those in the intertidal zone.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardisation at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
archaeological asset

archaeological item that has significance because of its contribution to society, knowledge and/or culture

Note 1 to entry: They are usually physical assets, but some countries also use the term in relation to intangible

social and spiritual heritage.
3.2
archaeological deposit
deposit accumulated through human activities

Note 1 to entry: Archaeological deposits are found in urban and rural areas, in the intertidal zone and

underwater, and include evidence of past occupation as well as natural deposits representing past environments.

The archaeological deposits and their content of ecofacts and artefacts reveal past activities at a site.

3.3
in situ preservation
conservation of an archaeological asset (3.1) in its original location
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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
3.4
monitoring

collecting and assessing data pertaining to an archaeological asset (3.1) or site

Note 1 to entry: Within this document, monitoring applies to systematic data collection after decision-making.

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.4.4, modified – “object, ensemble or collection and/or their environment

over time” has been changed to “archaeological asset or site” [1]]
3.5
significance
combination of all the values assigned to an archaeological asset (3.1) or site

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.1.7 modified – “object, ensemble or collection” has been changed to

“archaeological asset or site” [1]]
3.6
mitigation

action taken to minimise or eliminate the risk of damage occurring to an archaeological asset (3.1) as a

result of planned or unplanned events

EXAMPLE 1 Planned events; development; land use change; improved conservation management.

EXAMPLE 2 Unplanned events; climate change; flooding; drought, Cultural Property Theft and damage resulting

from Heritage Crime; offshore industry i.e. bottom trawl fishing.
3.7
environment

surroundings of an archaeological asset (3.1), some aspects of which can affect its condition

Note 1 to entry: Such aspects could be of human, physical, chemical, biological, geological or climatic origin.

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.3.2 modified – “object” is replaced by “archaeological asset” [1]]

3.8
state of preservation

current state of the archaeological deposits (3.2), and artefacts and ecofacts that they contain, which will

depend on both current and historical rates of degradation (3.12)
3.9
saturated deposit
deposit where all pore spaces are filled with water
3.10
unsaturated deposit
deposit where the pores contain both water and air
3.11
environmental condition

physical, chemical and biological conditions within and around the archaeological deposits (3.2), which

determine their current rate of degradation (3.12)
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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
3.12
rate of degradation
speed at which an archaeological asset (3.1) degrades
3.13
vulnerability

characteristic of how an archaeological asset (3.1) or material tolerates exposure and its sensitivity to

environmental changes

EXAMPLE For instance waterlogged organic materials are usually more vulnerable to degradation under oxic

conditions than stone artefacts.
3.14
non-invasive survey
collection of information about an archaeological asset without physical impact
EXAMPLE For instance remote sensing.
4 Objective and procedure

The objective of the activities governed by this document is to provide cultural heritage managers and

other stakeholders with procedures to investigate whether it is possible to preserve an archaeological

asset (on land, wetland or underwater) in situ (see Clause 5). Figure 1 shows a flowchart of the process.

The document also provides procedures for designing a monitoring programme (Clause 6) and reporting

on the different steps of both the assessment and the monitoring programme (Clause 7). Information is

given on how to establish the assets’ current state of preservation (Annex A) and rate of degradation on

site (Annex B). An example of a system to classify of state of preservation, environmental conditions and

risks is provided in Annex C. The state of preservation of archaeological materials and environmental

conditions of deposits should be considered as a common element of any archaeological investigation.

The detail needed about the state of preservation and the environmental conditions will however depend

on the significance and complexity of the site and the scale of any proposed changes.

Figure 1 — Flowchart of the procedure of assessment and monitoring of archaeological sites

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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)

Where a change to a site is proposed and decisions about preservation in situ need to be made, it is

advisable for a project team to be established, and a project design and timetable produced that provides

clarity on roles, timescales and outputs. A project team should comprise a range of experts, for example

a project leader, main project group, relevant public/private stakeholders, expert groups and local

heritage professionals.
5 Assessment
5.1 General

To enable decisions to be taken about preservation in situ of archaeological sites, for example in response

to development plans, information should be gathered about the significance of the site, the state of

preservation and environmental conditions, the rate of degradation expected lifespan of the heritage

assets and the feasibility of alternative approaches. The level of information gathered should be

proportionate to the significance and complexity of the site and the scale of the change proposed.

