Conservation of cultural heritage - Determination of water absorption by contact sponge method

This document establishes the methodology to measure the quantity of water absorbed by a defined surface of a porous inorganic material used for and constituting cultural property, by contact sponge method.
The method can be used on porous inorganic materials which are untreated or have undergone any treatment or ageing.
The method can be used both in the laboratory and in situ on flat surfaces.
NOTE 1   Treated materials are those which have been subjected to cleaning; to the application of water repellent, consolidating and/or biocidal products; to artificial aging tests, etc.
NOTE 2   The test is not intended to be used on surfaces which are severely deteriorated, where application of the sponge is likely to cause material loss. The operator is expected to ensure good contact with the perimeter of the container. The test is not accurate when applied to rough surfaces.

Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Bestimmung der Wasseraufnahme durch Kontaktschwamm-Methode

Dieses Dokument legt die Verfahrensweise zur Messung der Wassermenge fest, die bei der Kontaktschwamm-Methode von einer definierten Oberfläche eines porösen anorganischen Materials, das an kulturellem Erbe Verwendung findet, aufgenommen wird.
Das Verfahren kann auf unbehandelte oder behandelte oder gealterte, poröse anorganische Materialien angewendet werden.
Das Verfahren kann sowohl im Labor als auch vor Ort auf ebenen Oberflächen durchgeführt werden.
ANMERKUNG 1   Als behandelte Materialien werden Materialien bezeichnet, die einer Reinigung, der Aufbringung eines wasserabweisenden Mittels, von konsolidierenden Produkten und/oder Biozidprodukten, Prüfungen durch künstliche Alterung usw. unterzogen wurden.
ANMERKUNG 2   Die Prüfung ist nicht zur Anwendung auf ernstzunehmend zersetzten Oberflächen vorgesehen, bei denen die Aufbringung des Schwamms wahrscheinlich zu Materialverlust führt. Der Durchführende sollte einen guten Kontakt mit dem Rand (en: perimeter) des Behälters sicherstellen. Die Prüfung ist bei der Anwendung auf rauen Oberflächen ungenau.

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Détermination de l'absorption d'eau par la méthode de l'éponge de contact

Le présent document établit la méthodologie permettant de mesurer la quantité d'eau absorbée par une surface définie d'un matériau inorganique poreux utilisé pour et constituant un bien culturel, par la méthode de l'éponge de contact.
Cette méthode peut être utilisée sur des matériaux inorganiques poreux non traités ou ayant subi les effets d'un traitement quelconque ou un vieillissement.
Elle peut être utilisée à la fois en laboratoire et in situ sur des surfaces planes.
NOTE 1   Les matériaux traités sont ceux qui ont été soumis à un nettoyage, à l'application de produits hydrofuges, de produits de consolidation et/ou biocides, à des essais de vieillissement artificiel, etc.
NOTE 2   L'essai n'est pas destiné à être utilisé sur des surfaces fortement détériorées, où l'application de l'éponge est susceptible d'entraîner une perte de matière. Il est attendu que l'opérateur assure un bon contact avec le périmètre du récipient. L'essai n'est pas précis lorsqu'il est réalisé sur des surfaces rugueuses.

Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Določanje absorpcije vode z metodo kontaktne gobice

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Jun-2021
Publication Date
17-Jul-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
13-Jul-2022
Due Date
17-Sep-2022
Completion Date
18-Jul-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17655:2022
01-september-2022
Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Določanje absorpcije vode z metodo kontaktne
gobice

Conservation of cultural heritage - Determination of water absorption by contact sponge

method
Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Bestimmung der Wasseraufnahme durch
Kontaktschwamm-Methode

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Détermination de l'absorption d'eau par la méthode

de l'éponge de contact
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17655:2022
ICS:
97.195 Umetniški in obrtniški izdelki. Items of art and handicrafts.
Kulturne dobrine in kulturna Cultural property and
dediščina heritage
SIST EN 17655:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.195
English Version
Conservation of cultural heritage - Determination of water
absorption by contact sponge method

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Détermination Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Bestimmung der

de l'absorption d'eau par la méthode de l'éponge de Wasseraufnahme durch Kontaktschwamm-Methode

contact
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 May 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17655:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................ 6

5 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Test equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Methodology A - in the laboratory ............................................................................................................ 9

7.3 Methodology B - In situ ............................................................................................................................... 10

7.3.1 With weighing in situ .................................................................................................................................. 10

7.3.2 Without weighing in situ ............................................................................................................................ 10

8 Expression of results ................................................................................................................................... 11

8.1 Calculation of the amount of water absorbed .................................................................................... 11

9 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

10 Warning ........................................................................................................................................................... 11

11 Guidelines for comparative evaluation ................................................................................................ 12

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 13

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17655:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 346 “Conservation

of cultural heritage”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2023, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2023.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655:2022 (E)
Introduction

This test method can be applied if it does not adversely affect any of the values of the object and following

ethical codes of conservation practice.

