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  • Standard
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This standard specifies a method for the detection, semi-quantitative and quantitative (MPN) enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. The method can be applied to all kinds of waters including: drinking water, ground water and well water, fresh, brackish and saline surface water, swimming pools, spa and hydrotherapy pools, recreational waters, agricultural waters and runoff, untreated and treated wastewater and also sand and other sediments. This method can be used for the detection of Campylobacter species in a specified sample volume. Clean water samples with low turbidity can be membrane filtered for either a qualitative method, semiquantitative or quantitative (MPN) method. Water samples with higher turbidity, such as primary and secondary wastewater effluents and sediments, are analysed using the same qualitative, semiquantitative or quantitative MPN method by direct inoculation of material into bottles or tubes. Sediments can be suspended in a suitable diluent or inoculated directly into enrichment broths. Users wishing to employ this method are expected to verify its performance for the particular matrix under their own laboratory conditions.

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This document specifies a method for the detection, semi-quantitative and quantitative (MPN) enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. The method can be applied to all kinds of waters including: drinking water, ground water and well water, fresh, brackish and saline surface water, swimming pools, spa and hydrotherapy pools, recreational waters, agricultural waters and runoff, untreated and treated wastewater and also sand and other sediments. This method can be used for the detection of Campylobacter species in a specified sample volume. Clean water samples with low turbidity can be membrane filtered for either a qualitative method, semi-quantitative or quantitative (MPN) method. Water samples with higher turbidity, such as primary and secondary wastewater effluents and sediments, are analysed using the same qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative MPN method by direct inoculation of material into bottles or tubes. Sediments can be suspended in a suitable diluent or inoculated directly into enrichment broths. Users wishing to employ this method are expected to verify its performance for the particular matrix under their own laboratory conditions.

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This document specifies a method for the detection and quantification of Legionella spp. and
L. pneumophila using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). It specifies general
methodological requirements, performance evaluation requirements, and quality control requirements.
Technical details specified in this document are given for information only. Any other technical
solutions complying with the performance requirements are suitable.
NOTE 1 For performance requirements, see Clause 9.
This document is intended to be applied in the bacteriological investigation of all types of water (hot
or cold water, cooling tower water, etc.), unless the nature and/or content of suspended matter and/or
accompanying flora interfere with the determination. This interference can result in an adverse effect
on both the detection limit and the quantification limit.
NOTE 2 For validation requirements, see 9.7.
The results are expressed as the number of genome units of Legionella spp. and/or L. pneumophila per
litre of sample.
The method described in this document is applicable to all types of water. However, some additives, such
as chemicals used for water treatment, can interfere with and/or affect the sensitivity of the method.
The qPCR methods do not give any information about the physiological state of the Legionella.

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This document specifies requirements and gives guidance for performing the manipulations common
to each culture technique for the microbiological examination of water, particularly the preparation of
samples, culture media, and general apparatus and glassware, unless otherwise required in the specific
standard. It also describes the various techniques available for detection and enumeration by culture
and the criteria for determining which technique is appropriate.
This document is mainly intended for examinations for bacteria, yeasts and moulds, but some aspects
are also applicable to bacteriophages, viruses and parasites. It excludes techniques not based on
culturing microorganisms, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods.

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This document specifies a method for the detection and quantification of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). It specifies general methodological requirements, performance evaluation requirements, and quality control requirements. Technical details specified in this document are given for information only. Any other technical solutions complying with the performance requirements are suitable. NOTE 1 For performance requirements, see Clause 9. This document is intended to be applied in the bacteriological investigation of all types of water (hot or cold water, cooling tower water, etc.), unless the nature and/or content of suspended matter and/or accompanying flora interfere with the determination. This interference can result in an adverse effect on both the detection limit and the quantification limit. NOTE 2 For validation requirements, see 9.7. The results are expressed as the number of genome units of Legionella spp. and/or L. pneumophila per litre of sample. The method described in this document is applicable to all types of water. However, some additives, such as chemicals used for water treatment, can interfere with and/or affect the sensitivity of the method. The qPCR methods do not give any information about the physiological state of the Legionella.

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This document specifies requirements and gives guidance for performing the manipulations common to each culture technique for the microbiological examination of water, particularly the preparation of samples, culture media, and general apparatus and glassware, unless otherwise required in the specific standard. It also describes the various techniques available for detection and enumeration by culture and the criteria for determining which technique is appropriate.
This document is mainly intended for examinations for bacteria, yeasts and moulds, but some aspects are also applicable to bacteriophages, viruses and parasites. It excludes techniques not based on culturing microorganisms, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods.