The process of documenting the values assigned to archaeological assets on a site, their state of

preservation and environmental conditions is separated into the following phases: desktop study (5.2),

preliminary assessment (5.3), detailed assessment (5.4) and conclusions and decision-making (5.5). This

process can be iterative.

Figure 2 shows the usual stages of assessment that it would be advisable to follow when considering

preservation in situ as a result of a proposed development change. Similar steps would be followed in

relation to the management of archaeological sites subject to changes as a result of natural processes.

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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
Figure 2 — Flowchart of assessment
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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
5.2 Desktop study

Desktop study is a non-intrusive stage carried out to collect relevant information about the scale and

significance of the site, with reference to how it will respond to proposed changes. It is often the first

stage in the assessment and decision-making process, see Figure 2.

To give a general overview of the conditions at the site the desktop study should, where feasible, include

at least the following:
— the legal status of the site;

— a review of archives and archaeological sources of information from the area, as well as other

relevant data for example records held by State Hydrographic / Geological Survey agencies;

— a review of any relevant monitoring data for the site or others in the surrounding area;

— an assessment of the overall cultural heritage value of the site;

— a review of other relevant investigations, such as non-invasive survey, hydrogeological, physical

ground properties, geochemical conditions, hydrodynamics, etc.;

— Information about the direct and possible indirect impacts of any proposed development or other

current threats in relation to human factors, such as proximity to shipping channels, nearby dredging

activities, salvage, accessibility to divers and frequency of visiting divers, fishing, invasive species,

etc.;

— an initial assessment of the potential state of preservation, environmental conditions, rate of

degradation and expected lifespan of the heritage assets if any information exists and assessment of

any risks to long-term preservation;
— a site visit, site walkover, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) or diver survey.

The desktop study shall be summarised in a short report in accordance with 7.2 that includes

recommendations for next steps. In most cases the desktop study is part of a staged process. In some

instances, for example where the desktop study has identified assets which can be avoided by

development, or where it is clear that development would have too great an impact on the significance of

the site and it should not progress, or the expected lifespan of the heritage asset is too short, further

investigation might not be needed. This would be a decision agreed by relevant stakeholders and heritage

managers.
5.3 Preliminary assessment

If the desktop study concludes that there is a need for more information to inform decision-making, a

preliminary assessment should be carried out. The preliminary assessment should provide a simple rapid

assessment and give basic information for designing a more detailed assessment or monitoring

programme. Non-invasive methods should be used wherever possible. If the desktop study could not

draw on evidence from non-invasive surveys, the preliminary assessment should design a more detailed

assessment with non-invasive techniques to prevent irreversible impact on archaeological sites as much

as possible. All invasive works should be undertaken within the legislative system for the country in

which the site is located and designed to minimise their impact on archaeological materials and deposits.

In some cases, there can be physical, environmental or legal constraints that restrict opportunities for

site-based investigation. Relevant regional and national heritage bodies in each country will be well-

placed to advise on specific cases and identify which of the procedures outlined below and in 5.4 are

relevant. The types of information to be collected in the preliminary assessments stage may include:

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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)

— the cultural and historical context, including topographic, chronological and historical

interpretations for the specific site in question;
— a preliminary risk assessment – main risks to long-term preservation;

— a more detailed assessment of the current state of the archaeological assets and materials and their

environmental conditions, likely rate of degradation and expected lifespan of key archaeological

materials than is possible in a desktop study, see Annex A and B. This will form the baseline (zero

point) for future assessment;

— an assessment of other feasible approaches such as excavation or a “no action” outcome;

— a comparison with previous investigations and results, if possible, or with surveys and results from

other local sites;

— identification of any necessary measures to protect assets of archaeological or historical significance

prior to, during and after the investigation and monitoring;

— a general description of likely hydrogeological situation of the terrestrial archaeological deposits

based on previous investigations and literature sources, including groundwater levels or moisture

content of any unsaturated deposits, where known;

— details of site from non-invasive survey, i.e. magnetometry, ground penetrating radar, lidar,

bathymetry, seismic, side scan sonar, remotely operated vehicle or diver surveys;

— at underwater and tidal sites survey/prospection of the underwater environment/seabed, a general

description of likely sea- and lakebed environment proximity to contemporary sea- and lakebed

infrastructure and erosional activities;

— geochemical conditions, such as pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and redox conditions in both

soils and groundwater, if available;

— physical ground/seabed properties, such as descriptions of geology, soil and/or sediment type,

texture, organic content, porosity, moisture content and depth to bedrock for the specific monitoring

location in question (supplement to the detailed assessment);

— evidence for biodeterioration such as bacteria, micro fungi, wood decaying fungi, marine borers,

algae, lichens, and insects;

— the need for further assessment, including recommendations for the format of that assessment, i.e.

where non-intrusive survey might be required to reduce impact on archaeological assets;

— the possible need to protect field-deployed personnel against site contamination (i.e. dangerous

chemicals; asbestos; mould), and the need for any necessary health, environmental and safety

precautions.

