Water quality - Guidance standard for designing and selecting taxonomic keys

This European Standard defines standard principles for the design of taxonomic keys to ensure proper use of nomenclatural rules and reproducible and traceable identification. These principles also allow for the selection
of the best key available.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Gestaltung und Auswahl von taxonomischen Bestimmungsschlüsseln

Diese Anleitung definiert Grundlagen für die Erstellung von taxonomischen Bestimmungsschlüsseln, um die richtige Anwendung nomenklatorischer Regeln sowie die Reproduzierbarkeit und Zurückverfolgbarkeit taxonomischer Bestimmungen sicherzustellen. Diese Grundlagen ermöglichen auch die Auswahl des besten verfügbaren Bestimmungsschlüssels.

Qualité de l'eau - Guide pour la conception et le choix des clés taxonomiques

La présente Norme européenne définit les principes standard permettant de concevoir des clés taxonomiques
garantissant l'utilisation adéquate des règles nomenclaturales ainsi qu’une identification reproductible et
traçable. Ces principes permettent également de choisir la meilleure clé disponible.

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za načrtovanje in izbiro taksonomskih ključev

Ta evropski standard določa načela za načrtovanje taksonomskih ključev za zagotovitev pravilnega upoštevanja zahtev za poimenovanje ter ponovljive in sledljive identifikacije. Ta načela prav tako omogočajo izbiro najboljšega razpoložljivega ključa.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Jan-2011
Publication Date
26-Jun-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Jun-2013
Due Date
17-Aug-2013
Completion Date
27-Jun-2013

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SIST EN 16164:2013
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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.MXþHYWasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Gestaltung und Auswahl von taxonomischen BestimmungsschlüsselnQualité de l'eau - Guide pour la conception et le choix des clés taxonomiquesWater quality - Guidance standard for designing and selecting taxonomic keys13.060.01Kakovost vode na splošnoWater quality in generalICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16164:2013SIST EN 16164:2013en,fr,de01-julij-2013SIST EN 16164:2013SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16164:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16164
January 2013 ICS 13.060.99 English Version
Water quality - Guidance standard for designing and selecting taxonomic keys
Qualité de l'eau - Guide pour la conception et le choix des clés taxonomiques

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Gestaltung und Auswahl von taxonomischen Bestimmungsschlüsseln This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 November 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 16164:2013: ESIST EN 16164:2013

EN 16164:2013 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4 1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................ 5 2 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................... 5 3 Principles of biological identification .............................................................................................. 5 4 Requirements for taxonomic keys .................................................................................................. 5 4.1 General principles ............................................................................................................................ 5 4.2 Title and scope ................................................................................................................................. 6 4.3 Characters ........................................................................................................................................ 7 4.4 Layout ............................................................................................................................................... 7 4.5 Description of Morphology .............................................................................................................. 7 4.5.1 Couplets ........................................................................................................................................... 7 4.5.2 Illustrations....................................................................................................................................... 8 4.5.3 Binding ............................................................................................................................................. 9 4.6 Linguistics ........................................................................................................................................ 9 5 Summarised criteria ......................................................................................................................... 9 6 Glossary ......................................................................................................................................... 10 7 Synopsis of classification .............................................................................................................. 10 8 Methods for collecting, preserving and examining samples ....................................................... 11 9 Testing and validation of a key ...................................................................................................... 11 Bibliography................................................................................................................................................ 12

SIST EN 16164:2013

EN 16164:2013 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 16164:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16164:2013

EN 16164:2013 (E) 4 Introduction The importance of ecology in new legislation such as the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) means, that ecological data from aquatic environments shall be of a known and verifiable quality. European Standards recognise the need for ecologists to use reliable and up-to-date taxonomic keys when performing their assessments. However, determining the most appropriate literature to use for any particular analysis is not always straightforward. This guidance standard is designed to provide an overview of the characteristics of a taxonomic key appropriate to applied ecological analyses. This has two goals: first, to help end-users to determine the most suitable taxonomic literature to use for a particular analysis and, second, to help those commissioning new identification guides to produce ‘fit-for-purpose’ specifications, and those writing keys to meet such specifications. It is important to state very clearly at the outset that the role of this document is not to replace but rather to complement the guidance on nomenclature and taxonomy given by ICBN [3] and ICZN [4]. Identification materials are increasingly being presented using electronic, rather than conventional printed, media. The general principles are the same, regardless of the media. SIST EN 16164:2013

EN 16164:2013 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard defines standard principles for the design of taxonomic keys to ensure proper use of nomenclatural rules and reproducible and traceable identification. These principles also allow for the selection of the best key available.