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This document specifies requirements and gives guidance for performing the manipulations common to each culture technique for the microbiological examination of water, particularly the preparation of samples, culture media, and general apparatus and glassware, unless otherwise required in the specific standard. It also describes the various techniques available for detection and enumeration by culture and the criteria for determining which technique is appropriate. This document is mainly intended for examinations for bacteria, yeasts and moulds, but some aspects are also applicable to bacteriophages, viruses and parasites. It excludes techniques not based on culturing microorganisms, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods.

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This document deals with characterization of microbiological methods. In terms of this document,
characterization means the study of parameters that can be measured to describe how the method is
likely to perform in a given set of conditions, which can be described as performance characteristics.
The document describes procedures for the determination of performance characteristics which can be
used for subsequent validation or verification of methods.
The emphasis is on selective quantitative methods and this document applies to all types of water. For
methods that are not based upon direct microscopic count, colony count or most probable number, the
applicability of the procedures described in this document should be considered carefully.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the inhibition of the growth of the first fronds of Spirodela polyrhiza germinated from dormant turions, by substances and mixtures contained in water or waste water, including treated municipal waste water and industrial effluents.
The test is also applicable to pure chemicals and in particular plant protection products and pesticides.

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This document specifies culture methods for the isolation of Legionella and estimation of their numbers
in water samples.
These methods are applicable to all kinds of water samples including potable, industrial, waste and
natural waters. These methods can be used for water related matrices, e.g. biofilms, sediments, etc.
Not all Legionella species are culturable; therefore, the methods described in this document do not
recover all species of Legionella.

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ISO 13843:2017 deals with characterization of microbiological methods. In terms of ISO 13843:2017, characterization means the study of parameters that can be measured to describe how the method is likely to perform in a given set of conditions, which can be described as performance characteristics. ISO 13843:2017 describes procedures for the determination of performance characteristics which can be used for subsequent validation or verification of methods.
The emphasis is on selective quantitative methods and ISO 13843:2017 applies to all types of water. For methods that are not based upon direct microscopic count, colony count or most probable number, the applicability of the procedures described in ISO 13843:2017 should be considered carefully.

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ISO 13843:2017 deals with characterization of microbiological methods. In terms of ISO 13843:2017, characterization means the study of parameters that can be measured to describe how the method is likely to perform in a given set of conditions, which can be described as performance characteristics. ISO 13843:2017 describes procedures for the determination of performance characteristics which can be used for subsequent validation or verification of methods. The emphasis is on selective quantitative methods and ISO 13843:2017 applies to all types of water. For methods that are not based upon direct microscopic count, colony count or most probable number, the applicability of the procedures described in ISO 13843:2017 should be considered carefully.

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ISO 11731:2017 specifies culture methods for the isolation of Legionella and estimation of their numbers in water samples.
These methods are applicable to all kinds of water samples including potable, industrial, waste and natural waters. These methods can be used for water related matrices, e.g. biofilms, sediments, etc.
Not all Legionella species are culturable; therefore, the methods described in this document do not recover all species of Legionella.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the enumeration of vegetative cells and spores of Clostridium perfringens by the membrane filtration method in samples of water intended for human consumption. However, the method can be applied to all types of water samples provided they do not contain particulate or colloidal matter that interferes with filtration.

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ISO 11731:2017 specifies culture methods for the isolation of Legionella and estimation of their numbers in water samples. These methods are applicable to all kinds of water samples including potable, industrial, waste and natural waters. These methods can be used for water related matrices, e.g. biofilms, sediments, etc. Not all Legionella species are culturable; therefore, the methods described in this document do not recover all species of Legionella.

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ISO 14189:2013 specifies a method for the enumeration of vegetative cells and spores of Clostridium perfringens by the membrane filtration method in samples of water intended for human consumption. However, the method can be applied to all types of water samples provided they do not contain particulate or colloidal matter that interferes with filtration.

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This European Standard specifies procedures for determining the ability of non-metallic materials to promote the growth of microorganisms.
This standard is applicable to those materials destined to be used under various conditions for the transport and storage of water intended for human consumption.
The Standard allows for the testing of a single type of material, or a product in which only one material is in contact with water. It is unsuitable for use with assembled products where more than one material is exposed to water.

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This European Standard specifies three methods for determining the ability of non-metallic materials to enhance the growth of micro-organisms.
This European Standard is applicable to those materials destined to be used under various conditions for the transport and storage of water intended for human consumption.
The standard allows for the testing of a single type of material, or a product in which only one material is in contact with water. It is unsuitable for use with assembled products where more than one material is exposed to water.
NOTE    The results given by each method are not directly comparable.