The preliminary assessment can conclude that there is no requirement for further investigation because

sufficient information has been gathered, or for example, the area of archaeological significance can be

avoided by the development, the expected lifespan of the asset is too short or the harm to the significance

of heritage assets is too high. If the preliminary assessment concludes that there is a requirement for

further information because avoidance is not possible, other approaches are not feasible or the level of

information so far collected is insufficient for decision-making, a detailed assessment should be the next

phase. A short report on the preliminary assessment shall be produced according to 7.3.

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SIST EN 17652:2022
EN 17652:2022 (E)
5.4 Detailed assessment

If the preliminary assessment concludes that there is a requirement for further information, a detailed

assessment should take place. It is likely that the detailed assessment will involve excavation of

archaeological deposits to evaluate their state of preservation and environmental conditions, although

data can also be collected through a range of less-invasive methods such as coring (boreholes), digging

out old trenches or test pits. Further information from non-invasive methods such as magnetometry,

resistivity, radar or seismic surveys may also be used here. It is important that the location and size of

investigation trenches does not pose a risk to the future state of preservation of the site. Sampling

locations should be recorded, and samples taken of representative deposits. The detailed assessment may

include data collection from observation wells or in situ probes to measure variation in environmental

conditions.
The detailed assessment should result in the understanding of:

— the size and extent of both the area to be directly impacted and the wider associated archaeological

deposits;
— the si
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17652:2021
01-maj-2021
Kulturna dediščina - Raziskovanje in spremljanje stanja ohranjenosti arheoloških
najdišč na kraju samem
Cultural heritage - Investigation and monitoring of archaeological deposits for
preservation in situ

Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Anforderungen an die Überwachung und Untersuchung

der Umgebung von Lagerstätten des Kulturerbes

Patrimoine culturel - Investigation et suivi de l'état de conservation des dépôts

archéologiques pour la préservation sur site
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17652
ICS:
97.195 Umetniški in obrtniški izdelki. Items of art and handicrafts.
Kulturne dobrine in kulturna Cultural property and
dediščina heritage
oSIST prEN 17652:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 17652:2021
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oSIST prEN 17652:2021
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17652
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2021
ICS 97.195
English Version
Cultural heritage - Investigation and monitoring of
archaeological deposits for preservation in situ

Patrimoine culturel - Investigation et suivi de l'état de Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Anforderungen an

conservation des dépôts archéologiques pour la die Überwachung und Untersuchung der Umgebung

préservation sur site von Lagerstätten des Kulturerbes

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 346.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17652:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Objective and procedure .............................................................................................................................. 8

4.1 Overview of procedure .................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Project team/management structure ...................................................................................................... 8

5 Investigation ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Desktop study ................................................................................................................................................ 10

5.3 Preliminary investigation ......................................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Detailed investigation ................................................................................................................................ 11

5.5 Conclusion and "decision-making" ........................................................................................................ 12

6 Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 Design of a monitoring programme (“Plan”) ..................................................................................... 14

6.3 Monitoring (“Do”) ........................................................................................................................................ 15

6.4 Review of data (“Check”) ........................................................................................................................... 15

6.5 Completion of monitoring (“Adjust”) .................................................................................................... 16

6.6 Continued monitoring (“Adjust”) ........................................................................................................... 16

6.7 Mitigation (“Adjust”) ................................................................................................................................... 16

7 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 16

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

7.2 Reporting of the desktop study ............................................................................................................... 16

7.3 Reporting of preliminary investigation ............................................................................................... 17

7.4 Report of the detailed investigation ...................................................................................................... 17

7.5 Report of the programme of monitoring ............................................................................................. 18

8 Quality assurance requirements ............................................................................................................ 18

Annex A (informative) Characterisation of the state of the preservation ............................................ 19

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

A.2 Desktop study ................................................................................................................................................ 19

A.3 Preliminary investigation ......................................................................................................................... 19

