Soil quality - Field soil description (ISO 25177:2019)

This Standard rovides guidance on the description of soil in the field and its environmental context. It is applicable to natural, near-natural, urban and industrial sites. The soil observations and measurements can be made on a project site level, on a plot level, on layer or horizon level and on specific soil constituents. It also provides guidance on how to describe layers of anthropogenic (artificial) material or layers that were not modified by pedogenic processes in the strict sense and how to describe coarse material of natural or artificial origin. This document can be used in combination with other publications that provide guidance or requirements regarding specific aspects of soil observations and measurements.

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bodenbeschreibung im Felde (ISO 25177:2019)

Das vorliegende Dokument enthält eine Anleitung zur Beschreibung von Boden im Feld und dessen Umweltkontext. Es gilt für natürliche, naturnahe, urbane und industrielle Standorte. Die Bodenbeobachtungen und Messungen können auf einer Projektstandortebene, Parzellenebene, Schicht- oder Horizontebene und an bestimmten Bodenbestandteilen vorgenommen werden.
Es enthält außerdem eine Anleitung dazu, wie Schichten anthropogenen (künstlichen) Materials oder Schichten, die nicht durch bodenbildende Prozesse im engen Sinne verändert wurden, zu beschreiben sind, und wie Grobbestandteile natürlichen oder künstlichen Ursprungs zu beschreiben sind.
Dieses Dokument kann in Verbindung mit weiteren Veröffentlichungen angewendet werden, die Anleitungen oder Anforderungen bezüglich spezieller Gesichtspunkte von Bodenbeobachtungen und Messungen enthalten.
ANMERKUNG 1   Nicht unter allen in dieser Beschreibung aufgeführten Überschriften in Abschnitt 4 bis Abschnitt 11 können oder müssen Daten aufgezeichnet werden.
ANMERKUNG 2   Eine umfassende Anleitung für die Darstellung von Informationen aus Bodenuntersuchungen enthält ISO 15903.
ANMERKUNG 3   Die vorgelegte Anleitung setzt voraus, dass die Probenahme nach ISO 18400 erfolgt.

Qualité du sol - Description du sol sur le terrain (ISO 25177:2019)

Le présent document fournit des recommandations sur la description du sol sur le terrain et de son contexte environnemental. Il est applicable aux sites naturels, quasi-naturels, urbains et industriels. Les observations et les mesurages du sol peuvent être effectués sur un site de projet, sur une parcelle, sur une couche ou sur un horizon et sur des constituants spécifiques du sol.
Il fournit également des recommandations indiquant comment décrire les couches de matériau anthropogénique (artificiel) ou les couches qui n'ont pas été modifiées par des processus pédogénétiques au sens strict, et comment décrire un matériau grossier d'origine naturelle ou artificielle.
Le présent document peut être utilisé en association avec d'autres publications donnant des recommandations ou des exigences sur les aspects spécifiques des observations et mesurages du sol.
NOTE 1 Il peut ne pas être possible ou nécessaire d'enregistrer les données correspondant à tous les titres énumérés aux Articles 4 à 11.
NOTE 2 L'ISO 15903 donne des recommandations générales pour la présentation des informations issues des études de sol.
NOTE 3 Les recommandations fournies partent du principe que l'échantillonnage sera effectué conformément à l'ISO 18400.

Kakovost tal - Terenski opis tal (ISO 25177:2019)

Ta standard podaja smernice za opis tal na terenu in okoljskih razmer. Uporablja se v naravnih, skoraj naravnih, mestnih in industrijskih območjih. Opazovanja tal in meritve se lahko izvedejo na ravni projektnega območja, ravni parcele, ravni sloja ali obzorja in na določenih sestavnih delih tal. Prav tako podaja smernice, kako opisati plasti antropogenega (umetnega) materiala ali plasti, ki jih tlotvorni procesi v strogem pomenu niso spremenili, in kako opisati grobo snov naravnega ali umetnega izvora. Ta dokument se lahko uporablja v kombinaciji z drugimi publikacijami, ki podajajo smernice ali zahteve glede posebnih vidikov opazovanja in meritev tal.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
28-Feb-2018
Publication Date
02-Dec-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Nov-2019
Due Date
16-Jan-2020
Completion Date
03-Dec-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
01-januar-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 25177:2011
Kakovost tal - Terenski opis tal (ISO 25177:2019)
Soil quality - Field soil description (ISO 25177:2019)
Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bodenbeschreibung im Felde (ISO 25177:2019)
Qualité du sol - Description du sol sur le terrain (ISO 25177:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 25177:2019
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
SIST EN ISO 25177:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
EN ISO 25177
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 25177:2011
English Version
Soil quality - Field soil description (ISO 25177:2019)

Qualité du sol - Description du sol sur le terrain (ISO Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bodenbeschreibung im Felde

25177:2019) (ISO 25177:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 27 August 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 25177:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
EN ISO 25177:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
EN ISO 25177:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 25177:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 "Soil

quality" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 345 “Characterization of soils” the

secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 25177:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 25177:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 25177:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 25177
Second edition
2019-09
Soil quality — Field soil description
Qualité du sol — Description du sol sur le terrain
Reference number
ISO 25177:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
ISO 25177:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
ISO 25177:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 How to use this document ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Combined use with other description standards ...................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Mandatory or optional observations ................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Accuracy and units ......... ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Encoding ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Description objectives and methods ............................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Investigation objectives ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Quality assurance and quality control ................................................................................................................................ 5

5.4 Description structure ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Description of general references and general information .................................................................................. 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Site/profile numbers ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Location ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Geographical coordinates .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.5 Date and time of observations ................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.6 Author and organization................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7 Profile environment .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Previous precipitation ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Land use at plot level (checked by detailed field survey) .................................................................................. 7