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This part of ISO 9308 specifies a method for the enumeration of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliform
bacteria. The method is based on membrane filtration, subsequent culture on a chromogenic coliform
agar medium, and calculation of the number of target organisms in the sample. Due to the low selectivity
of the differential agar medium, background growth can interfere with the reliable enumeration of
E. coli and coliform bacteria, for example, in surface waters or shallow well waters. This method is not
suitable for these types of water.
This part of ISO 9308 is especially suitable for waters with low bacterial numbers that will cause less
than 100 total colonies on chromogenic coliform agar (CCA). These may be drinking water, disinfected
pool water, or finished water from drinking water treatment plants.
Some strains of E. coli which are β-D-glucuronidase negative, such as Escherichia coli O157, will not be
detected as E. coli. As they are β-D-galactosidase positive, they will appear as coliform bacteria on this
chromogenic agar.

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EN 16493 describes the most relevant rules of the Botanical and Zoological Codes necessary for unequivocal recording of biodiversity in the aquatic environment. Furthermore, guidance is given on how to deal with taxonomic changes in relation to recorded taxonomic names.

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ISO 9308-1:2014 specifies a method for the enumeration of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliform bacteria. The method is based on membrane filtration, subsequent culture on a chromogenic coliform agar medium, and calculation of the number of target organisms in the sample. Due to the low selectivity of the differential agar medium, background growth can interfere with the reliable enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria, for example, in surface waters or shallow well waters. This method is not suitable for these types of water.
ISO 9308-1:2014 is especially suitable for waters with low bacterial numbers that will cause less than 100 total colonies on chromogenic coliform agar (CCA). These may be drinking water, disinfected pool water, or finished water from drinking water treatment plants.
Some strains of E. coli which are β-D-glucuronidase negative, such as Escherichia coli O157, will not be detected as E. coli. As they are β-D-galactosidase positive, they will appear as coliform bacteria on this chromogenic agar.

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ISO 9308-1:2014 specifies a method for the enumeration of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliform bacteria. The method is based on membrane filtration, subsequent culture on a chromogenic coliform agar medium, and calculation of the number of target organisms in the sample. Due to the low selectivity of the differential agar medium, background growth can interfere with the reliable enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria, for example, in surface waters or shallow well waters. This method is not suitable for these types of water. ISO 9308-1:2014 is especially suitable for waters with low bacterial numbers that will cause less than 100 total colonies on chromogenic coliform agar (CCA). These may be drinking water, disinfected pool water, or finished water from drinking water treatment plants. Some strains of E. coli which are β-D-glucuronidase negative, such as Escherichia coli O157, will not be detected as E. coli. As they are β-D-galactosidase positive, they will appear as coliform bacteria on this chromogenic agar.

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EN ISO 11133 defines terms related to quality assurance of culture media and specifies the requirements for the preparation of culture media intended for the microbiological analysis of food, animal feed, and samples from the food or feed production environment as well as all kinds of water intended for consumption or used in food production. These requirements are applicable to all categories of culture media prepared for use in laboratories performing microbiological analyses. This International Standard also sets criteria and describes methods for the performance testing of culture media. This International Standard applies to producers such as: - commercial bodies producing and/or distributing ready-to-use or semi-finished reconstituted or dehydrated media; - non-commercial bodies supplying media to third parties; - microbiological laboratories preparing culture media for their own use.

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This European Standard describes the most relevant rules of the Botanical and Zoological Codes necessary for unequivocal recording of biodiversity in the aquatic environment. Furthermore, guidance is given on how to deal with taxonomic changes in relation to recorded taxonomic names.
NOTE   A Code only affects taxonomic changes carried out in the period covered by that particular edition of the Code.

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EN ISO 17994 specifies an evaluation procedure for comparing two methods intended for the quantification of the same target group or species of microorganisms. This International Standard provides the mathematical basis for the evaluation of the average relative performance of two quantitative methods against chosen criteria for the comparison. It does not provide data that would allow an assessment of the precision of the methods being compared. Precision of methods should be assessed as part of their validation. This International Standard does not provide methods for the verification of method performance in a single laboratory.