A.4 Detailed investigation of the state of preservation of specific materials ................................ 20

A.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20

A.4.2 Bone (human and animal) ........................................................................................................................ 20

A.4.3 Wood ................................................................................................................................................................. 21

A.4.4 Plant remains, organic deposits and invertebrates......................................................................... 21

A.4.5 Other organic materials ............................................................................................................................. 21

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A.4.6 Metal .................................................................................................................................................................. 22

A.4.7 Other inorganic archaeological materials ........................................................................................... 22

Annex B (informative) Characterisation of the preservation conditions – Archaeological

deposits ............................................................................................................................................................ 23

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

B.2 Characterisation of the environment .................................................................................................... 24

B.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 24

B.2.2 Oxygen .............................................................................................................................................................. 25

B.2.3 Water ................................................................................................................................................................. 25

B.2.4 Temperature .................................................................................................................................................. 26

B.2.5 pH ....................................................................................................................................................................... 26

B.2.6 Other parameters ......................................................................................................................................... 26

B.2.7 Vulnerability and degradation rate of archaeological materials ................................................ 27

B.2.8 Rate of degradation in situ ........................................................................................................................ 27

Annex C (informative) Example of classifying site......................................................................................... 28

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

C.2 State of preservation of assets ................................................................................................................. 28

C.3 Preservation conditions at site ................................................................................................................ 28

C.4 Risk classification ......................................................................................................................................... 29

C.5 Recommendations ........................................................................................................................................ 30

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 31

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European foreword

This document (prEN 17652:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 346 “Cultural

heritage”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
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Introduction

The principle that in situ preservation should be considered as the first option for the conservation of

terrestrial or underwater archaeological sites, before permitting or engaging in any activity directed at

these sites, is laid down in European Council [3] and UNESCO conventions and ICOMOS charter [4, 5].

This document is designed to assist authorities, archaeological and other consultants, owners,

developers, applicants and others responsible for sites of archaeological and historical significance to

ensure the best outcome for the preservation of discovered material and may also be helpful in ensuring

that relevant legislation and conditions are abided by. It sets out a “decision-making” framework for the

in situ preservation of archaeological deposits and identifies mechanisms for investigating and, where

appropriate, monitoring of these sites.

Archaeological deposits and the finds they contain have accumulated through human activity over

hundreds or thousands of years. They are found in urban and rural areas, in the intertidal zone and

underwater, and include evidence of past occupation as well as natural deposits representing past

environments. These archaeological deposits and sediments display large variations in their state of

preservation, preservation conditions, and vulnerability. If the deposits or the environment around them

are altered, their information potential may be reduced or destroyed. Accelerated degradation of

archaeological deposits, shrinkage and subsidence of the sediments can also have serious consequences

for existing buildings, roads and infrastructure built above them.

Where changes are proposed at an archaeological site, an investigation of the significance (i.e. of the

cultural and other values assigned to the archaeological asset and its surroundings), and an evaluation of

the state of preservation and preservation conditions should be conducted to inform “decision-making”.

The changes can for example be developments in the terrestrial or underwater environments, land-use

change or improved conservation management. The objective of these investigations is to balance the

long-term preservation and protection of these non-renewable heritage assets with sustainable

development.

Preservation assessment is an iterative process, with more detail required for the most complex sites, for

example those with waterlogged deposits or a broad range of archaeological materials present. Details of

the proposed development or land- and seabed-use change are also required before decisions can be

made as to whether such changes can be made in a way that also protects and preserves the

archaeological site. In some instances, a monitoring programme may be required to verify that the

conditions required for long-term preservation are maintained. A key part of designing a monitoring

programme is defining the monitoring objectives, as well as monitoring parameters and trigger levels.

These will differ from site to site.

This monitoring is an important element of knowledge-based management of these sites. This document

focuses on monitoring the burial environment but monitoring of the condition of the buried archaeology

can also be part of a monitoring programme. Systematic, regular monitoring of selected parameters using

recognized methods ensures the possibility to compare data and results over time and between different

sites. The use of traceable, reproducible methods and actions will increase the quality and reliability of

the data collected. This will ensure that any changes in the archaeological deposits and sediments can be

detected and reported to the relevant stakeholders so that decisions about further action can be taken.