The test measurements are generally used during effective evaluation of conservation treatments;

different specific evaluation campaigns can be compared only when the same sponge material is used.

There is another non invasive method, EN 16302, recommended to measure water absorption at low

hydrostatic pressure of porous inorganic materials either untreated or subjected to any treatment or

ageing applied both in laboratory and in situ.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655:2022 (E)
1 Scope

This document establishes the methodology to measure the quantity of water absorbed by a defined

surface of a porous inorganic material used for and constituting cultural property, by contact sponge

method.
This test describes the water absorption behaviour of the near-surface zone.

The method can be used on porous inorganic materials, which are untreated or have undergone any

treatment or ageing.

The method can be used both in the laboratory and in situ on flat vertical and/or horizontal surfaces

NOTE 1 Treated materials are those which have been subjected to cleaning; to the application of water repellent,

consolidating and/or biocidal products; to artificial aging tests, etc.

NOTE 2 The test is not intended to be used on surfaces which are severely deteriorated, where application of the

sponge is likely to cause material loss. The operator is expected to ensure good contact with the perimeter of the

container. The test is not accurate when applied to rough surfaces.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
porous inorganic material

materials including natural stones e.g. sandstone, limestone, marble, granite, gneiss, gypsum as well as

artificial materials, such as mortar, plaster, brick, ceramics, concrete and others

[SOURCE: EN 15801:2009, 3.1 modified]
3.2
water absorption by sponge method

amount of water (mg) transferred from the sponge through a defined test area (cm ) after a fixed time,

expressed as mg/cm min
3.3
test surface area
location where the measurement is carried out
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655:2022 (E)
3.4
specimen
part considered representative of the material constituting an object
Note 1 to entry: The specimen can have different origins and can be taken from:

— materials similar to those constituting the object under study (e.g. stone quarries);

— specifically, prepared comparative materials e.g. reference materials;
— available materials from the object.

Note 2 to entry: The number and dimension of the specimens can be different depending on constraints

encountered in sampling the required amount of material.
[SOURCE: EN 16302:2013, 3.3]
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
W = water absorbed per surface unit per minute (mg / cm⋅min);
t = contact time (minutes);
mi = initial weight (mg);
m = final weight (mg);
m = weight of foreign material (where necessary), (mg);
S = contact surface of the sponge (cm ).
5 Principle

Determination of the amount at which water is absorbed through the test surface that is put in contact

with a sponge wet with water at given times.
6 Test equipment
6.1 Deionized water (with max. conductivity of 6 μS/cm).
6.2 Chronometer with an accuracy of 1s.
6.3 Container capable of holding the contact sponge

The base and lid of the container should be made of non-corrosive material (such as aluminium, glass,

PVC, PMMA) impermeable to liquid water and other forms of moisture. The dimensions of the container

should be as shown in Figure 1.

The standard container has a diameter of 60 mm (sponge of 55 mm, see Note). When working on objects

where it is difficult to find large flat surfaces, it is possible to use a container with a reduced diameter of

26 mm (sponge of 25 mm, see Note).

NOTE The diameters of 55 mm or 25 mm refer to the dimensions obtained by hollow punch cutting the raw

material before wetting.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655:2022 (E)
Key
a) Base
b) Lid/top
Figure 1 — Size of the lidded container
Table 1 — Size of the lidded container
Container
Size (cm) Standard (mm) Small (mm)
A 66 33
B 57 26
C 1 1
D 60 29
E 10 10
F 3 3
G 4 4
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 17655:2022
EN 17655:2022 (E)
6.4 Contact sponge

When the comparison of results is needed the tests shall be done with the same sponge.

The contact sponge shall be made of the honeycomb type of inert material (cellulose or polyester) with a

dry weight of 420 ± 50 g/m and have a water absorption capacity equivalent to 10 to 15 times its dry

weight. A contact sponge of standard dimensions (diameter 55 mm) or reduced dimensions (diameter

25 mm) can be used. The dimensions of the dry and wet sponge vary and shall be according to the values

shown in Figure 2.
Key
a) Dry sponge
b) Wet sponge
Figure 2 — Size of the sponge
Table 2 — Size of the
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
01-junij-2021
Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Določanje absorpcije vode z metodo kontaktne
gobice

Conservation of cultural heritage - Determination of water absorption by contact sponge

method
Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Bestimmung der Wasseraufnahme durch
Kontaktschwamm-Methode