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EN ISO 9308-2 specifies a method for the enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on the growth of target organisms in a liquid medium and calculation of the “Most Probable Number” (MPN) of organisms by reference to MPN tables. This method can be applied to all types of water, including those containing an appreciable amount of suspended matter and high background counts of heterotrophic bacteria. However, it must not be used for the enumeration of coliform bacteria in marine water. When using for the enumeration of E. coli in marine waters, a 1  10 dilution in sterile water is typically required, although the method has been shown to work well with some marine waters that have a lower than normal concentration of salts. In the absence of data to support the use of the method without dilution, a 1  10 dilution is used. This method relies upon the detection of E. coli based upon expression of the enzyme β-D-glucuronidase and consequently does not detect many of the enterohaemorhagic strains of E. coli, which do not typically express this enzyme. Additionally, there are a small number of other E. coli strains that do not express β-D-glucuronidase. The choice of tests used in the detection and confirmation of the coliform group of bacteria, including E. coli, can be regarded as part of a continuous sequence. The extent of confirmation with a particular sample depends partly on the nature of the water and partly on the reasons for the examination. The test described in this part of ISO 9308 provides a confirmed result with no requirement for further confirmation of positive wells.

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ISO 11133:2014 defines terms related to quality assurance of culture media and specifies the requirements for the preparation of culture media intended for the microbiological analysis of food, animal feed, and samples from the food or feed production environment as well as all kinds of water intended for consumption or used in food production. These requirements are applicable to all categories of culture media prepared for use in laboratories performing microbiological analyses.
ISO 11133:2014 also sets criteria and describes methods for the performance testing of culture media. It applies to producers such as:
commercial bodies producing and/or distributing ready-to-use or semi-finished reconstituted or dehydrated media;
non-commercial bodies supplying media to third parties;
microbiological laboratories preparing culture media for their own use.

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ISO 11133:2014 defines terms related to quality assurance of culture media and specifies the requirements for the preparation of culture media intended for the microbiological analysis of food, animal feed, and samples from the food or feed production environment as well as all kinds of water intended for consumption or used in food production. These requirements are applicable to all categories of culture media prepared for use in laboratories performing microbiological analyses. ISO 11133:2014 also sets criteria and describes methods for the performance testing of culture media. It applies to producers such as: commercial bodies producing and/or distributing ready-to-use or semi-finished reconstituted or dehydrated media; non-commercial bodies supplying media to third parties; microbiological laboratories preparing culture media for their own use.

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ISO 9308-2:2012 specifies a method for the enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on the growth of target organisms in a liquid medium and calculation of the "Most Probable Number" (MPN) of organisms by reference to MPN tables. This method can be applied to all types of water, including those containing an appreciable amount of suspended matter and high background counts of heterotrophic bacteria. However it must not be used for the enumeration of coliform bacteria in marine water. When using for the enumeration of E. coli in marine waters, a 1→10 dilution in sterile water is typically required, although the method has been shown to work well with some marine waters that have a lower than normal concentration of salts. In the absence of data to support the use of the method without dilution, a 1→10 dilution is used.
This method relies upon the detection of E. coli based upon expression of the enzyme b‑D‑glucuronidase and consequently does not detect many of the enterohaemorhagic strains of E. coli, which do not typically express this enzyme. Additionally, there are a small number of other E. coli strains that do not express b‑D‑glucuronidase.
The choice of tests used in the detection and confirmation of the coliform group of bacteria, including E. coli, can be regarded as part of a continuous sequence. The extent of confirmation with a particular sample depends partly on the nature of the water and partly on the reasons for the examination. The test described in ISO 9308-2:2012 provides a confirmed result with no requirement for further confirmation of positive wells.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the enumeration of vegetative cells and spores of Clostridium perfringens by the membrane filtration method in samples of water intended for human consumption. However, the method can be applied to all types of water samples provided they do not contain particulate or colloidal matter that interferes with filtration.

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ISO 17994:2014 specifies an evaluation procedure for comparing two methods with established performance characteristics according to ISO/TR 13843 and intended for the quantification of the same target group or species of microorganisms.
It provides the mathematical basis for the evaluation of the average relative performance of two quantitative methods against chosen criteria for the comparison. It does not provide data for assessment of the precision of the methods being compared. It is appropriate that the precision of methods is assessed as part of their performance characterization.
ISO 17994:2014 does not provide methods for the verification of method performance characterization in a single laboratory.

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ISO 17994:2014 specifies an evaluation procedure for comparing two methods with established performance characteristics according to ISO/TR 13843 and intended for the quantification of the same target group or species of microorganisms. It provides the mathematical basis for the evaluation of the average relative performance of two quantitative methods against chosen criteria for the comparison. It does not provide data for assessment of the precision of the methods being compared. It is appropriate that the precision of methods is assessed as part of their performance characterization. ISO 17994:2014 does not provide methods for the verification of method performance characterization in a single laboratory.