Increased knowledge gained from these monitoring projects will, over time, provide a better basis for

future preservation strategies and “decision-making”.
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1 Scope

This document describes investigations required for in situ preservation and monitoring of

archaeological sites. It sets out the main parameters used to assess the state of preservation of

archaeological materials and evaluate the preservation conditions of archaeological deposits and

provides a framework for monitoring sites. A “decision making” framework is included to help readers

make appropriate knowledge-based choices.

The procedures described are appropriate for both terrestrial and underwater archaeological sites.

The informative annexes relate primarily to terrestrial sites; for detailed technical guidance on

investigating and monitoring marine sites, see sasmap.eu [6, 7].
NOTE Marine sites include all underwater sites and those in the intertidal zone.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
archaeological asset

archaeological item that has significance because of its contribution to society, knowledge and/or culture

Note 1 to entry: They are usually physical assets, but some countries also use the term in relation to intangible

social and spiritual heritage.
3.2
archaeological deposits
deposits accumulated through human activities

Note 1 to entry: They are found in urban and rural areas, in the intertidal zone and underwater, and include

evidence of past occupation as well as natural deposits representing past environments. The archaeological deposits

and their content of ecofacts and artefacts reveal past activities at a site.
3.3
in situ preservation

conservation of an archaeological asset (3.1) in its original location whilst monitoring and controlling

factors that could influence degradation in the burial environment
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3.4
monitoring

collecting and assessing data pertaining to an archaeological asset (3.1) or site

Note 1 to entry- Within this document, monitoring applies to systematic data collection after “decision-

making”

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.4.4, modified – “object, ensemble or collection and/or their environment

over time” has been changed to “archaeological asset or site” [1]]
3.5
significance
combination of all the values assigned to an archaeological asset (3.1) or site

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.1.7 modified – “object, ensemble or collection” has been changed to

“archaeological asset or site” [1]]
3.6
mitigation

action taken to minimize or eliminate the risk of damage occurring to an archaeological asset (3.1) as a

result of planned or unplanned events

EXAMPLE 1 Planned events; development; land use change; improved conservation management

EXAMPLE 2 Unplanned events; climate change; flooding; drought, Cultural Property Theft and damage resulting

from Heritage Crime; offshore industry i.e. bottom trawl fishing
3.7
environment

surroundings of an archaeological asset (3.1), some aspects of which may affect its condition

Note 1 to entry: Such aspects could be of human, physical, chemical, biological, geological or climatic origin.

[SOURCE: EN 15898:2019, 3.3.2 modified – included “wider” and “object” is replaced by “archaeological

asset” [1]]
3.8
state of preservation

current state of the archaeological deposits (3.2), which will depend on both current and historical rates

of degradation (3.12)
3.9
saturated deposits
deposits where all pore spaces are filled with water
3.10
unsaturated deposits
deposits where the pores contain both water and air
3.11
preservation condition

physical, chemical and microbiological conditions in the ground or water, which determine the current

rate of degradation (3.12) of the archaeological deposits (3.2)
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3.12
rate of degradation
speed at which an archaeological asset (3.1) degrades
3.13
vulnerability

characteristic of how an archaeological asset (3.1) or material tolerates exposure and its sensitivity to

environmental changes

EXAMPLE For instance waterlogged organic materials are more vulnerable to degradation under oxic

conditions than e.g. stone artefacts.
4 Objective and procedure
4.1 Overview of procedure

The objective of the activities governed by this document is to provide cultural heritage managers and

other stakeholders with procedures to investigate whether it is possible to preserve an archaeological

asset (on land or underwater) in situ (Clause 5). It also provides procedure for designing a monitoring

programme (Clause 6) and reporting (Clause 7) on the different steps of both the investigation and the

monitoring programme. Information is given about understanding the assets’ current state of

preservation (Annex A), and preservation conditions (Annex B) and example of classification of state of

preservation, preservation conditions and risks (Annex C). The state of preservation of archaeological

materials and preservation conditions of deposits should be considered as a common element of any of

archaeological investigation. Figure 1 shows a flowchart of the process.

Figure 1 — Flowchart of the procedure of investigation and monitoring of archaeological sites

4.2 Project team/management structure

As early as possible it is advisable for a project team to be established comprising a range of experts, for

example:
a) project Leader (project planning, management and communication);

b) main Project Group (project planning, preliminary investigation, detailed investigation, monitoring

implementation, checking and reporting);
c) relevant public/private stakeholders;

d) expert Groups (research, advice, support in preliminary/detailed investigations, checking and

reporting);
e) local heritage professionals (support in survey).

A clear project design and timetable shall provide clarity on roles, timescales and outputs.