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Détermination de l'absorption d'eau par la méthode

de l'éponge de contact
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17655
ICS:
97.195 Umetniški in obrtniški izdelki. Items of art and handicrafts.
Kulturne dobrine in kulturna Cultural property and
dediščina heritage
oSIST prEN 17655:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17655
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2021
ICS 97.195
English Version
Conservation of cultural heritage - Determination of water
absorption by contact sponge method

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Détermination Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Bestimmung der

de l'absorption d'eau par la méthode de l'éponge de Wasseraufnahme durch Kontaktschwamm-Methode

contact

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 346.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17655:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
prEN 17655:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 6

6 Test equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Methodology A - in the laboratory ............................................................................................................ 8

7.3 Methodology B - In situ .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3.1 With weighing ................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Without weighing ............................................................................................................................................ 9

8 Expression of results ................................................................................................................................... 10

8.1 Calculation of the amount of water absorbed .................................................................................... 10

9 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

10 Warning ........................................................................................................................................................... 10

11 Guidelines for comparative evaluation ................................................................................................ 10

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 12

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
prEN 17655:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 17655:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 346

“Conservation of cultural heritage”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
prEN 17655:2021 (E)
Introduction

This test method can be applied if it does not adversely affect any of the values of the object and following

ethical codes of conservation practice.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
prEN 17655:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document establishes the methodology to measure the quantity of water absorbed by a defined

surface of a porous inorganic material used for and constituting cultural property, by contact sponge

method.

The method can be used on porous inorganic materials which are untreated or have undergone any

treatment or ageing.
The method can be used both in the laboratory and in situ on flat surfaces.

NOTE 1 Treated materials are those which have been subjected to cleaning; to the application of water repellent,

consolidating and/or biocidal products; to artificial aging tests, etc.

NOTE 2 The test is not intended to be used on surfaces which are severely deteriorated, where application of the

sponge is likely to cause material loss. The operator is expected to ensure good contact with the perimeter of the

container. The test is not accurate when applied to rough surfaces.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
porous inorganic material

material including natural stones e.g. sandstone, limestone, marble, granite, gneiss, gypsum as well as

artificial materials, such as mortar, plaster, brick, ceramics, concrete and others.

[SOURCE: EN 17138:2018, 3.1]
3.2
water absorption by sponge method

amount of water (mg) transferred from the sponge through a defined test area (cm ) after a fixed time,

expressed as mg/cm min
3.3
test surface area
location where the measurement is carried out
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
prEN 17655:2021 (E)
3.4
specimen
part considered representative of the material constituting an object
Note 1 to entry: The specimen can have different origins and can be taken from:

— materials similar to those constituting the object under study (e.g. stone quarries);

— specifically, prepared comparative materials e.g. reference materials;
— available materials from the object.

Note 2 to entry: The number and dimension of the specimens can be different depending on constraints

encountered in sampling the required amount of material.
[SOURCE: EN 16302:2013, 3.3]
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
W = water absorbed per surface unit per minute (mg / cm⋅min);
t = contact time (minutes);
m = initial weight (mg);
m = final weight (mg);
m = weight of foreign material (where necessary), (mg);
S = contact surface of the sponge (cm ).
5 Principle

Determination of the amount at which water is absorbed through the test surface that is in contact with

a sponge wet with water.
6 Test equipment
6.1 Deionized water (with max. conductivity of 6 μS/cm).
6.2 Chronometer with an accuracy of 1s.
6.3 Container capable of holding the contact sponge

The base and lid of the container should be made of non-corrosive material (such as aluminium, glass,

PVC, PMMA) impermeable to liquid water and other forms of moisture. The dimensions of the container

should be as shown in Figure 1.

The standard container has a diameter of 60 mm (sponge of 55 mm, Note 1). When working on objects

where it is difficult to find large flat surfaces, it is possible to use a container with a reduced diameter of

26 mm (sponge of 25 mm, Note 1).

NOTE The diameters of 55 mm or 25 mm refer to the dimensions obtained by hollow punch cutting the raw

material before wetting.
6.4 Contact sponge

The contact sponge shall be made of the honeycomb type of inert material (cellulose or polyester) with a

dry weight of 420 ± 50 g/m and have a water absorption capacity equivalent to 10 to 15 times its dry

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17655:2021
prEN 17655:2021 (E)

weight. A contact sponge of standard dimensions (diameter 55 mm) or reduced dimensions (diameter

25 mm) can be used. The dimensions of the dry and wet sponge vary and shall be according to the values

shown in Figure 2.
Key
left: base
right: lid/top
Figure 1 — Size of the lidded container
Figure 2 — Size of the sponge

6.5 Scale ideally should have an accuracy of 0,1 mg, however taking into account the work conditions

in field, scales
...

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