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ISO 14189:2013 specifies a method for the enumeration of vegetative cells and spores of Clostridium perfringens by the membrane filtration method in samples of water intended for human consumption. However, the method can be applied to all types of water samples provided they do not contain particulate or colloidal matter that interferes with filtration.

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This part of ISO 9308 specifies a method for the enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on the growth of target organisms in a liquid medium and calculation of the "Most Probable Number" (MPN) of organisms by reference to MPN tables. This method can be applied to all types of water, including those containing an appreciable amount of suspended matter and high background counts of heterotrophic bacteria. However, it must not be used for the enumeration of coliform bacteria in marine water. When using for the enumeration of E. coli in marine waters, a 1?10 dilution in sterile water is typically required, although the method has been shown to work well with some marine waters that have a lower than normal concentration of salts. In the absence of data to support the use of the method without dilution, a 1?10 dilution is used. This method relies upon the detection of E. coli based upon expression of the enzyme β-D-glucuronidase and consequently does not detect many of the enterohaemorhagic strains of E. coli, which do not typically express this enzyme. Additionally, there are a small number of other E. coli strains that do not express β-D-glucuronidase. The choice of tests used in the detection and confirmation of the coliform group of bacteria, including E. coli, can be regarded as part of a continuous sequence. The extent of confirmation with a particular sample depends partly on the nature of the water and partly on the reasons for the examination. The test described in this part of ISO 9308 provides a confirmed result with no requirement for further confirmation of positive wells.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the detection of Salmonella spp. (presumptive or confirmed) in water samples. It is possible that, for epidemiological purposes or during outbreak investigations, other media are also required.

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ISO 19250:2010 specifies a method for the detection of Salmonella spp. (presumptive or confirmed) in water samples. It is possible that, for epidemiological purposes or during outbreak investigations, other media are also required.

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ISO 7827:2010 specifies a method for the evaluation of the “ready” and “ultimate” biodegradability of organic compounds at a given range of concentrations by aerobic microorganisms. In this context, ISO 7827:2010 also gives specific definitions for the terms “ready” and “ultimate”.
The method applies to organic compounds which are: a) soluble at the concentration used under the conditions of the test [dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 10 mg/l to 40 mg/l]; b) non‑volatile or having a negligible vapour pressure under the conditions of the test; c) not significantly adsorbable on glass and activated sludge; d) not inhibitory to the test microorganisms at the concentration chosen for the test.
The method is not suitable for waste waters, as they usually contain significant amounts of water‑insoluble organic carbon, which is not included in DOC measurements.

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ISO 6341.2012 specifies a method for the determination of the acute toxicity to Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea).
This method is applicable to: chemical substances which are soluble under the conditions of the test, or can be maintained as a stable suspension or dispersion under the conditions of the test; industrial or sewage effluents; treated or untreated waste water; aqueous extracts and leachates; fresh water (surface and ground water); eluates of fresh water sediment; pore water of fresh water sediment.

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ISO 9308-2:2012 specifies a method for the enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on the growth of target organisms in a liquid medium and calculation of the "Most Probable Number" (MPN) of organisms by reference to MPN tables. This method can be applied to all types of water, including those containing an appreciable amount of suspended matter and high background counts of heterotrophic bacteria. However it must not be used for the enumeration of coliform bacteria in marine water. When using for the enumeration of E. coli in marine waters, a 1→10 dilution in sterile water is typically required, although the method has been shown to work well with some marine waters that have a lower than normal concentration of salts. In the absence of data to support the use of the method without dilution, a 1→10 dilution is used. This method relies upon the detection of E. coli based upon expression of the enzyme b‑D‑glucuronidase and consequently does not detect many of the enterohaemorhagic strains of E. coli, which do not typically express this enzyme. Additionally, there are a small number of other E. coli strains that do not express b‑D‑glucuronidase. The choice of tests used in the detection and confirmation of the coliform group of bacteria, including E. coli, can be regarded as part of a continuous sequence. The extent of confirmation with a particular sample depends partly on the nature of the water and partly on the reasons for the examination. The test described in ISO 9308-2:2012 provides a confirmed result with no requirement for further confirmation of positive wells.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the detection of Salmonella spp. (presumptive or confirmed) in water samples. It is possible that, for epidemiological purposes or during outbreak investigations, other media are also required.
WARNING — It is possible that the method does not recover all Salmonella ser. Typhi and ser.
Paratyphi.
NOTE For a semi-quantitative approach, most probable number (MPN) tests can be performed

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