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5 Investigation
5.1 General

To enable decisions to be taken about preservation in situ of archaeological sites, for example in response

to development plans, information shall be gathered about the significance of the site, the state of

preservation and preservation conditions, the expected lifetime and the feasibility of alternative

approaches.

The process of documenting the values assigned to archaeological assets on an investigation site, their

state of preservation and preservation conditions is separated into the following phases: desktop study

(5.2), preliminary investigation (5.3), detailed investigation (5.4) and conclusions and “decision-making”

(5.5). This process can be iterative.

Figure 2 shows the usual stages of investigation that would be undertaken in relation to preservation in

situ as a result of a proposed development change. Similar steps would be followed in relation to the

management of archaeological sites subject to changes as a result of natural processes.

Figure 2 — Flowchart of investigation
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5.2 Desktop study

Desktop study is a non-intrusive investigation carried out to collect relevant information about the scale

and significance of the site, with reference to how it will respond to proposed changes. It is often the first

stage in the “decision-making” process, see Figure 2.

To give a general overview of the conditions at the site the desktop study should, where feasible, include

at least the following:
— the legal status of the site;

— a review of archives and archaeological sources of information from the area, as well as other

relevant data for example records held by State Hydrographic Survey agencies;

— a review of any relevant monitoring data for the site or others in the surrounding area;

— an assessment of the overall cultural heritage value of the site;

— a review of other relevant investigations, such as hydrogeological, physical ground properties,

geochemical conditions, hydrodynamics, etc;

Information about the direct and possible indirect impacts of any proposed development or other

current threats in relation to human factors, such as proximity to shipping channels, nearby dredging

activities, salvage, accessibility to divers and frequency of visiting divers, fishing, invasive species,

etc.;

— an initial assessment of the potential state of preservation, preservation conditions, rate of

degradation and expected lifetime if any information exists and assessment of any risks to long-term

preservation;
— a site visit / site walkover/ROV/diver survey.

The desktop study shall be summarized in a short report in accordance with 7.2 that includes

recommendations for next steps. In most cases the desktop study is part of a staged process. In some

instances, for example where the desktop study has identified assets which can be avoid by development,

or where it is clear that development would have too great an impact on the significance of the site that

it should not progress, or the expected lifetime is to short, further investigation may not be needed. This

would be a decision agreed by relevant stakeholders and heritage managers.
5.3 Preliminary investigation

If the desktop study concludes that there is a need for more information to inform “decision-making”, a

preliminary investigation shall be carried out. The preliminary investigation shall provide a simple rapid

assessment and give basic information for designing a more detailed investigation or monitoring

programme. All invasive works should be undertaken within the legislative system for the country in

which the site is located and designed to minimize their impact on archaeological materials and deposits.

The types of information to be collected in the preliminary investigations may include:

— the cultural and historical context, including topographic, chronological and historical

interpretations for the specific site in question;
— a preliminary risk assessment – main risks to long-term preservation;
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— a more detailed assessment of the current state of the archaeological assets and materials and their

preservation conditions, likely rate of degradation of key materials and expected lifetime than

possible in desktop study, see Annex A and B. This will form the baseline (zero point) for future

assessment;

— an assessment of other feasible approaches such as excavation or no actions taken;

— a comparison with previous investigations and results, if possible, or with surveys and results from

other local sites;

— identification of any necessary measures to protect assets of archaeological or historical significance

prior to, during and after the investigation and monitoring;

— a general description of likely hydrogeological situation of the terrestrial archaeological deposits

based on previous investigations and literature sources, including groundwater levels or moisture

content of any unsaturated deposits, where known;

— details of site from non-intrusive survey, i.e. magnetometry, radar, lidar, bathymetry, seismic, side

scan sonar, ROV/diver surveys;

— at underwater and tidal sites survey/prospection of the underwater environment/seabed, a general

description of likely seabed environment proximity to contemporary seabed infrastructure and

erosional activities;

— geochemical conditions, inter alia pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and redox conditions in

both soils and groundwater, if available;

— physical ground/seabed properties, such as descriptions of geology, soil and/or sediment type,

texture, organic content, porosity, moisture content and depth to bedrock for the specific monitoring

location in question (supplement to the detailed investigation);

— evidence for biodeterioration inter alia bacteria, micro fungi, wood decaying fungi, shipworms and

insects;

— the need for further investigation, including recommendations for the format of that inves

...

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