7.4 Type of cultivation or vegetation or human utilization (at the plot level) .......................................... 8

7.5 Landform of the site ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.6 Slope length ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.7 Slope value (gradient) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.8 Slope orientation (aspect) ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.9 Nature of natural and anthropogenic soils and materials ................................................................................. 9

7.9.1 Natural material ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.9.2 Anthropogenic material ............................................................................................................................................. 9

7.10 Presence and depth to water table .....................................................................................................................................10

7.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.10.2 Present depth to water table ..............................................................................................................................10

7.10.3 Minimum depth to water table .........................................................................................................................10

7.10.4 Maximum depth to water table ........................................................................................................................11

7.10.5 Nature of the water .....................................................................................................................................................11

8 Surface appearance ........................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Description of the surface material ....................................................................................................................................11

8.3 Percentage of land surface occupied by rock outcrops or surface exposures of

“non-natural” material ..................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4 Evidence of erosion ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Soil profile description ...............................................................................................................................................................................12

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.2 Soil descriptions made or changed after the fieldwork ....................................................................................13

9.3 Soil layer or horizon description method .....................................................................................................................13

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ISO 25177:2019(E)

9.4 Horizon or layer number .............................................................................................................................................................13

9.5 Horizon or layer depth ..................................................................................................................................................................13

9.6 Nature of lower horizon boundary .....................................................................................................................................14

9.7 Estimation of moisture status .................................................................................................................................................14

9.8 Colour of the horizon or layer matrix ...............................................................................................................................15

9.8.1 Colour description method ..................................................................................................................................15

9.8.2 Colour description .......................................................................................................................................................16

9.9 Mottles.........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

9.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

9.9.2 Mottle abundance ........................................................................................................................................................16

9.9.3 Mottle colour ....................................................................................................................................................................17

9.10 Estimated organic matter content ......................................................................................................................................17

9.11 Texture ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.11.1 Classification system used ....................................................................................................................................17

9.11.2 Field determination/ estimation of particle sizes ...........................................................................18

9.11.3 Field determination/estimation of the coarseness of a sandy soil ...................................18

9.11.4 Sampling for texture analyses ...........................................................................................................................20

9.11.5 Description of texture diagram ........................................................................................................................20

9.12 Coarse elements ..................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.12.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.12.2 Coarse element abundance (in % volume fraction) .......................................................................20

9.12.3 Maximum size of the most frequently observed coarse elements .....................................21

9.12.4 Nature of the coarse element(s) ......................................................................................................................21

9.12.5 Non-natural or unknown coarse elements ............................................................................................21

9.13 Carbonates and effervescence ................................................................................................................................................21

9.13.1 Intensity of effervescence .....................................................................................................................................21

9.13.2 Location of effervescence ......................................................................................................................................22

9.14 Main categories of soil structure ..........................................................................................................................................22

9.15 Compactness ..........................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.16 Total estimated porosity ..............................................................................................................................................................23

9.17 Roots .............................................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.17.1 Root abundance .............................................................................................................................................................23

9.17.2 Size (diameter) of most frequently observed roots ........................................................................24

9.18 Density of worm channels ..........................................................................................................................................................24

9.19 Odour ............................................................................................................................................................................................................24

9.20 Field detection of mineral oil in soil samples (oil-water reaction pan) ..............................................24

9.20.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

9.20.2 Oil floating on water ..................................................................................................................................................25

9.20.3 Other oil observations ..............................................................................................................................................25

10 General designation .......................................................................................................................................................................................25

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................25

10.2 Type of soil profile classification used ......... ....................................................................................................................26

10.3 Soil type with reference to the soil classification system used ..................................................................26

10.4 Type of horizon designation used .......................................................................................................................................26

10.5 Sequence of horizons ......................................................................................................................................................................26

11 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................26

11.2 Presentation of field soil descriptions .............................................................................................................................27

11.3 Profile diagram ....................................................................................................................................................................................27

11.4 Documented information ............................................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Landform ..........................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex B (informative) Charts for estimating proportions of mottles, coarse elements, etc. .................29

[30]

Annex C (informative) Soil horizon designation — Example of the FAO System .........................................30

Annex D (informative) Examples of texture diagrams ....................................................................................................................35

Annex E (informative) Determination of soil texture in the field ........................................................................................37

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
ISO 25177:2019(E)

Annex F (informative) Some types of soil structure ..........................................................................................................................40

Annex G (informative) List of common elements found in soil and on the soil surface ...............................42

Annex H (informative) Soil description observations to record for specific types of soil

investigations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................44

Annex I (informative) Example field layer description method ............................................................................................47

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................49

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
ISO 25177:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 25177:2008), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition is as follows.
[24]

— The 2015 edition of the World Reference Base for soil resources has been adapted.

[3] [4]

— References to geotechnical standards ISO 14688-1 and ISO 14688-2 have been made.

— A new Clause 4 describing how to use this document has been added and subsequent clauses have

been renumbered.

— A new Clause 5 describing objectives and methods has been added and subsequent clauses have been

renumbered. The aspects to describe and how to do this is more separate from the observations and

background information.
— The numbering and encoding have been made more consequent and logical.

— New aspects about coarse anthropogenical elements, oil-water reaction pan and signs of pollution

or contamination have been added.
— A new Clause 11 about reporting has been added.

— A new Annex A about landforms has been added and subsequent annexes have been renumbered.

[24]
— The former Annex B listing reference soil groups of the WRB has been removed.

— A new Annex G about common coarse elements found in soil and soil surface has been added.

— A new Annex H about recording soil description observations for specific types of soil quality

investigations has been added.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 25177:2020
ISO 25177:2019(E)

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