2 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 2.1 accuracy correct identification of a specimen to the relevant taxonomic category (e.g. family, genus, species) Note 1 to entry: The definition refers to the context of this European Standard. 2.2 International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ICBN official international taxonomic code for botany 2.3 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ICZN official international taxonomic code for zoology 2.4 nomenclatural rules rules for naming of organisms that are laid down in official taxonomic codes 2.5 traceable identification identification of a taxon which can be traced back to its original publication either directly or indirectly 3 Principles of biological identification The objective of all biological identification is to assign the correct biological name to a specimen, irrespective of the amount of morphological or other variability shown by the taxon in question. This should be done as efficiently as possible, in order to minimise time and resources. Identification provides a link between a specimen of an organism and the original ‘type specimen’ of that taxon. This is often one or more individuals of the species, preserved in a museum collection (or, in the case of many algae, an illustration), which has been described according to the rules of the ICBN or ICZN using text, measurements and illustrations. There are two methods of identifying organisms: by ‘matching’ (pattern recognition) and by ‘logical comparison’ (typically through the use of keys). The academic taxonomic literature often assumes that logical reasoning is used exclusively but, in practice, most biologists use a combination of approaches: relying on memory for naming common organisms and a mix of pattern recognition and logical reasoning for the less common organisms. It is arguably the poor quality of identification literature that causes biologists to switch from logical reasoning to pattern recognition. 4 Requirements for taxonomic keys 4.1 General principles Most identification guides assume that logical comparison plays a large part in the identification of organisms, and the guides have a key, or similar device, at their core. These work by presenting users with a limited number of choices from which to choose either in sequence (‘dichotomous keys’) or in parallel (‘multiaccess keys’). The same principles apply, regardless of the type of key. SIST EN 16164:2013

EN 16164:2013 (E) 6 Taxonomic keys are used to come to an accurate and reproducible identification. Within this context, ‘accurate’ is defined as the correct identification of all specimens of a taxonomic group likely to be encountered in a defined geographical region. Therefore, any lack of clarity which may lead to mis-identification should be anticipated at all taxonomic levels.

Requirements for an appropriate identification guide include:  keys appropriate to the geographic area under consideration;  appropriate taxonomic level for the analysis in question;  all known taxa from the region;  written in a language familiar to the analyst. The key itself should provide:  a clearly defined title and scope (completeness of taxonomic group);  robust characters;  clear layout;  clear language;  complete glossary. The points mentioned above are especially relevant since academic taxonomists often write from the perspective of an ‘expert’ and do not always empathise with the skills of those performing the analyses. These points are described in more detail below. 4.2 Title and scope An identification guide should be clear about the taxonomic groups and life stages covered, and the geographical scope of the guide. These should be reflected both in the title and, in more detail, in the introduction. EXAMPLE 1 Titles like “Chironomidae larvae of the Lowlands of Northwesttern Europe”, “Oligochaeta of North-West Europe” and “Chironomidae exuviae of the West Palaearctic Region” suggest a defined overview of the content. However, a number of terms within each title would need amplification in the introduction. Terms such as ‘lowlands’ would need to be explained in more detail, whilst maps and text showing the limits of the author’s understanding of ‘North-West Europe’ and ‘West Palaearctic’ would also be useful. On the other hand, it is often inappropriate to define the geographical scope too precisely; firstly, because the geographical ranges of many species are themselves known only imprecisely and secondly, because the ranges of many species are changing. EXAMPLE 2 Two species of the Trichopertan genus Drusus have been recorded from the Netherlands: D. trifidus and D. annulatus. A third species, D. biguttatus is similar to D. annulatus and has been recorded from sites close to the Dutch border, though not yet from within the Netherlands. A Dutch Trichopteran key which made no reference at all to D. biguttatus runs the risk of users ‘shoehorning’ specimens into D. annulatus. A similar situation exists for the Mollusc genus Corbicula in Britain and Ireland. C. fluminea is described in “Freshwater Bivalves of Britain and Ireland”; however, C. fluminalis has not yet been recorded from Britain and Ireland and is omitted. Users may not realise that C. fluminalis is spreading throughout Europe and may, in time, also spread to Britain and Ireland. SIST EN 16164:2013

EN 16164:2013 (E) 7 For this reason, authors should always produce an accurate description of the geographical region primarily covered by the key and illustrate it by a detailed map. In addition, all species recorded from the region should be mentioned in the key. Relevant species known from adjacent regions should be explicitly listed. If data are absent this should also be clearly mentioned. 4.3 Characters Choosing the best characters:  How easy are they to describe?  Are they appropriate for the potential users?  Are they very fragile or easily damaged?  Are they sex specific?  Are they restricted or limited to particular regions?  Are they restricted to particular seasons?  Are they adult or juvenile? Use obvious characters even if they do not differentiate all specimens or do not define the taxon (e.g. habitat, markings, size). The use of characters requiring very high magnification or special preparations should be avoided where p

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